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1.
Zootaxa ; 4778(3): zootaxa.4778.3.10, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055817

RESUMEN

Loricariidae is the largest catfish family, with over 1000 species and 80 genera (Fricke Eschmeyer, 2019). Sailfin catfishes of the genus Pterygoplichthys are armored catfishes, native to temperate and tropical areas of South America, especially the Amazon (Wakida-Kusunoki del Angel, 2011). Two species of this genus (Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelanu, 1855) and P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991)) are naturally distributed in South America along the lower, middle and upper basin of the entire Amazon River (Wakida-Kusunoki del Angel, 2008). These armored catfishes, typified by the presence of ossified plates through the body, are considered very successful invaders of rivers and lakes outside their natural range. Their invasion success has been attributed to their morphology, behavior and life history. For instance, their ability to withstand droughts and cold weather by using burrows in river and lake banks they can survive in the moist habitat even when water levels decrease below the opening of the burrows, these survival characteristics of harsh conditions enable them to thrive in native and non-native grounds (Burgess 1989; Hoover Killgore 2004; Nico Martin 2001; Sandoval-Huerta et al. 2012). Furthermore, their rapid growth during their first years of life, their reproductive traits such as an extended reproductive period, high egg yield (Rueda-Jasso et al. 2013), and the capability of achieving reproductive maturity at smaller size (Wei et al. 2017) allow introduced populations to become abundant in a short period of time.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Animales , Ecosistema , Honduras , Ríos
2.
Zootaxa ; 4809(1): zootaxa.4809.1.3, 2020 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055948

RESUMEN

The only known species of the genus Sorex in Honduras is Sorex mccarthyi Matson Ordóñez-Garza, which is endemic to Celaque National Park. This species shows the presence of a postmandibular foramen and canal, a characteristic that is useful to distinguish between species south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and unique to the Sorex salvini species group. Recently, two specimens of Sorex were collected in 2018 at Cusuco National Park, northwestern Honduras. These specimens lack the distinctive characteristics possessed by the S. salvini species group and belong to the Sorex veraepacis species group. Previously, the S. veraepacis species group was only known from the highlands of the southern Mexican state of Chiapas and Guatemala. Principal component analysis shows that specimens from Sierra de Omoa are different in size and shape with respect to other known species (i.e., S. veraepacis Alston, S. ibarrai Matson McCarthy and S. madrensis Matson Ordóñez-Garza). We describe these two specimens, currently known only from an isolated cloud forest in the Sierra de Omoa, Honduras, as a new species.


Asunto(s)
Musarañas , Animales , Bosques , Honduras
3.
Neurology ; 95(19): e2605-e2609, 2020 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004606

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Asylum seekers experience a high burden of physical and psychological trauma, yet there is a scarcity of literature regarding the epidemiology and sequelae of head injury (HI) in asylum seekers. We examined HI prevalence and association with neuropsychiatric comorbidities in asylum seekers. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed through review of 139 medical affidavits from an affidavit database. Affidavits written from 2010 to 2018 were included. Demographic and case-related data were collected and classified based on the presence of HI. For neuropsychiatric sequelae, the primary study outcome was headache and the secondary outcomes were depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the association between HI and neuropsychiatric sequelae, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 139 medical affidavits of asylum seekers were included. The mean age was 27.4 ± 12.1 years, 56.8% were female, and 38.8% were <19 years. Almost half (42.5%) explicitly self-reported history of HI. Compared to clients who did not report HI, clients with HI were older and more likely to report a history of headache, physical abuse, physical trauma, concussion, and loss of consciousness. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, clients with HI had greater odds for neuropsychological sequelae such as headache (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0-8.7) and depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of HI in asylum seekers. Comprehensive screening for HI and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is encouraged when evaluating asylum seekers.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Cefalea/epidemiología , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , El Salvador/etnología , Femenino , Guatemala/etnología , Haití/etnología , Cefalea/psicología , Honduras/etnología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos de la Memoria/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Memoria/psicología , México/etnología , Nicaragua/etnología , Oportunidad Relativa , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Prevalencia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Refugiados/psicología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Inconsciencia/epidemiología , Inconsciencia/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/psicología , Adulto Joven
4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52314

