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1.
Hong Kong Med J ; 26(3): 176-183, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475841

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the preparedness of family doctors during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Hong Kong. METHODS: All members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey using a 20-item questionnaire to collect information on practice preparedness for the COVID-19 outbreak through an email followed by a reminder SMS message between 31 January 2020 and 3 February 2020. RESULTS: Of 1589 family doctors invited, 491 (31%) participated in the survey, including 242 (49%) from private sector. In all, 98% surveyed doctors continued to provide clinical services during the survey period, but reduced clinic service demands were observed in 45% private practices and 24% public clinics. Almost all wore masks during consultation and washed hands between or before patient contact. Significantly more private than public doctors (80% vs 26%, P<0.001) experienced difficulties in stocking personal protective equipment (PPE); more public doctors used guidelines to manage suspected patients. The main concern of the respondents was PPE shortage. Respondents appealed for effective public health interventions including border control, quarantine measures, designated clinic setup, and public education. CONCLUSION: Family doctors from public and private sectors demonstrated preparedness to serve the community from the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak with heightened infection control measures and use of guidelines. However, there is a need for support from local health authorities to secure PPE supply and institute public health interventions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria/organización & administración , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Médicos de Familia/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503333

RESUMEN

Virus outbreaks are threats to humanity, and coronaviruses are the latest of many epidemics in the last few decades in the world. SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Associated Coronavirus) is a member of the coronavirus family, so its study is useful for relevant virus data research. In this work, we conduct a proposed approach that is non-medical/clinical, generate graphs from five features of the SARS outbreak data in five countries and regions, and offer insights from a visual analysis perspective. The results show that prevention measures such as quarantine are the most common control policies used, and areas with strict measures did have fewer peak period days; for instance, Hong Kong handled the outbreak better than other areas. Data conflict issues found with this approach are discussed as well. Visual analysis is also proved to be a useful technique to present the SARS outbreak data at this stage; furthermore, we are proceeding to apply a similar methodology with more features to future COVID-19 research from a visual analysis perfective.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Conferencias de Consenso como Asunto , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Factores de Tiempo , Organización Mundial de la Salud
5.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553062

RESUMEN

An outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred on the Diamond Princess cruise ship making an international journey, which led to quarantine of the ship at Yokohama Port, Japan. A suspected COVID-19 case was defined as a passenger or crew member who developed a fever or respiratory symptoms, and a confirmed COVID-19 case had laboratory-confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Between 3 and 9 February 2020, 490 individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 172 were positive (152 passengers (median age: 70 years; interquartile range (IQR): 64-75; males: 45%) and 20 crew (median age: 40 years; IQR: 35-48.5; males: 80%). Other than the Hong Kong-related index case, symptom onset for the earliest confirmed case was 22 January, 2 days after the cruise ship left port. Attack rates among passengers were similar across the decks, while beverage (3.3%, 2/61) and food service staff (5.7%, 14/245) were most affected. Attack rates tended to increase with age. A comprehensive outbreak response was implemented, including surveillance, provision of essential medical care, food and medicine delivery, isolation, infection prevention and control, sampling and disembarkation.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , China , Diamante , Brotes de Enfermedades , Hong Kong , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Navíos
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485979

RESUMEN

In addition to top-down Health-Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) efforts, bottom-up individual and household measures are crucial for prevention and emergency response of the COVID-19 pandemic, a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). There is limited scientific evidence of the knowledge, perception, attitude and behavior patterns of the urban population. A computerized randomized digital dialing, cross-sectional, population landline-based telephone survey was conducted from 22 March to 1 April 2020 in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Data were collected for socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and risk perception, and various self-reported Health-EDRM behavior patterns associated with COVID-19. The final study sample was 765. Although the respondents thought that individuals (68.6%) had similar responsibilities as government (67.5%) in infection control, less than 50% had sufficient health risk management knowledge to safeguard health and well-being. Among the examined Health-EDRM measures, significant differences were found between attitude and practice in regards to washing hands with soap, ordering takeaways, wearing masks, avoidance of visiting public places or using public transport, and travel avoidance to COVID-19-confirmed regions. Logistic regression indicated that the elderly were less likely to worry about infection with COVID-19. Compared to personal and household hygiene practices, lower compliance was found for public social distancing.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Desastres , Urgencias Médicas , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Gestión de Riesgos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
12.
JAAPA ; 33(7): 45-48, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590533

