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1.
Food Chem ; 351: 129227, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647695

RESUMEN

Cold chain transportation is an important link in postharvest logistics of agricultural products. In current study, we developed a novel water-based phase change coolant (PCC), which showed longer effectiveness in maintaining low temperature condition compared with ice, and applied in preserving the postharvest mushrooms. The results showed that the novel PCC effectively inhibited water loss, as well as maintained quality attributes including firmness, color, phenolics, flavonoids, and thus prolonged the shelf-life of mushrooms. Low temperature condition created by the novel PCC treatment maintained high level of energy charge by activating the activities of SDH, CCO, H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, resulting in the delay of postharvest senescence. In addition, sufficient energy supply decreased the consumption of glutamate as carbon skeleton by inhibiting GDH activity, improved glutamate accumulation, and therefore maintained sensory properties as a result. Thus, the novel PCC might be an excellent substitute for ice in cold chain transportation of mushrooms.


Asunto(s)
Frío , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Calidad de los Alimentos , Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Transición de Fase , Hongos Shiitake/química , Hongos Shiitake/metabolismo , Color , Hongos Shiitake/efectos de los fármacos , Agua/química , Agua/farmacología
2.
Food Chem ; 352: 129456, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711727

RESUMEN

Release of bioelements and phenolic compounds from edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Cantharellus cibarius, and Lentinula edodes) enriched with zinc, selenium, l-phenylalanine, alone and as a mixture was examined using a simulated human gastrointestinal digestion method. Due to the extensive amount of data obtained, in order to interpret them more precisely in the work, the methods of chemometric analysis (Cluster Analysis-CA and Principal Compenent Analysis-PCA) were additionally applied. The results showed mycelium of L. edodes has the best health-promoting properties and addition of mixture to the media increased significantly the synthesis of p-hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acid (267 and 16.3 mg/100 g d.w.). After extraction into artificial digestive juices, 97.4 mg/100 g d.w. p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 15.6 mg/100 g d.w. of protocatechuic acid were released. The greatest amounts of Se and Zn were extracted from enriched A. bisporus mycelium (32.3 and 342 mg/100 g d.w., respectively). This study confirmed that mycelium might prevent nutritional deficiencies in the diet through use of functional foods.


Asunto(s)
Agaricus/química , Basidiomycota/química , Micelio/química , Fenoles/análisis , Hongos Shiitake/química , Disponibilidad Biológica , Digestión , Humanos , Fenoles/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 352: 129357, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714165

RESUMEN

In this work, we investigated whether coating fresh shiitake mushrooms with a polysaccharide isolated from Oudemansiella radicata (ORWP) would impact key quality characteristics after 18 d of storage at 4 °C. We found that ORWP-coated mushrooms had significant improvements in many qualities during storage, including reduced weight loss, improved firmness, reduced browning, decreased malondialdehyde content, and an improved physical microstructure. Further, ORWP-coated mushrooms had higher contents of nutritional and cell wall compounds compared to control samples. ORWP-coated mushrooms had reduced activities of the following enzymes: protease, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cellulase, and chitinase, relative to control samples. However, mushrooms coated with ORWP had higher concentrations of superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as higher contents of certain key monosodium glutamate-resembling amino acids, umami 5'-nucleotides and 1-octen-3-ol. These findings suggest that ORWP coatings have potential value as a method to improve the postharvest quality of shiitake mushrooms.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales/química , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Polisacáridos Fúngicos/química , Hongos Shiitake/química , Gusto
4.
Food Chem ; 347: 128998, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453580

RESUMEN

Eight carbon (C8) compounds are the key characteristic flavors of mushrooms. The quantitative analysis of the volatiles in mushrooms is challenging especially with the unattended HS-SPME-GC-MS. An unattended HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS in combination with novel sample preparation of the complete control of volatile emissions was developed for the quantitation of the C8 volatiles in mushrooms. The sample preparation strategy was composed of freeze-drying, rehydration, and the addition of a 15% citric acid solution. With this strategy, the volatile emission from mushroom was fully controlled at a certain time point. This method was found to be highly reliable, sensitive, precise, and accurate. This method was successfully applied to measure the contents of the C8 volatiles in the beech, button, and shiitake mushrooms. 1-Octene-3-ol was the most predominant compound in the mushrooms, representing 62.4, 69.0, and 89.2% of the total C8 volatiles in the beech, button, and shiitake mushrooms, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Agaricales/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análisis , Límite de Detección , Análisis de Componente Principal , Hongos Shiitake/química , Hongos Shiitake/metabolismo , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación
5.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 405-412, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706908

