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1.
Environ Technol ; 41(5): 658-668, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074861

RESUMEN

Monolayers of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane have been established on magnetite nanoparticles to develop a novel magnetic adsorbent for fast decontamination of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from water. Results indicated that monolayer adsorption of the silane from water took place at low concentrations (<300 mg/L) and around 100% surface coverage was obtained at temperatures ≥90°C. The hydrolysed silane was anchored to the magnetite surface through condensation reactions between its silanol groups and the surface hydroxyl groups of magnetite. The functional amine groups were protonated by acid treatment for adsorbing Cr(VI). The monolayer of the silane on magnetite (MSM) with approximately 100% surface coverage showed extremely rapid adsorption kinetics for Cr(VI), such that the process was complete within 1 min. This enables the treatment of large amounts of sewage per unit time. The adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) was 8.0 mg/g, as estimated from the Langmuir isotherm model. The saturation magnetization of the MSM reached 64.16 emu/g, allowing easy magnetic recovery from water. In the presence of up to 50-fold molar excesses of chloride and nitrate anions, little effect on Cr(VI) removal was seen, but moderate and large impacts were observed with sulphate and hydroxyl anions, respectively. Desorption of adsorbed Cr(VI) and regeneration of the MSM were successfully achieved by NaOH and HCl treatments to deprotonate and protonate the amine groups, respectively. By selecting a silane with suitable functional groups, the surface properties may be tailored for a particular pollutant.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Compuestos de Organosilicio , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Adsorción , Cromo , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Masculino , Agua
2.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 223-243, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403570

RESUMEN

This qualitative study explores the social lives of older gay men. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 gay men over the age of 65 to elicit details about their relationships with other people. Findings paint a complex picture of older gay social life that is compounded by significant events affecting gay men from a particular socio-historical period. Three overarching themes emerged that capture the social lives of the participants: (1) coming of age as a gay man in the 20th century; (2) dealing with the aging body; and (3) enduring loss and the consequent impact on social life. The participants reported that being in a gay environment and closing the gay generational divide helped them adjust to their changing social lives in later life. This study adds to the ongoing discussion about the experiences of older gay men and makes suggestions for future research and practice considerations.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Anciano , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Condiciones Sociales
3.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 265-283, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582736

RESUMEN

Researchers have often considered the impact that online dating has had on gay communities; with some arguing that changes in social behavior may impact the spread of HIV. However, these conclusions are based on the premise that the Internet has fundamentally changed the way gay and bisexual men connect with their communities. Addressing this issue, we searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies examining Internet use and interpersonal connectedness among gay and bisexual men to determine whether those who used the Internet to find sexual partners exhibited different patterns of community connectedness. Though sporadic, findings suggest that Internet use may be associated with lower gay identity, community attachment, and social embeddedness. However, recent reports have suggested that online sex seeking might be associated with greater, not less, interpersonal connectedness. We conclude that additional longitudinal analyses and consistent measurement of gay men's social behavior are needed to draw more definite conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Bisexualidad , Homosexualidad Masculina , Internet , Relaciones Interpersonales , Conducta Sexual , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Narración , Parejas Sexuales , Conducta Social
4.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 79-103, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307800

RESUMEN

Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (BMSM) have been the subject of much research focused on health disparities in HIV occurrence, stigma, and mental health. Although such research is important, fewer studies focus on other equally salient areas of their lives such as spirituality, religious practices, and social support. Informed by literature on social support, this research endeavors to better understand these dynamics for a group of young BMSM who reside in a metropolitan city in Tennessee. Focus group results and content analysis uncover themes related to religion and resilience; queering Christianity; and virtual spirituality. Participants expressed an overarching need for support, safe spaces, genuine relationships, and godly instruction, conveyed through traditional Black Church involvement and nontraditional Internet usage. Findings are important for strategic, proactive, cross-generational collaboration with young BMSM to holistically meet their varied needs.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Espiritualidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos Focales , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Estigma Social , Tennessee , Adulto Joven
5.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 104-126, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307803

