Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 141
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149893, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474294

RESUMEN

Peri-urban horticulture is crucial to local populations, but a global paucity of information exists regarding the contamination of the associated waterways because of this activity. The aim of this study was to assess pesticide pollution of surface water, suspended particulate matter and bottom sediments from the Carnaval Creek Basin (La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina) - a representative system of waterways surrounded by horticultural production - by over 40 selected herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides by gas-chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Six sampling campaigns were conducted biannually from 2015 to 2017. Glyphosate and (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid (AMPA), surprisingly, were the most frequently detected pesticides, in concentrations comparable to those reported in areas with genetically modified extensive crops (maximum in water, 20.04 and 4.86 µg·L-1; in sediment, 1146.5 and 4032.7 µg·kgdw-1, respectively). The insecticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in more than 30% of the samples. The concentrations tended to greatly exceed those previously reported - by up to more than 800 times for chlorpyrifos in water (maximum 2.645 µg·L-1) and more than 400 times for lambda-cyhalothrin in sediments (maximum 2607.7 µg·kgdw-1). The total pesticide concentration in surface water was found to be influenced by precipitation regimes but was independent of the season of the year, with precipitations of more than 140 mm diluting the pesticide concentrations to levels below detection limits. An environmental risk assessment performed with the pesticide concentrations of pesticides in surface water revealed that the surrounding horticultural activity posed a high risk for aquatic biota, with 30% of the samples exceeding the threshold value by more than a thousand times. We conclude that pesticides from horticultural use are a major threat to small streams and their biodiversity. This work provides valuable information that is scarce regarding the impact on watercourses exclusively as a consequence of horticulture.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Argentina , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Horticultura , Plaguicidas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9375

RESUMEN

É uma série que te leva à conhecer a jornada dos alimentos, desde o plantio até a chegada na mesa do consumidor.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Alimentos , Horticultura , Alimentos Integrales
4.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9376

RESUMEN

No segundo episódio da série Caminhos da Comida, vamos conhecer a Tânia Aguiar, da propriedade Brilho Lunar, em Brazlândia (DF). Por lá, o objetivo dos produtores é levar comida saudável à mesa dos consumidores, mas sem abrir mão do cuidado com a natureza. O trabalho da produção agroecológica significa conciliar o cultivo dos alimentos com o reflorestamento.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Alimentos , Horticultura , Agricultura Sostenible
5.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9377

RESUMEN

Macaxeira, Aipim ou Mandioca. A diversidade não está só no nome, mas também na identidade cultural que ela carrega e, claro, na utilidade culinária. A mandioca representa o nosso povo, a nossa herança. Conheça os caminhos que ela percorre do campo até a nossa mesa.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Alimentos , Horticultura , Manihot
6.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9378

RESUMEN

O grão mais famoso do país, o feijão, é um dos ingredientes principais da comida do brasileiro. Essa leguminosa rica em nutrientes e variedades, diz muito também sobre a nossa cultura. Conheça os caminhos que o feijão percorre do campo até a nossa mesa.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Alimentos , Horticultura , Fabaceae
7.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9384

RESUMEN

A banana é a cara do Brasil. De tão abundante, ela se tornou uma marca do nosso país e uma referência da cultura brasileira. Essa fruta não é popular à toa: prática, saborosa, versátil e muito nutritiva, ela vai bem sozinha e também tem espaço em receitas doces e salgadas.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Alimentos , Horticultura ,
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 479, 2021 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674662