RESUMEN

Bacterial infection remains the main cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome and is a leading cause of death and disability in critically ill patients. Here we report on the use of purified ß-glucan (lentinan) extracts from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom that can reduce infection by a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in a rodent pneumonia model, likely through immunomodulation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intra-tracheal administration of K. pneumoniae to induce pulmonary sepsis and randomized to three groups; vehicle control (Vehicle, n = 12), commercial lentinan (CL, n = 8) or in-house extracted lentinan (IHL, n = 8) were administered intravenously 1 h postinfection. Physiological parameters and blood gas analysis were measured, bacterial counts from bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) were determined, along with differential staining of white cells and measurement of protein concentration in BAL 48 h after pneumonia induction. Use of IHL extract significantly decreased BAL CFU counts. Both CL and IHL extractions reduced protein concentration in BAL. Use of IHL resulted in an improvement in physiological parameters compared to controls and CL. In conclusion, administration of lentinan to treat sepsis-induced lung injury appears safe and effective and may exert its effects in an immunomodulatory manner.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Lentinano/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Hongos Shiitake/química , beta-Glucanos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Antibacterianos/química , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/fisiología , Lentinano/química , Lentinano/farmacología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/microbiología , Masculino , Extractos Vegetales/química , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis/microbiología
7.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069862

RESUMEN

Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a rare, life-threatening liver disease with a poor prognosis. Administration of D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers acute liver injury in mice, simulating many clinical features of FHF in humans; therefore, this disease model is often used to investigate potential therapeutic interventions to treat FHF. Recently, suppression of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat related (NLR) family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, was shown to alleviate the severity of GalN/LPS-induced liver damage in mice. Therefore, the goal of this study was to find dietary exosome-like nanoparticles (ELNs) with therapeutic potential in curbing FHF by suppressing the NLRP3 inflammasome. Seven commonly consumed mushrooms were used to extract ELNs. These mushrooms were found to contain ELNs composed of RNAs, proteins, and lipids. Among these mushroom-derived ELNs, only shiitake mushroom-derived ELNs (S-ELNs) substantially inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by preventing inflammasome formation in primary macrophages. S-ELNs also suppressed the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, as well as both protein and mRNA levels of the Il1b gene. Remarkably, pre-treatment with S-ELNs protected mice from GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury. Therefore, S-ELNs, identified as potent new inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome, represent a promising class of agents with the potential to combat FHF.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Hongos Shiitake/química , Animales , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/etiología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Exosomas , Galactosamina , Lipopolisacáridos , Hígado/metabolismo , Fallo Hepático Agudo/tratamiento farmacológico , Fallo Hepático Agudo/etiología , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/efectos de los fármacos
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1814, 2020 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020024

RESUMEN

Rice straw was substituted for sawdust at five different ratios of 0, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% (Control, RS20, RS40, RS60 and RS80, respectively) to obtain five kinds of Lentinula edodes. The effects of adding cropped rice straw to substrate formulas on the proximate composition and non-volatile taste compounds in mushrooms were investigated. The control group had the highest level of MY and BE among the five formulations. The protein levels in mushrooms decreased with the addition of rice straw and the ash levels increased. We found that trehalose, mannitol, and arabitol were the main soluble sugars in the five kinds of mushrooms. The contents of total free amino acids varied from 16.29 to 24.59 mg/g and the highest level of free amino acids was found in mushrooms cultivated from RS20 and RS40. Moreover, the addition of rice straw improved the contents of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like amino acids in mushrooms. The 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.66 to 4.48 mg/g and equivalent umami concentration (EUC) value increased with the addition of rice straw. Our results suggest that rice straw is a potential substitute for sawdust to cultivate L. edodes with more non-volatile taste compounds.


Asunto(s)
Hongos Shiitake/química , Gusto , Agricultura , Oryza
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(5): 1971-1979, 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Water absorption is the dominant factor affecting the quality deterioration of dried Lentinus edodes. We therefore analyzed the effect of moisture content and dynamic water status on physical properties of the mushroom stored at water activity (aw ), 0.33, 0.43, 0.67, 0.76, and 0.84 for 50 days. Moisture mobility and water status were analyzed using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, while hardness and microstructure were determined as texture characteristics. Meanwhile, an electronic nose and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used to analyze the flavor properties of dried L. edodes. RESULTS: The results showed that bound water was the dominant water status in dried L. edodes. The content and molecular mobility of bound water increased at aw = 0.67, 0.76, and 0.84. This contributed to discoloration, hardness loss, and microstructure sparsity of dried L. edodes. The increasing content and molecular mobility of bound water aggravated the deterioration of characteristic flavor by reducing acid, aldehyde, and ketone content. CONCLUSION: Unlike immobilized or free water, bound water had a critical influence on the quality deterioration of dried L. edodes during storage. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Hongos Shiitake/química , Agua/química , Aldehídos/química , Aldehídos/aislamiento & purificación , Nariz Electrónica , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/aislamiento & purificación , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Cetonas/química , Cetonas/aislamiento & purificación , Microextracción en Fase Sólida
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(2): 412.e1-412.e2, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864870