RESUMEN

Malay-Muslim men who have sex with men (MSM) are marginalized and hidden in Malaysia, a predominantly Muslim country in southeast Asia. We explored the policy, network, community, and individual factors related to HIV infection among Malay-Muslim MSM through 26 in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion (n = 5) conducted in Kuala Lumpur and Kota Bharu between October 2013 and January 2014. As religion plays an important role in their lives, participants viewed homosexuality as a sin. Low risk perception and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS were common, and most participants expressed reluctance to consult a doctor unless they had symptoms. Additionally, buying condoms was embarrassing and anxiety-producing. Fear of discrimination by health care providers and community hindered participants from disclosing sexual behaviors and accessing health services. Homophobic comments and policies by the government and religious leaders were concerns of participants. A safe and enabling environment is needed to reduce HIV risks among Malay-Muslim MSM.


Asunto(s)
Revelación , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Homofobia , Homosexualidad Masculina , Islamismo , Religión y Sexo , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Adulto , Redes Comunitarias , Condones , Grupos Focales , Personal de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Malasia , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
6.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 127-157, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307839

RESUMEN

A profound shift has occurred in the last decade in mainstream commercial gay pornography from condoms to "bareback" (condomless) depictions of anal sex between men. This article explores gay porn's "bareback momentum" as demonstrated by the displacement of condoms in the 10 most visited gay porn Web sites (that have operated for 10 years or more). While all 10 began by releasing condom pornography, the study finds all except one (Falcon) have since gone bareback-represented visually as a timeline. The sites analyzed are, in order of popularity: Sean Cody, Helix Studios, Lucas Entertainment, Corbin Fisher, Bel Ami, Next Door Studios, Randy Blue, Falcon Studios, Cocky Boys, and Chaos Men. Textual analysis reads each site's transition individually, yet connections between the sites are the article's central concern, from which an emphasis on couples and break-up narratives is revealed. Falcon's commitment to retain the condom is attributed to its brand identity.


Asunto(s)
Condones , Literatura Erótica , Homosexualidad Masculina , Conducta Sexual , Adulto , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género
7.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 58-78, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307840

RESUMEN

Masculine overcompensation-a phenomenon where men react to masculinity threats by endorsing hypermasculine ideals-has been demonstrated among straight men but has yet to be examined among gay men. The current study therefore proposed to examine whether gay men overcompensate similarly to their straight counterparts by providing participants with randomized feedback that threatened their masculinity. Overcompensation was measured in 867 online respondents by administering a series of questionnaires regarding views of pornography, rape, sex roles, and political orientation. Although our hypothesis was not confirmed, results revealed the intersectionality of both sexual orientation and self-reported gender expression regarding the formation of different views and beliefs. Specifically, masculinity was differentially related to homophobic attitudes, more callous views toward victims of sexual assault, and various components of attitudes toward pornography in gay and straight men. Masculine gay males held stereotypically masculine views less strongly than their masculine straight counterparts, providing evidence that gay males adopt a different type of masculinity than straight males-something of a "masculinity lite." Such findings point to the converging influence of sexual orientation and gender expression as contributors relevant to the attitudes of gay and straight men. This information adds to a growing body of literature on differences between gay and straight men and can be used to inform theory, education, and clinical practice, particularly in settings where men grapple with the implications of their masculinity.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Masculinidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estereotipo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1041, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823768