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Acinetobacter baumannii is considered to be a worldwide threat to public health due to its high antimicrobial resistance rates and the severe infections it can cause. Little is known about this pathogen’s resistance in Central America. This report aims to describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of A. baumannii at a tertiary hospital in Honduras. The cross-sectional analysis was conducted at the tertiary care laboratory hospital in San Pedro Sula in 2015 – 2017. A total of 113 consecutive microbiological reports were analyzed, comprising 100 individuals from whom A. baumannii was isolated. Epidemiological and microbiological data, including the isolation setting and patient information, were recorded. Prevalence of multi-drug and extensive-drug resistance was assessed according to international standards. The median age of individuals was 22 years (2 – 35 years); female was the predominant gender (53%). The hospital’s pediatric wards had the highest number of isolates (n = 48). The most frequent specimen from which A. baumannii was isolated was skin and soft tissue (n = 39). Resistance to carbapenems was reported to be 40.7% among the isolates (n = 46); multi-drug resistant, 35.4% (n = 40); and extensively-drug resistant, 7.1% (n = 8). This report reveals the threat of this pathogen to public health in Honduras and appeals for antibiotic stewardship programs throughout Central America.


[RESUMEN]. Acinetobacter baumannii se considera como una amenaza mundial para la salud pública debido a sus tasas elevadas de resistencia a los antimicrobianos y a las infecciones graves que puede causar. Es poco lo que se conoce acerca de la resistencia de este agente patógeno en Centroamérica, por lo que el propósito de este informe es describir el perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos de A. baumannii mediante un estudio llevado a cabo en un hospital de atención terciaria en Honduras. Entre el 2015 y el 2017, se realizó un análisis transversal en el laboratorio de atención terciaria en el Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social en San Pedro Sula. Se analizó un total de 113 informes de análisis microbiológicos consecutivos, en los que las cepas aisladas de A. Baumannii provenían de un grupo de 100 personas. Se registraron los datos epidemiológicos y microbianos, así como el entorno de aislamiento y la información del paciente. La prevalencia de la multirresistencia y la resistencia extensa se evaluó con base en las normas internacionales. La mediana de edad de las personas fue de 22 años (intervalo: de 2 a 35 años de edad) y predominó el sexo femenino (53%). Las salas de pediatría del hospital presentaron el número más alto de cepas aisladas (n = 48). La piel y el tejido blando (n = 39) fueron las muestras más frecuente de las cuales se aisló la cepa A. Baumannii. Se notificó 40,7% de resistencia a los fármacos carbapenémicos en las cepas aisladas (n = 46); 35,4% de multirresistencia (n = 40); y 7,1% de resistencia extensa (n = 8). Este informe pone en evidencia la amenaza que este agente patógeno representa para la salud pública en Honduras. Asimismo, sirve para alertar a los programas de optimización del uso de antibióticos en Centroamérica.


[RESUMO]. Acinetobacter baumannii é considerado uma ameaça à saúde pública em todo o mundo devido às suas altas taxas de resistência antimicrobiana e às graves infecções que pode causar. Sabe-se pouco sobre a resistência deste patógeno na América Central. Este artigo visa descrever o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de A. baumannii em um hospital terciário em Honduras. Realizamos uma análise transversal no hospital terciário de San Pedro Sula, de 2015 a 2017. Analisamos um total de 113 laudos microbiológicos consecutivos, que envolveram 100 pessoas das quais foi isolado A. baumannii. Registramos dados epidemiológicos e microbiológicos, incluindo o ambiente onde foi feito o isolamento e informações sobre os pacientes. Avaliamos a prevalência de resistência a múltiplos fármacos e resistência extensiva, de acordo com padrões internacionais. A idade mediana dos participantes foi de 22 anos (intervalo, 2 a 35 anos); a maioria dos participantes foi do sexo feminino (53%). As enfermarias pediátricas do hospital tiveram o maior número de isolados (n = 48). A pele e os tecidos moles foram os espécimes mais frequentes de isolamento de A. baumannii (n = 39). A resistência aos carbapenens foi constatada em 40,7% dos isolados (n = 46), a resistência a múltiplos fármacos esteve presente em 35,4% (n = 40) e a resistência extensiva em 7,1% (n = 8). Este artigo revela a ameaça que este patógeno representa à saúde pública em Honduras e faz um apelo pela implantação de programas de gestão do uso de antibióticos em toda a América Central.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Acinetobacter baumannii , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Honduras , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos
6.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200140, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965329