RESUMEN

Shiitake dermatitis is a rare adverse cutaneous reaction to the ingestion of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes). We report the case of a patient who developed a striking linear flagellate dermatitis without urticaria three days after returning from a trip from Tokyo where he had eaten shiitake mushrooms. The rash resolved after two weeks with topical corticosteroids and antihistamines given for symptomatic relief. Shiitake dermatitis is thought to be either a toxic or hypersensitivity reaction to lentinan, a heat-inactivated polysaccharide found in the cell walls of shiitake mushrooms. Although this mushroom is widely consumed in Eastern Asia, with the increasing globalisation of cuisine and travel, cases are likely to become more common in the Western world.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis/etiología , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/etiología , Lentinano/efectos adversos , Hongos Shiitake/química , Administración Tópica , Corticoesteroides/administración & dosificación , Dermatitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Antagonistas de los Receptores Histamínicos/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Piel/patología , Viaje
11.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(4): 514-518, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708427

RESUMEN

Okara, despite being a soybean processing by-product, still holds many nutrients. Thus, considerable attention has been recently paid to its reuse. In this study, solid-state fermentation was performed using Ganoderma lucidum and Lentinus edodes. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound levels in G. lucidum-fermented okara (GLFO) and L. edodes-fermented okara (LEFO) were assayed. Antiosteoporosis bioactivity was evaluated using an animal model. The results demonstrated that solid-state fermentation significantly improved the antioxidant activity and bioactive compound levels. Furthermore, GLFO and LEFO increased trabecular bone volume, although only the GLFO-treated group exhibited significantly improved trabecular separation compared with the bilateral ovariectomy-treated control group. GLFO-related outcomes were superior to those of LEFO. The results demonstrate that okara products are effective for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis in humans.


Asunto(s)
Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea , Fermentación , Extractos Vegetales , Reishi/química , Hongos Shiitake/química , Soja/química , Animales , Biomasa , Reactores Biológicos , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/aislamiento & purificación , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/metabolismo , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/farmacología , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Femenino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Osteoporosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ovariectomía , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Reishi/metabolismo , Hongos Shiitake/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 309: 125738, 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706679

RESUMEN

In the present study, the impact of ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment and ultrafine grinding on the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2, physiochemical properties, and antioxidant properties of shiitake and Jew's ear was assessed. After exposure to UV-C, vitamin D2 contents of both the mushroom samples has increased significantly (p < 0.05). Whereas, ultrafine grinding along with UV-C treatment has a synergistic effect on bioconversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 and this effect is more prominent in low dose UV-C irradiation groups (2 kJ/m2). Ultrafine grinding significantly (p < 0.05) improved the water holding capacity (WHC), water solubility index (WSI) and polysaccharide dissolution rate (PDR). However, UV-C treatment led to insignificant changes in the physiochemical properties of mushroom samples. A significant improvement was also observed in the antioxidant profiles especially tannin contents of mushrooms followed by the ultrafine grinding and UV-C treatment.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricales/efectos de la radiación , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ergocalciferoles/metabolismo , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Hongos Shiitake/metabolismo , Hongos Shiitake/efectos de la radiación , Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/química , Biotransformación , Ergocalciferoles/química , Ergosterol/química , Hongos Shiitake/química , Rayos Ultravioleta
13.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125164, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669989