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most pervasive sexually transmitted infections and has high prevalence in urogenital and extra-urogenital sites among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated anatomical site-specific prevalence and genotypes of CT among MSM recruited from three geographic areas in China. METHODS: We collected urine specimens and anorectal, pharyngeal swab specimens from 379 MSM. CT infection was identified using polymerase chain reaction and CT genotyping was determined by sequences of the ompA gene. RESULTS: The results indicated that the overall prevalence of CT infection was 18.2% (95% confidence intervals [CIs], 13.9-22.5%) and significantly different between the cities (p = 0.048). The infection was most common at the anorectal site (15.6, 95%CIs 11.6-19.5%) followed by urethral (3.2, 95%CIs 1.4-5.0%) and oropharyngeal sites (1.6, 95%CIs 0.3-2.9%). Genotypes D and G were the most common CT strains in this population but genotype D was significantly predominated in Nanjing while genotype G was in Wuhan. No genotype related to lymphogranuloma venereum was found. CT infection was significantly related to the infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14.27, 95%CIs 6.02-33.83, p < 0.001) and age. Men older than 40 years old were less likely to have a CT infection as compared to men under 30 years old (aOR 0.37, 95% CIs 0.15-0.93, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The high CT infection prevalence, particularly in the anorectal site, among MSM suggests the necessity to development an integrated CT screening and treatment program specifically focusing on this high-risk population. Surveillance of CT infections should be improved by including both infection and genotype based surveys into the current surveillance programs in China.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/química , ADN Bacteriano/metabolismo , Genotipo , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Faringe/microbiología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1019, 2019 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791253

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is a major public health burden. With new interferon-free direct-acting agents (showing sustained viral response rates of more than 98%), elimination of HCV seems feasible for the first time. However, as HCV infection often remains undiagnosed, screening is crucial for improving health outcomes of HCV-patients. Our aim was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of a nationwide screening strategy in Germany. METHODS: We used a Markov cohort model to simulate disease progression and examine long-term population outcomes, HCV associated costs and cost-effectiveness of HCV screening. The model divides the total population into three subpopulations: general population (GEP), people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), with total infection numbers being highest in GEP, but new infections occurring only in PWIDs and MSM. The model compares four alternative screening strategies (no/basic/advanced/total screening) differing in participation and treatment rates. RESULTS: Total number of HCV-infected patients declined from 275,000 in 2015 to between 125,000 (no screening) and 14,000 (total screening) in 2040. Similarly, lost quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were 320,000 QALYs lower, while costs were 2.4 billion EUR higher in total screening compared to no screening. While incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) increased sharply in GEP and MSM with more comprehensive strategies (30,000 EUR per QALY for total vs. advanced screening), ICER decreased in PWIDs (30 EUR per QALY for total vs. advanced screening). CONCLUSIONS: Screening is key to have an efficient decline of the HCV-infected population in Germany. Recommendation for an overall population screening is to screen the total PWID subpopulation, and to apply less comprehensive advanced screening for MSM and GEP.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Hepatitis C/prevención & control , Tamizaje Masivo/economía , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Adulto , Antivirales/economía , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/economía , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/estadística & datos numéricos , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/economía , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/métodos , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/economía , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/economía , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepatitis C Crónica/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C Crónica/economía , Hepatitis C Crónica/epidemiología , Hepatitis C Crónica/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
JAMA ; 322(24): 2399-2410, 2019 12 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860046