RESUMEN

Although Leishmania infantum is well-known as the aethiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in some Central American countries it may cause atypical non-ulcerated cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL). However, the mechanisms favoring its establishment in the skin are still unknown. Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is the major Leishmania multivirulence factor involved in parasite-host interaction. In the case of viscerotropic L. infantum, it causes an immunosuppression during the interaction with macrophages. Here, we investigated the biochemical and functional roles of LPGs from four dermotropic L. infantum strains from Honduras during in vitro interaction with murine macrophages. LPGs were extracted, purified and their repeat units analysed. They did not have side chains consisting of Gal(ß1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 common to all LPGs. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c and C57BL/6 were exposed to LPG for nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine (TNF-α and, IL-6) production. LPGs from dermotropic strains from Honduras triggered higher NO and cytokine levels compared to those from viscerotropic strains. In conclusion, LPGs from dermotropic strains are devoid of side-chains and exhibit high pro-inflammatory activity.


Asunto(s)
Glicoesfingolípidos , Leishmania infantum/fisiología , Animales , América Central , Honduras , Humanos , Macrófagos/inmunología , Masculino , Ratones
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1700-1710, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840202

RESUMEN

Coverage evaluation surveys (CESs) are an important complement to routinely reported drug coverage estimates following mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Although the WHO recommends the routine use of CESs, they are rarely implemented. Reasons for this low uptake are multifaceted; one is uncertainty on the best sampling method. We conducted a multicountry study to compare the statistical characteristics, cost, time, and complexity of three commonly used CES sampling methods: the Expanded Program on Immunization's (EPI's) 30 × 7 cluster survey, a stratified design with systematic sampling within strata to enable lot quality assurance sampling (S-LQAS) decision rules, and probability sampling with segmentation (PSS). The three CES methods were used in Burkina Faso, Honduras, Malawi, and Uganda, and results were compared across the country sites. All three CES methods were found to be feasible. The S-LQAS approach took the least amount of time to complete and, consequently, was the least expensive; however, all three methods cost less than $5,000 per district. The PSS design resulted in an unbiased, equal-probability sample of the target populations. By contrast, the EPI approach had inherent bias related to the selection of households. Because of modifications needed to maintain feasibility, the S-LQAS method also resulted in a non-probability sample with less precision than the other two methods. Given the comparable cost and time of the three sampling methods and the statistical advantages of the PSS method, the PSS method was deemed to be the best for CESs in NTD programs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desatendidas , Proyectos de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Medicina Tropical , Burkina Faso , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Honduras , Humanos , Muestreo para la Garantía de la Calidad de Lotes , Malaui , Muestreo , Uganda
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-05. (PAHO/FPL/IM/COVID-19/20-0013).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52544

RESUMEN

Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have recommended that uninterrupted vaccination be maintained as an essential health service. To this end, PAHO's Comprehensive Family Immunization Unit of the Family, Health Promotion, and Life Course Department has worked assiduously with the countries of the Region to maintain sound national immunization programs on several fronts, such as the preparation of documents and guidelines for continuing vaccination in the context of COVID-19; monitoring the disease’s impact on vaccination coverage; assessing the effects of the postponement of measles vaccination campaigns (Plurinational State of Bolivia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Paraguay) due to the pandemic; and strengthening vaccination against seasonal influenza. The data presented in this publication were collected through a survey, sent every two weeks to IM focal points and advisors in the at PAHO country offices in the Region. The SurveyMonkey virtual platform was used and the data were analyzed with MS Excel tools. All the variables included in the survey were described using the appropriate univariate statistics. Categorical variables were described using proportions and percentages. Ordinal variables were described using the mean and median. Work has also been carried out to monitor the functioning of immunization services and the main problems they face because of the pandemic. To date, five-country surveys have been conducted; the first was sent out on 16 April, the last on 6 July. This document summarizes the surveys' main findings and developments. The responses in this report represent the opinions of survey participants, and do not represent reports officially sent or solicited by PAHO; the data should, therefore, be interpreted with caution.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Inmunización , Cobertura de Vacunación , Prioridades en Salud , Servicios de Salud , Bolivia , Colombia , República Dominicana , Honduras , Paraguay
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236703, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785284