RESUMEN

Phytoremediation is an economical strategy to harvest cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soil, but the efficiency of phytoremediation was affected by many factors. This study investigated the potential of Serratia sp. K3 (K3) assisted with straw biogas residue (SBR) or leavening fertilizer (LF) on improving the Cd migration efficiency and micro-environment in soil-vetiveria zizanioides L. system. The results showed that the acid soluble Cd in soil was increased by 2.83-29.79% in treatments compared with control (CK). In addition, Cd accumulation in the roots and shoots of vetiveria zizanioides were significantly enhanced by the combination of K3 and SBR/LF. Especially, the translocation factor of Cd increased by 21.53-62.37% in groups with K3 compared with the groups without K3, correspondingly. Furthermore, SBR/LF effectively changed bacterial community structure, and improved bacterial abundance. Relative abundance of functional genes related with carbohydrate/energy/amino acid metabolism were increased in groups of SBRB/LFB rhizosphere compared with CK. These results provide insight into the change of phytoremediation efficiency and soil bacterial communities in the vetiveria zizanioides rhizosphere after inoculation. This study may provide a promising method for improving phytoremediation in Cd contaminated soil.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/análisis , Chrysopogon/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fertilizantes/análisis , Serratia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Bioacumulación , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio/metabolismo , Chrysopogon/metabolismo , Estiércol/análisis , Microbiota , Rizosfera , Serratia/metabolismo , Hongos Shiitake/química , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Residuos Sólidos/análisis
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15999, 2019 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690791

RESUMEN

As a multifunctional material, biochar is considered a potential adsorbent for removing heavy metals from wastewater. Most biochars with high adsorption capacities have been modified, but this modification is uneconomical, and modifying biochar may cause secondary pollution. Thus, it is necessary to develop an efficient biochar without modification. In this study, spent P. ostreatus substrate and spent shiitake substrate were used as the raw materials to prepare biochar. Then, the physicochemical properties of the biochars and their removal efficiencies for Pb(II) were investigated. The results showed that the physicochemical properties (e.g., large BET surface area, small pore structure and abundant functional groups) contributed to the large adsorption capacity for Pb(II); the maximum adsorption capacities were 326 mg g-1 (spent P. ostreatus substrate-derived biochar) and 398 mg g-1 (spent shiitake substrate-derived biochar), which are 1.6-10 times larger than those of other modified biochars. The Pb(II) adsorption data could be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model. This study provides a new method to comprehensively utilize spent mushroom substrates for the sustainable development of the edible mushroom industry.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/química , Plomo/química , Pleurotus/química , Hongos Shiitake/química , Residuos/análisis , Adsorción , Cinética
15.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 645-656, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679299

RESUMEN

Interleukin (IL)-8, a cytokine produced by immune and non-immune cells, induces angiogenesis via increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion; both cytokines promote tumor growth. IL-8 and VEGF plasma levels correlate with prostate cancer severity, suggesting that therapeutic options aimed at their downregulation may modulate tumor growth. Available data suggest that Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom [WBM]) extracts inhibit cancer cell proliferation through aromatase inhibition. However, the extent to which they affect IL-8 and VEGF remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the antiproliferative properties of WBM, brown A. bisporus (portabella), and Lentinus edodes (shiitake mushroom) on PC3 cancer cells; (2) demonstrate that these properties are exerted through the regulation of both IL-8 and VEGF; and (3) determine the role of NFκB activation in the antiproliferative process of mushroom extracts. Cytokine secretion in the supernatant, NFκB activity, and cell proliferation were measured in PC3 cells incubated with 0-100 µg/mL of ethanol extracts of mushrooms. Mushroom extracts decreased IL-8 secretion and cell proliferation (P < .05), and also tended to decrease VEGF (P < .09). Decreased cell proliferation did not appear to result from cell death because trypan blue exclusion tests showed comparable cell viability among cultures. Mushroom extracts also decreased nuclear and total NFκB activity, and the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic activity (P < .05) suggesting altered translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our data suggest that the three types of studied mushrooms may modulate tumor growth through inhibition of IL-8, VEGF, and NFκB pathways.


Asunto(s)
Mezclas Complejas/farmacología , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Hongos Shiitake/química , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Etanol , Humanos , Masculino , FN-kappa B/inmunología , Células PC-3
16.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 693-702, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679303

RESUMEN

The shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom Lentinus edodes is one of the most consumed species worldwide because it has nutritional, medicinal, and palatable properties. Its organoleptic characteristics contribute substantially to its high popularity. The pleasant aromas result from the presence of volatile compounds. The objective of the present work was to study the profiles of volatile constituents of fresh fruiting bodies of five strains of L. edodes. The volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction method and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The aromatic profiles of the strains revealed variability. Both alcohols and sulfides were the most abundant volatile compounds. LE6 strain presented the highest number of volatile compounds with predominance of sulfides (dimethyl pentasulfide, s-tetrathiane) and for LE2, the aldehydes were the most representative chemical class with the main volatile being (E)-2-octen-1-al.