RESUMEN

Importance: Invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infection among adults is typically associated with bacteremic pneumonia. Nontypeable H influenzae is genetically diverse and clusters of infection are uncommon. Objective: To evaluate an increase in invasive NTHi infection from 2017-2018 among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based surveillance study with a cohort substudy and descriptive epidemiological analysis identified adults aged 18 years or older with invasive NTHi infection (isolation of NTHi from a normally sterile site) between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2018 (final date of follow-up). Exposures: Time period, HIV status, and genetic relatedness (ie, cluster status) of available NTHi isolates. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was incidence of invasive NTHi infection (from 2008-2016 and 2017-2018) among persons with HIV and compared with NTHi infection from 2008-2018 among those without HIV. The secondary outcomes were assessed among those aged 18 to 55 years with invasive NTHi infection and included epidemiological, clinical, and geographic comparisons by cluster status. Results: Among 553 adults with invasive NTHi infection (median age, 66 years [Q1-Q3, 48-78 years]; 52% male; and 38% black), 60 cases occurred among persons with HIV. Incidence of invasive NTHi infection from 2017-2018 among persons with HIV (41.7 cases per 100 000) was significantly greater than from 2008-2016 among those with HIV (9.6 per 100 000; P < .001) and from 2008-2018 among those without HIV (1.1 per 100 000; P < .001). Among adults aged 18 to 55 years with invasive NTHi infections from 2017-2018 (n = 179), persons with HIV (n = 31) were significantly more likely than those from 2008-2018 without HIV (n = 124) to be male (94% vs 49%, respectively; P < .001), black (100% vs 53%; P < .001), and have septic arthritis (35% vs 1%; P < .001). Persons with HIV who had invasive NTHi infection from 2017-2018 (n = 31) were more likely than persons with HIV who had invasive NTHi infection from 2008-2016 (n = 24) to have septic arthritis (35% vs 4%, respectively; P = .01). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 174 of 179 NTHi isolates from 18- to 55-year-olds identified 2 genetically distinct clonal groups: cluster 1 (C1; n = 24) and cluster 2 (C2; n = 23). Whole-genome sequencing confirmed 2 clonal lineages of NTHi infection and revealed all C1 isolates (but none of the C2 isolates) carried IS1016 (an insertion sequence associated with H influenzae capsule genes). Persons with HIV were significantly more likely to have C1 or C2 invasive NTHi infection from 2017-2018 (28/31 [90%]) compared with from 2008-2016 among persons with HIV (10/24 [42%]; P < .001) and compared with from 2008-2018 among those without HIV (9/119 [8%]; P < .001). Among persons with C1 or C2 invasive NTHi infection who had HIV (n = 38) (median age, 34.5 years; 100% male; 100% black; 82% men who have sex with men), 32 (84%) lived in 2 urban counties and an area of significant spatial aggregation was identified compared with those without C1 or C2 invasive NTHi infection. Conclusions and Relevance: Among persons with HIV in Atlanta, the incidence of invasive nontypeable H influenzae infection increased significantly from 2017-2018 compared with 2008-2016. Two unique but genetically related clonal strains were identified and were associated with septic arthritis among black men who have sex with men and who lived in geographic proximity.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por Haemophilus/epidemiología , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Artritis Infecciosa/etnología , Estudios de Cohortes , Georgia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Haemophilus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Haemophilus/etnología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Vigilancia de la Población , Serotipificación , Adulto Joven
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18232, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852085

RESUMEN

Transgender people continue to be at high-risk for HIV acquisition, but little is known about the characteristics of their sexual partners. To address this gap, we examined sociodemographic and sexual characteristics of cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reporting transgender sexual partners.A cohort of 392 MSM in southern California in a randomized clinical trial for PrEP adherence were followed from 2013 to 2016. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and logistic models identified characteristics of MSM reporting transgender sexual partners and PrEP adherence.Only 14 (4%) MSM reported having transgender sexual partners. MSM were more likely to report transgender partners if they were African American, had incident chlamydia, reported injection drug-using sexual partners, or received items for sex. Most associations remained significant in the multivariable model: African American (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.20, P = .01), incident chlamydia (AOR 3.71, P = .04), and receiving items for sex (AOR 5.29, P = .04). There were no significant differences in PrEP adherence between MSM reporting transgender partners and their counterpart.MSM who report transgender sexual partners share characteristics associated with individuals with high HIV prevalence. Identifying this group distinct from larger cohorts of MSM could offer new HIV prevention opportunities for this group of MSM and the transgender community.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Prevención Primaria/métodos , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Personas Transgénero , Adulto , Estudios de Seguimiento , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738869