RESUMEN

Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is the most prevalent illness encountered by deployed military personnel and has a major impact on military operations, from reduced job performance to lost duty days. Frequently, the etiology of TD is unknown and, with underreporting of cases, it is difficult to accurately assess its impact. An increasing number of ailments include an altered or aberrant gut microbiome. To better understand the relationships between long-term deployments and TD, we studied military personnel during two nine-month deployment cycles in 2015-2016 to Honduras. To collect data on the prevalence of diarrhea and impact on duty, a total of 1173 personnel completed questionnaires at the end of their deployment. 56.7% reported reduced performance and 21.1% reported lost duty days. We conducted a passive surveillance study of all cases of diarrhea reporting to the medical unit with 152 total cases and a similar pattern of etiology. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, 52/152), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 50/152), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 35/152) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. An active longitudinal surveillance of 67 subjects also identified diarrheagenic E. coli as the primary etiology (7/16 EPEC, 7/16 EAEC, and 6/16 ETEC). Eleven subjects were recruited into a nested longitudinal substudy to examine gut microbiome changes associated with deployment. A 16S rRNA amplicon survey of fecal samples showed differentially abundant baseline taxa for subjects who contracted TD versus those who did not, as well as detection of taxa positively associated with self-reported gastrointestinal distress. Disrupted microbiota was also qualitatively observable for weeks preceding and following the incidents of TD. These findings illustrate the complex etiology of diarrhea amongst military personnel in deployed settings and its impacts on job performance. Potential factors of resistance or susceptibility can provide a foundation for future clinical trials to evaluate prevention and treatment strategies.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Disentería/epidemiología , Escherichia coli Enteropatógena/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Adulto , Diarrea/genética , Diarrea/microbiología , Disentería/genética , Disentería/microbiología , Disentería/patología , Escherichia coli Enteropatógena/genética , Escherichia coli Enteropatógena/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/patología , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Honduras/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Personal Militar , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Viaje , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
10.
Bogotá; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 17, 2020. 13 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103541

RESUMEN

Este documento tiene el propósito de actualizar las líneas de acción estratégicas de la OPS/OMS para el abordaje de la epidemia de la COVID-19 en Honduras. La pandemia ha tenido una evolución acelerada a nivel mundial, considerándose de una gravedad alta con impactos que van mucho más allá del sector salud y que han perturbado todos los aspectos sociales y económicos de casi todos los países del mundo. Por lo tanto, es necesario ir adaptando y actualizando las intervenciones para que reflejen de mejor manera las lecciones aprendidas de otros países, los mandatos y las necesidades nacionales y las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud/Organización Panamericana de la Salud, de acuerdo con las políticas emergentes tanto al nivel nacional, subregional y mundial.


Asunto(s)
Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Estrategias Nacionales , Planificación , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Honduras
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11172, 2020 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636405

RESUMEN

What explains the underlying causes of rural-urban differentials in severe acute malnutrition (SAM) among under-five children is poorly exploited, operationalized, studied and understood in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We decomposed the rural-urban inequalities in the associated factors of SAM while controlling for individual, household, and neighbourhood factors using datasets from successive demographic and health survey conducted between 2010 and 2018 in 51 LMIC. The data consisted of 532,680 under-five children nested within 55,823 neighbourhoods across the 51 countries. We applied the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique to quantify the contribution of various associated factors to the observed rural-urban disparities in SAM. In all, 69% of the children lived in rural areas, ranging from 16% in Gabon to 81% in Chad. The overall prevalence of SAM among rural children was 4.8% compared with 4.2% among urban children. SAM prevalence in rural areas was highest in Timor-Leste (11.1%) while the highest urban prevalence was in Honduras (8.5%). Nine countries had statistically significant pro-rural (significantly higher odds of SAM in rural areas) inequality while only Tajikistan and Malawi showed statistically significant pro-urban inequality (p < 0.05). Overall, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, wealth index, toilet types and sources of drinking water were the most significant contributors to pro-rural inequalities. Other contributors to the pro-rural inequalities are birth weight, maternal age and maternal education. Pro-urban inequalities were mostly affected by neighbourhood socioeconomic status and wealth index. Having SAM among under-five children was explained by the individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level factors. However, we found variations in the contributions of these factors. The rural-urban dichotomy in the prevalence of SAM was generally significant with higher odds found in the rural areas. Our findings suggest the need for urgent intervention on child nutrition in the rural areas of most LMIC.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Desnutrición Aguda Severa/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Chad , Preescolar , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Gabón , Honduras , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tayikistán
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679717