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in late 2019 in Wuhan, China, commonly presents as a severe acute respiratory disease referred to as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The rapid spread of the disease created challenges for healthcare systems and forced healthcare workers to grapple with clinical and nonclinical stressors, including shortages of personal protective equipment, mortality and morbidity associated with COVID-19, fear of bringing the virus home to family members, and the reality of losing colleagues to the disease. Evidence from previous outbreaks, along with early evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic, suggests that these events have significant short- and long-term effects on the mental health of healthcare workers. All healthcare stakeholders should create short- and long-term plans to support the mental health of workers during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Pesar , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Mental , Ontario/epidemiología , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Taiwán/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20327, 2020 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481318

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Eczema is a relapsing and persistent inflammatory skin disease affecting about one-fifth of children worldwide. As in other developed countries, the prevalence of this chronic disease in Hong Kong is approximately 30%. Moreover, the number of local cases reported has been on a rising trend since 1995. Eczema frequently starts in early infancy. A total of 45% of all cases begin within the first six months of life, 60% during the first year and 85% before the age of 5. The pathophysiology of eczema is multi-factorial and is a complex inter-relationship between skin barrier, genetic predisposition, immunologic development, microbiome, environment, nutrition, and pharmacological and psychological factors. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the longitudinal changes of gut microbial profile in early childhood and to examine the association between gut microbiome diversity, environmental factors and the development of eczema in early childhood. METHOD: We will conduct a longitudinal cohort study that follows 1250 Hong Kong Chinese infants for 2 years and assess the gut microbiome and other potential environmental factors in the aetiology of eczema. Parents will be asked to provide demographic data, their infant birth data, allergy condition, diet, environmental conditions as well as the data on maternal stress. Stool specimen will be collected for gut microbiome diversity analysis. We will examine newborn infants at enrollment, at 4 months, 1 year and 2 years after birth. EXPECTED RESULTS: This study will evaluate the association between gut microbiome, environmental factors and the development of eczema in Chinese infants. Findings from this study may be used to develop a predictive path model to guide effective health promotion, disease prevention and management.


Asunto(s)
Eccema/etiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Preescolar , Eccema/epidemiología , Eccema/microbiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(2): 573-580, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476351

RESUMEN

The Pan-Pearl River Basin is a bridgehead for China's reform and opening-up and the construction of the Belt and Road at Sea, with vital strategic significance in Chinese overall development. Land use data and climate and socio-economic indicators were integrated to probe the spatiotemporal change and its driving forces of land use in the Pan-Pearl River basin with ArcGIS spatial analysis tool and SPSS factor analysis tool. Results showed that land use in the Pan-Pearl River Basin significantly changed between 1990 and 2015, with decreases of the area of paddy field and woodland and rapid increases of urban land and other construction land. Outflow of grassland occurred in the northwestern part of the basin. Reduction of cultivated field was mainly concentrated in the central part of the basin and coastal areas. Increases in urban and rural land, industrial and mining land, and residential land were centrally distributed in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Marco Greater Bay Area. The prominent change areas were Guangdong-Hong Kong-Marco Greater Bay Area : central and southeast of Guangxi Province : northern Hainan Province. Land use changes during 1990-2000 were most obvious in the basin. The main driving factor of spatiotemporal variation of land use was the rapid development of social economy and industry and the improvement of residents' consumption level.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Ríos , China , Hong Kong , Industrias
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1356-1359, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459137

RESUMEN

During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, logistic problems associated with specimen collection limited the SARS-CoV-2 testing, especially in the community. In this study, we assessed the use of posterior oropharyngeal saliva as specimens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in an automated point-of-care molecular assay. Archived nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and posterior oropharyngeal saliva specimens of 58 COVID-19 patients were tested with the Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in either NPS or saliva specimens of all patients. Among them, 84.5% (49/58) tested positive in both NPS and saliva, 10.3% (6/58) tested positive in NPS only, and 5.2% (3/58) tested positive in saliva only. No significant difference in the detection rate was observed between NPS and saliva (McNemar's test p = 0.5078). The detection rate was slightly higher for N2 (NPS 94.8% and Saliva 93.1%) than that of the E gene target (Saliva: 89.7% vs 82.8%) on both specimen types. Significantly earlier median Ct value was observed for NPS comparing to that of saliva on both E (26.8 vs 29.7, p = 0.0002) and N2 gene target (29.3 vs 32.3, p = 0.0002). The median Ct value of E gene target was significantly earlier than that of the N2 gene target for both NPS (26.8 vs 29.3, p < 0.0001) and saliva (29.7 vs 32.3, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, posterior oropharyngeal saliva and NPS were found to have similar detection rates in the point-of-care test for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Since posterior oropharyngeal saliva can be collected easily, the use of saliva as an alternative specimen type for SARS-CoV-2 detection is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Bioensayo , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Sistemas de Atención de Punto/normas , Proteínas del Envoltorio Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/instrumentación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Orofaringe/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Saliva/virología , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos
19.
Transfus Med ; 30(3): 167-168, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401394
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