RESUMEN

Aim: To describe the epidemiology of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in New South Wales (NSW) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: LGV notification data between 2006 and 2015 from New South Wales were analysed to describe time trends in counts and rates by gender, age group and area of residence, as well as anatomical sites of infection. A positivity ratio was calculated using the number of LGV notifications per 100 anorectal chlamydia notifications per year. Data linkage was used to ascertain the proportion of LGV cases that were co-infected with HIV. Results: There were 208 notifications of LGV in NSW from 2006 to 2015; all were among men, with a median age of 42 years, and half were residents of inner-city Sydney. Annual notifications peaked at 57 (1.6 per 100,000 males) in 2010, declined to 16 (0.4 per 100,000 males) in 2014, and then increased to 34 (0.9 per 100,000 males) in 2015. Just under half (47.4%) of LGV cases were determined to be co-infected with HIV. Conclusion: The number of LGV notifications each year has not returned to the low levels seen prior to the peak in 2010. Continued public health surveillance is important for the management and control of LGV.


Asunto(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Notificación de Enfermedades , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Recto , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto Joven
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 876, 2019 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640585

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protozoa in human faecal samples with uncertain impact on public health. Studies on the prevalence of Blastocystis in HIV-positive patients are limited and dated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 156 HIV-positive patients to evaluate the prevalence of Blastocystis-subtypes by molecular amplification and sequencing the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA), to identify the risk factors for its transmission, to examine the relationship between the presence of the protist and gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, the evaluation of the faecal calprotectin by immunoassay from a sample of subjects was performed to evaluate the gut inflammation in Blastocystis-carriers. RESULTS: Blastocystis-subtypes ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4 were identified in 39 HIV-positive patients (25%). No correlation was found between the presence of the protist and virological or epidemiological risk factors. Blastocystis was more frequently detected in homosexual subjects (p = 0.037) infected by other enteric protozoa (p = 0.0001) and with flatulence (p = 0.024). No significant differences in calprotectin level was found between Blastocystis-carriers and free ones. CONCLUSIONS: Blastocystis is quite common in HIV-positive patients on ART showing in examined patients 25% prevalence. Homosexual behaviour may represent a risk factor for its transmission, while CD4 count and viremia didn't correlate with the presence of the protist. The pathogenetic role of Blastocystis remains unclear and no gut inflammation status was detected in Blastocystis-carriers. The only symptom associated with Blastocystis was the flatulence, evidencing a link between the presence of the protist and the composition and stability of gut microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Blastocystis/epidemiología , Blastocystis/patogenicidad , Seropositividad para VIH/parasitología , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/epidemiología , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/parasitología , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Animales Domésticos , Blastocystis/genética , Infecciones por Blastocystis/etiología , Infecciones por Blastocystis/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Heces/química , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Seropositividad para VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Complejo de Antígeno L1 de Leucocito/análisis , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1360, 2019 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651293

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) who use recreational drugs (RD) or excessive alcohol (EA) may be involved in risky sexual behaviours, including unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This study describes the prevalence RD/EA-use among HIV-infected MSM, and compares those who used RD/EA with those who did not. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included HIV-infected MSM who were recruited in a convenient sample from two AIDS-treatment centres and events for HIV-infected MSM in Israel in 2016. Participants completed anonymous questionnaires including RD/EA-use and their sexual behaviours. RD/EA-use was defined as consumption of any psychoactive stimulants or dissociative anaesthetics, or an uptake of alcohol until drunkenness before or during sex. RESULTS: Of all 276 HIV-infected MSM, 202 (73.2%) used RD/EA. Those who used RD/EA were younger, reported earlier sexual debut, had more sexual partners, were more likely to perform UAI with casual partners, more commonly involved in paid sex, used psychiatric medications and more likely to be unsatisfied with their health-status compared to those who did not use RD/EA. HIV-infected MSM who used RD/EA reported a lower CD4-count and higher viral-load than those who did not. In a multivariate analysis, being younger, reported earlier sexual debut and been prescribed psychiatric drugs were associated with RD/EA-use among HIV-infected MSM. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of HIV-infected MSM used RD/EA and also engaged in risky sexual behaviours. A subset of HIV-infected MSM can benefit from mental support during their routine treatment at the AIDS treatment centres and should also receive harm reduction intervention by their providers in order to minimize potential risks pertaining to RD/EA-use.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17585, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651864