RESUMEN

A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was used to gather information about dental outcomes, sugar-containing food behaviors and intake, and sociodemographic characteristics of adults of Mexican and Central-American (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras) origin (n = 517). Bivariate and multiple-variable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations of behaviors related to added sugar-containing foods/beverages (overall intake and consumption before bed) with dental outcomes. Outcome measures involved dental outcomes, dental self-care practices, and added sugar intake. Estimated daily added sugar intake among all participants was 98 (SD = 99) g, with no difference in consumption among participants from different countries. The majority of added sugar (63 (SD = 74) g) was provided by sugar-sweetened beverages. Participants who reported consuming sugar-containing foods or beverages within an hour before bed were more likely to report having a fair/poor/very poor condition of teeth and gums and having felt dental pain (p < 0.05 for all). The amount of sugar intake was associated with being prescribed medication for oral or dental problems (p = 0.008) and dental pain (p = 0.003). Findings support the association between sugar containing food-related behaviors and dental problems among Hispanic immigrants to the U.S. Health promotion and preventive interventions for this population should consider these behaviors as modifiable contributors to adverse dental outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Sacarosa en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Hispanoamericanos , Salud Bucal , Adulto , Bebidas , Estudios Transversales , El Salvador , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Honduras , Humanos , Seguro Odontológico , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Azúcares
13.
A A Pract ; 14(7): e01229, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539279

RESUMEN

We present the case of a 25-year-old man with a significant neck mass and describe the technique used for managing his airway given limited equipment in an austere environment. Physical examination and imaging revealed significant proximal airway involvement. Without access to a fiberoptic bronchoscope, we sought a technique that might avoid contact with the mass from both the laryngoscope and endotracheal tube. In this case report, we describe our approach to left paraglossal laryngoscopy and intubation under general anesthesia-a method not well described in the literature and proved to be imperative for our airway management.


Asunto(s)
Manejo de la Vía Aérea/métodos , Laringoscopía/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias de los Nervios Craneales/cirugía , Honduras , Humanos , Masculino , Misiones Médicas , Medicina Militar , Cuello , Neurilemoma/cirugía , Enfermedades del Nervio Vago/cirugía
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008203, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infections pose one of the largest global barriers to human health. The four serotypes (DENV 1-4) present different symptoms and influence immune response to subsequent DENV infections, rendering surveillance, risk assessments, and disease control particularly challenging. Early diagnosis and appropriate clinical management is critical and can be achieved by detecting DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) in serum during the acute phase. However, few NS1-based tests have been developed that are capable of differentiating DENV serotypes and none are currently commercially available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to distinguish DENV-1-4 NS1 using serotype-specific pairs of monoclonal antibodies. A total of 1,046 antibodies were harvested from DENV-immunized mice and screened for antigen binding affinity. ELISA clinical performance was evaluated using 408 polymerase chain reaction-confirmed dengue samples obtained from patients in Brazil, Honduras, and India. The overall sensitivity of the test for pan-DENV was 79.66% (325/408), and the sensitivities for DENV-1-4 serotyping were 79.1% (38/48), 80.41% (78/97), 100% (45/45), and 79.6% (98/123), respectively. Specificity reached 94.07-100%. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates a robust antibody screening strategy that enabled the development of a serotype NS1-based ELISA with maximized specific and sensitive antigen binding. This sensitive and specific assay also utilized the most expansive cohort to date, and of which about half are from Latin America, a geographic region severely underrepresented in previous similar studies. This ELISA test offers potential enhanced diagnostics during the acute phase of infection to help guide patient care and disease control. These results indicate that this ELISA is a promising aid in early DENV-1-4 diagnosis and surveillance in regions of endemicity in addition to offer convenient monitoring for future vaccine interventions.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue/clasificación , Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Dengue/virología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Serogrupo , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/análisis , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/aislamiento & purificación , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Brasil , Estudios de Cohortes , Honduras , Humanos , India , América Latina , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233965, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555607