Asunto(s)
Hongos Shiitake/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Hongos Shiitake/crecimiento & desarrollo , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
17.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224740, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697749

RESUMEN

A key characteristic of mushroom polysaccharides that elicit an immunomodulatory response is that they are rich in ß-glucans and low in α-glucans. In this study we analysed nine commercially available preparations from three mushroom species, Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and Maitake (Grifola frondosa), for ß- and α-glucan content. Based on ß- and α-glucan content we selected three extracts to combine into a formula and evaluated the ability of the individual extracts and formula to impact on the expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in human macrophages with and without LPS stimulation. The majority of mushroom extracts and the formula were found to be highly potent immuno-stimulators possessing EC50 values lower than 100 µg/mL. Interestingly the mushroom formula had lower EC50 values in TNF-α expression from LPS stimulated macrophages compared to the individual extracts, suggesting a potential synergistic effect of the mushroom formula. A response additivity graph and curve-shift analysis illustrated that indeed the mushroom formula exhibited an immuno-stimulatory synergistic effect on the expression of the majority of cytokines evaluated in both LPS stimulated and non-stimulated human macrophages, with IL-10 having an antagonistic response. This study represents the first report of a synergistic immuno-modulatory response in human macrophages elicited from a mushroom formula rationally derived from ß- and α-glucan content.


Asunto(s)
Grifola/química , Factores Inmunológicos/farmacología , Macrófagos/inmunología , Reishi/química , Hongos Shiitake/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , beta-Glucanos/metabolismo
18.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108517, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554126

RESUMEN

Volatile compounds of Lentinula edodes grown in different culture substrate (CS) formulations were analyzed to reveal (i) the relationship between volatile compound production and CS formulations, (ii) the contribution of volatile compounds to L. edodes flavor, (iii) the activities of LOX and γ-GGT enzymes, (iv) γ-GGT gene expression, and (v) the correlation between enzyme activity and volatile compound production. Our results showed that 82 kinds of volatile compounds were analyzed; 25 volatile compounds were considered key flavor components, and sulfur containing compounds, eight-carbon compounds, and aldehyde compounds also had great contributions to mushroom flavor. Bagasse could be used as a partial substitute for sawdust as a carbon source. LOX and γ-GGT activities showed a weak correlation with the volatile end products. The results indicated that the mechanisms by which CS formulations influence volatile compounds production were complex.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Hongos Shiitake , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Hongos Shiitake/química , Hongos Shiitake/genética , Hongos Shiitake/metabolismo
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 140: 343-349, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425759

RESUMEN

Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) polysaccharide (SMP), an important immunomodulatory substance, is usually hard to be absorbed by the intestinal tract, because of its macromolecule characteristics. The objective of this study was to develop the water-in-oil (W/O) nanoemulsion to improve its absorption efficiency and the biological activity. Based on the results of pseudoternary phase diagram, the formulation of nanoemulsion were optimized as IPM/polysaccharide/Tween80-Span85/anhydrous ethanol = 39/16/33.75/11.25 (v/v/v/v), used as the oil, aqueous phase, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Under this condition, the droplet size of a W/O SMP nanoemulsion was 144.5 nm, with the polydispersity of 0.128 and the great stability. Moreover, the anti-tumor activity of SMP was notably improved after nano-emulsification. The results demonstrated that SMP nanoemulsion has great potential for applying in health food and pharmaceutical industry.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/química , Polisacáridos/química , Hongos Shiitake/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Emulsiones/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Polisacáridos/metabolismo , Polisorbatos/química , Solubilidad , Tensoactivos/química , Agua/química
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115078, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427018

RESUMEN

We hypothesized that selenium(Se)-enriched polysaccharides would possess superior biological activity when compared to those non-enriched. To verify this hypothesis, we obtained by biotechnological methods a Se-enriched analog of Japanese anticancer drug lentinan and, as a reference, the non-Se-enriched fraction. We tested the effects of the obtained fractions on the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results suggested a selective immunosuppressive activity, non-typical for mushroom derived polysaccharides. Both fractions caused significant inhibition of human T lymphocyte proliferation induced by mitogens, without significant effects on B lymphocytes. The inhibitory effect was not due to the toxicity of the examined polysaccharides. In normal (HUVEC) or malignant (HeLa) cells tested fractions significantly enhanced cell viability and protected the cells from oxidative stress conditions. However, we observed no effect of the polysaccharide fractions on the production of reactive oxygen species by granulocytes in vitro. The selenium content increased the biological activity of the tested polysaccharide fractions.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Inmunosupresores/farmacología , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Selenio/farmacología , Hongos Shiitake/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/aislamiento & purificación , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Granulocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Granulocitos/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Inmunosupresores/química , Inmunosupresores/aislamiento & purificación , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Selenio/química , Selenio/aislamiento & purificación , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Linfocitos T/efectos de los fármacos
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