RESUMEN

This study sought to examine the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity on drug resistance among men who have sex with men (MSM) with virologic failure in antiretroviral therapy (ART), and investigate linking-associated factors for genetic transmission networks.Seven hundred and thirty-four HIV-positive MSM with virologic failure in ART were recruited into our study from 2011 to 2017. HIV-1 pol gene sequences were used for phylogenetic and genotypic drug resistance analyses. The drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. The genetic transmission networks were analyzed for CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC sequences by the genetic distance-based method.Of 734 subjects, 372 (50.68%) showed drug resistance, in which CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC were the predominating subtypes. Drug resistance more frequently occurred in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) treatment (48.64%), and followed by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (36.51%) and PIs (4.03%). The most common drug resistance-associated mutations in protease inhibitors (PIs), NRTIs and NNRTIs were K20I/R, M184V/I and K103N/KN, respectively. For 283CRF01_AE sequences, 64 (22.61%) fell into clusters at a genetic distance of 0.011, resulting in 17 clusters ranging in size from 2 to 16 individuals. For 230 CRF07_BC sequences, 66 (28.69%) were connected to at least one other sequence with 0.005 genetic distances, resulting in 8 clusters ranging in size from 2 to 52 individuals. Individuals who showed drug resistance to ART were less likely to fall into clusters than those who did not. The genetic linkage was robust by the exclusion of sites associated with drug resistance.CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC were the main strains among MSM with virologic failure in ART, and the drug resistance more frequently occurred in NNRTIs, followed by NRTIs and PIs. Genetic transmission networks revealed a complexity of transmission pattern, suggesting early-diagnosis and in-time intervention among MSM.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1/genética , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1197-1202, 2019 Oct 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658516

RESUMEN

Being a double-edged sword, Internet Plus not only increases the risk of HIV transmission, but also plays an positive role in programs regarding the control and prevention of HIV. Here, we introduced a special issue- "HIV Prevention among MSM in the Internet Era" , synthesizing both domestic and international evidence, and discussed the history and progress, strengths and effectiveness, problems and countermeasures, as well as the directions of the Internet Plus regarding the prevention programs of HIV/AIDS among MSM.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Internet , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1206-1211, 2019 Oct 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658518

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" among MSM who frequently using the Internet in Guangzhou. Methods: An online survey was conducted among MSM who were recruited through gay-website portals between August and September, 2018 in Guangzhou, to collect information regarding the use of and attitudes on the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" . Logistic regression was used to explore the association between the use of Internet intervention tools and related behavioral characteristics. Information on the awareness of AIDS, HIV testing, and condomless anal sex behavior were compared between the core or non-core services users. Results: A total of 777 Internet-based MSM were recruited as participants including 638 men (82.1%) as core service users. MSM were satisfied in using the the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" while more than 80.0% of the users felt that the tools were helpful in: increasing the HIV awareness, promoting test uptake, and reducing those related risk behavior. Comparing with those who did not use the tools, the users showed higher rates in practising condomless anal intercourse (1.50-1.86 times), commercial sex with men (11.60-21.21 times), and unprotected vaginal intercourse (13.62-20.67 times), in the last 6 months. Proportions of core service users appeared as: [96.6% vs. 74.8%, aOR (95%CI): 8.80 (4.85-15.97)] on HIV testing, [56.4% vs. 22.3%, aOR (95%CI): 4.54 (2.94-7.02)] on regular HIV testing and [86.2% vs. 80.6%, aOR (95%CI): 1.75 (1.06-2.89)] on awareness of HIV knowledge respectively, which were all significantly higher than the non-core service users. Conclusions: The frequent Internet using MSM in Guangzhou claimed to have had high acceptance and satisfaction on the local Internet HIV intervention service tools. The "Internet Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" had effectively reached the high-risk subgroups of MSM, increasing the awareness on related risk and promoting testing on HIV.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Internet , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , China , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Trabajo Sexual , Conducta Sexual
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1212-1216, 2019 Oct 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658519