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A growing population of older adults with HIV will increase demands on HIV-related healthcare. Nearly a quarter of people receiving care for HIV in Latin America are currently 50 years or older, yet little is known about the frequency of comorbidities in this population. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among people 50 years of age or older (≥50yo) receiving HIV care during 2000-2015 in six centers affiliated with the Caribbean, Central and South American network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet). METHODS: We estimated the annual prevalence, and overall prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, psychiatric disorders, chronic liver and renal diseases, and non-AIDS-defining cancers, and multimorbidity (more than one NCD) of people ≥50yo receiving care for HIV. Analyses were performed according to age at enrollment into HIV care (<50yo and ≥50yo). RESULTS: We included 3,415 patients ≥50yo, of whom 1,487(43%) were enrolled at age ≥50 years. The annual prevalence of NCDs increased from 32% to 68% and multimorbidity from 30% to 40% during 2000-2015. At the last registered visit, 53% of patients enrolled <50yo and 50% of those enrolled ≥50yo had at least one NCD. Most common NCDs at the last visit in each age-group at enrollment were dyslipidemia (36% in <50yo and 28% in ≥50yo), hypertension (17% and 18%), psychiatric disorders (15% and 10%), and diabetes (11% and 12%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NCDs and multimorbidity in people ≥50 years receiving care for HIV in CCASAnet centers in Latin America increased substantially in the last 15 years. Our results make evident the need of planning for provision of complex, primary care for aging adults living with HIV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Envejecimiento , Argentina , Brasil , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Chile , Estudios de Cohortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Honduras , Humanos , Hepatopatías/epidemiología , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Multimorbilidad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 138014, 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392678

RESUMEN

Temporarily open-closed estuaries and estuarine lagoons are among the most complex aquatic ecosystems, prone to undergo rapid changes in response to global change and other anthropogenic impacts. Nonetheless, studies on the factors that control annual cycles of phytoplanktonic biomass and primary production in such systems, especially tropical ones, are still scarce. Even less information exists on the effect increasingly frequent extreme climatic events (ECE) might have on their dynamics. For this purpose, we monitored the changes in ecological conditions in the Los Micos estuarine lagoon (Honduras) by sampling monthly during an annual cycle that included several changes in the lagoon's mouth phase and attempted to understand which environmental factors affect phytoplanktonic biomass and primary production. We also evaluated the impact of, and recovery from, a tropical storm ECE. Annual mean net production (Pn), integrated for the euphotic zone, (4.3 ± 2.8 gC m-2 d-1) and Chlorophyll a (27.1 ± 19.1 mg m-3) values in Los Micos place it as one of the more productive estuaries worldwide. The physico-chemical characteristics of the lagoon clearly depended on mouth phase; however, the values of Chla and Pn did not show significant differences between the open and closed phases. The application of distance-based multivariate linear models did not show any clear dominant model being able to explain the observed Chla and Pn patterns. The most parsimonious models included among others, salinity, particulate organic carbon and PO43-, which suggests that primary production is controlled by multiple factors. During the ECE, about 19% of DIN, 91% of DSi and PO43-, 60% of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, and 86% of Chla were exported to the sea, greatly reducing Pn. However, Chla and Pn values recovered to pre-storm levels within 30 days, indicating that these biological variables are highly resilient in Los Micos Lagoon.


Asunto(s)
Clorofila A , Fitoplancton , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Honduras , Estaciones del Año
18.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010706, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373336

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescent pregnancy and childbirth are common throughout Central America. While gendered beliefs promoting motherhood are a known risk factor, their association with adolescent childbirth within the social networks of Central American communities is unknown. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study looking at adolescent childbirth amongst women ages 15-20 years (N = 2990) in rural Honduras, using reproductive health data on all individuals ≥15 years of age (N = 24 937 of 31 300 population) including social network contacts, all of whom were interviewed as part of the study. The outcome, adolescent childbirth, was defined as having had a child < age 20 years. Predictors included whether a woman's social contact had an adolescent childbirth and the social contact's reported perception of community support for adolescent childbirth. Results: While girls who identified a father in the village as a social contact had a lower likelihood of adolescent childbirth regardless of whether or not they reported being in a partnership, this finding did not hold for girls who identified mothers. There was an association between a social contact's report of norms supporting adolescent childbirth and a girl's risk of adolescent childbirth; however, village-level aggregate norms attenuated that relationship. Independent significant associations were found between a girl's risk of adolescent childbirth and both a social contact's adolescent childbirth and the village proportion of women who had had an adolescent childbirth. The association between social contacts' adolescent childbirth and a girl's risk of adolescent childbirth across relationships was more robust for stronger relationships and when the social contact was closer in age to the girl. Conclusions: If, as this evidence suggests, a strong driver of adolescent childbirth is the frequency of the occurrence of adolescent childbirth both within the greater community and within a girl's proximal social network, the challenge for intervention strategies is to encourage norms that prevent adolescent childbirth without stigmatising those who have had an adolescent childbirth. Programmatic efforts to counter prevailing norms that limit a woman's role to motherhood, and that support and encourage strong norms for girls' education may play an important role in addressing this situation.


Asunto(s)
Padre/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Salud Reproductiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Red Social , Estereotipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Honduras , Humanos , Embarazo , Población Rural , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326320

RESUMEN

Despite increasing interest in understanding the factors influencing awareness and acceptability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among Latino parents, to date limited information is available specific to Central American parents living in the United States (US). Therefore, this pilot cross-sectional study was designed to explore and assess Central American immigrant parents' awareness, acceptability, and willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV, and interest in participating in future HPV-associated cancer prevention study. Fifty-six Central American parents, majority immigrant (96.4%; n = 54) from four countries, El Salvador-50% (n = 27); Guatemala-25.9% (n = 14); Honduras-22.2% (n = 12); and Panama-1.9% (n = 1) participated in this study. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire survey in their preferred language (i.e., Spanish or English). A little over half of the participants were mothers (57.1%; n = 32) and parents' mean age was 43.2 years (SD = 6.4). The majority was married or cohabitating (76.8%, n = 43), and 39.3% (n = 22) reported having two children. Seventy-five percent (n = 42) of parents reported they had heard of the HPV vaccine. Fewer fathers were aware of the HPV vaccine (58.3%; n = 14 vs.87.5%, n = 28; p = 0.01) than mothers. Among parents who had heard of the HPV vaccine (n = 42), 85.7% (n = 36) reported their children had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Fewer fathers reported their child had been vaccinated against HPV (64.3%, n = 9 vs. 96.4%, n = 27; p = 0.06) than mothers. Moreover, 90% of parents (n = 18) whose children were unvaccinated reported willingness to vaccinate their adolescent children against HPV if recommended by their child's physician. Findings indicate parents' low to moderate awareness of the HPV vaccine, and high willingness to vaccinate their adolescent children if recommended by their child's physician. Findings also demonstrate fathers' lower awareness and acceptability of the HPV vaccine than mothers. Despite limitations and the need for more research, findings of this pilot study serve as a valuable first step toward building a knowledge foundation that is needed for developing future studies and interventions targeting Central American immigrant parents living in the US. Future studies can build on the findings of this exploratory study with other research designs and address its limitations by having a larger sample size and accounting for additional factors associated with Central American immigrant parents' HPV awareness, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and vaccine acceptability from other communities across the US.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Estudios Transversales , El Salvador , Femenino , Guatemala , Hispanoamericanos , Honduras , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Panamá , Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Padres , Proyectos Piloto , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
20.
Zootaxa ; 4748(3): zootaxa.4748.3.3, 2020 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230062

RESUMEN

Three new species are described from Ecuador: Scythropopsis granitica (Lamiinae, Acanthoderini); Apeba danielvlasaki (Lamiinae, Hemilophini); and Giesberteclipta unicolor (Cerambycinae, Rhinotragini). Two new species are described from Honduras: Anelaphus rotundus (Cerambycinae, Elaphidiini); and Euderces hefferni (Cerambycinae, Tillomorphini). A key to species of Apeba Martins Galileo, 1991, and Giesberteclipta Santos-Silva et al., 2012 are provided. Euderces hefferni sp. nov. is included in a previous key. Rashelapso morrisoni Bezark Santos-Silva, 2016 is transferred to Giesberteclipta. The holotype of Anelaphus subinermis Linsley, 1957 is illustrated for the first time.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Arañas , Animales , Ecuador , Honduras
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