RESUMEN

Objective: This article was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of "Lingnanzhun" -an "Internet Plus-based HIV Self-testing Tool" targeting MSM in Guangzhou. Hopefully, the results could be used to improve the existing HIV testing services and to support the implementation and scale-up of HIV self-testing programs. Methods: Data were collected from a survey on HIV testing preferences among the Internet-using MSM in April to June, 2015. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to identify factors associated with the use of HIV self-testing service provided by Lingnanzhun. Information related to the users of Lingnanzhun during September 2014 and December 2018 was also collected. Results: 769 MSM were recruited as participants. Of them, age distribution was 16-77(28.6±6.8) years old, 88.3%(679/769) were unmarried, 42.2%(325/769) were registered residents of Guangzhou, 82.1%(631/769) had university or college education. Among them, 195 (25.4%) used the HIV self- testing program of Lingnanzhun while 574 (74.6%) using the clinic service. Compared with the clinic service users, the Lingnanzhun users showed the following characteristics: longer experience in the MSM community ≥10 years (32.8% vs. 20.9%, 64/195 vs. 120/574); having male casual sexual partners ≥2 (42.1% vs. 29.6%, 82/195 vs. 170/574); having group sex (6.2% vs. 2.6%, 12/195 vs. 15/574) and having commercial sex with men (13.8% vs. 3.0%, 27/195 vs. 17/574). Data from the Lingnanzhun users showed that a total of 3 000 users had practised 5 038 times of self HIV-testings. 11.4% (343/3 000) of the Lingnanzhun users had never been tested. Conclusions: It was applicable and feasible to provide Internet-based HIV self-testing service to MSM as a significant complement to the traditional facility-based HIV testing services. It was also useful in accessing those who were having higher risk or had never received HIV testing so as to increase the testing uptake and the frequency.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Internet , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , China , Estudios de Factibilidad , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trabajo Sexual , Conducta Sexual , Adulto Joven
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1217-1221, 2019 Oct 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658520

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of levels related to the risk through self-evaluation system, among MSM users in Guangzhou, between 2015 and 2017. Methods: Between 2015 and 2017, data was collected from the users of a self-evaluation system network related to HIV infection, based on the previous 'HIV health risk appraisal model'. Information on risk factors was collected to calculate the scores and levels of risks and to estimate the incidence of HIV. Taking the reference of R value on risks as (R=0.9-1.1) in general population. The ones with very low risk, with low risk, moderate risk, high risk and very high risk were set as R≤0.5, 0.52.0, respectively. The scores of modifiable risk factors were compared with different subgroups of MSM. Results: A total of 4 601 MSM were involved in this study, with the following features presented as: aged 16-64 (28.38±7.11) years, proportions of residence from Guangzhou, Guangdong province or other provinces as 38.6%(1 776/4 601)、35.4%(1 629/4 601) and 26.0%(1 197/4 601), 59.6%(2 742/4 601) received bachelor or above degrees. 81.3%(3 741/4 601) of them claimed as having homosexual orientation. R values of risk level on very low risk, low risk level, moderate risk, high risk and very high risk appeared as 12.9%(594/4 601), 50.9%(2 342/4 601), 17.0%(783/4 601), 14.8%(682/4 601) and 4.3%(200/4 601), respectively. Scores of modifiable risk factors decreased year by year (P<0.05), among MSM in this study. In either of the groups that experiencing insertive or receptive sex, the ones with heterosexual orientation presented the highest scores of modifiable risk factors (P<0.05). Conclusions: The risk levels on HIV infections called for special attention among the users of the self-evaluation network system. Among the MSM that carrying either insertive or receptive sex role, the ones with heterosexual orientation had the highest risk levels and scores of modifiable risk factors in Guangzhou. Further study should be explored to better understand the causes of related risks.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Adulto Joven
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