RESUMEN

Starch branching enzymes (SBEs) are key determinants of the structure and amount of the starch in plant organs, and as such, they have the capacity to influence plant growth, developmental, and fitness processes, and in addition, the industrial end-use of starch. However, little is known about the role of SBEs in determining starch structure-function relations in economically important horticultural crops such as fruit and leafy greens, many of which accumulate starch transiently. Further, a full understanding of the biological function of these types of starches is lacking. Because of this gap in knowledge, this minireview aims to provide an overview of SBEs in horticultural crops, to investigate the potential role of starch in determining postharvest quality. A systematic examination of SBE sequences in 43 diverse horticultural species, identified SBE1, 2 and 3 isoforms in all species examined except apple, olive, and Brassicaceae, which lacked SBE1, but had a duplicated SBE2. Among our findings after a comprehensive and critical review of published data, was that as apple, banana, and tomato fruits ripens, the ratio of the highly digestible amylopectin component of starch increases relative to the more digestion-resistant amylose fraction, with parallel increases in SBE2 transcription, fruit sugar content, and decreases in starch. It is tempting to speculate that during the ripening of these fruit when starch degradation occurs, there are rearrangements made to the structure of starch possibly via branching enzymes to increase starch digestibility to sugars. We propose that based on the known action of SBEs, and these observations, SBEs may affect produce quality, and shelf-life directly through starch accumulation, and indirectly, by altering sugar availability. Further studies where SBE activity is fine-tuned in these crops, can enrich our understanding of the role of starch across species and may improve horticulture postharvest quality.


Asunto(s)
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucano/genética , Productos Agrícolas/enzimología , Isoenzimas , Almidón/metabolismo , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucano/metabolismo , Secuencias de Aminoácidos , Amilopectina/metabolismo , Amilosa/metabolismo , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Productos Agrícolas/normas , Grano Comestible , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Frutas , Horticultura , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos de la Planta , Azúcares/metabolismo , Verduras
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 730297, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557427

RESUMEN

Plant pathogens cause significant damage to plant products, compromising both quantities and quality. Even though many elements of agricultural practices are an integral part of reducing disease attacks, modern agriculture is still highly reliant on fungicides to guarantee high yields and product quality. The azoles, 14-alpha demethylase inhibitors, have been the fungicide class used most widely to control fungal plant diseases for more than four decades. More than 25 different azoles have been developed for the control of plant diseases in crops and the group has a world market value share of 20-25%. Azoles have proven to provide long-lasting control of many target plant pathogens and are categorized to have moderate risk for developing fungicide resistance. Field performances against many fungal pathogens have correspondingly been stable or only moderately reduced over time. Hence azoles are still, to date, considered the backbone in many control strategies and widely used as solo fungicides or as mixing partners with other fungicide groups, broadening the control spectrum as well as minimizing the overall risk of resistance development. This review describes the historic perspective of azoles, their market shares and importance for production of major crops like cereals, rice, oilseed rape, sugar beet, banana, citrus, and soybeans. In addition, information regarding use in amenity grass, in the wood preservation industry and as plant growth regulators are described. At the end of the review azoles are discussed in a wider context including future threats following stricter requirements for registration and potential impact on human health.


Asunto(s)
Azoles , Farmacorresistencia Fúngica , Agricultura , Azoles/farmacología , Horticultura , Humanos , Madera
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257812, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570812

RESUMEN

This paper aims to investigate the association between perceived production risk of horticultural farms and access to finance from different finance providers. The collection of data was conducted among 434 farmers in Indonesia particularly farmers produced mango, mangosteen, chili and red onion. Production risk was measured by the coefficient of variation, skewness, kurtosis and the 25th percentile. Depending on the risk measure, a lower production risk was found for commercial credit from banks and flexible payments of inputs to kiosks. Conversely, we did not find any lower production risk associated with finance provided by farmers' associations and other sources such as family and friends. Results of this study are useful for policy makers, finance providers and supply chain actors in agriculture. For policy makers, the results of this study can help in designing policy to enhance farmers' access to finance, whereas finance providers and supply chain actors, such as traders, obtain insight into whether their financial provisions effectively reduce production risk.


Asunto(s)
Financiación del Capital , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Horticultura/economía , Recolección de Datos , Agricultores , Humanos , Indonesia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117960, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426231

RESUMEN

Urban horticulture (UH) has been proposed as a solution to increase urban sustainability, but the potential risks to human health due to potentially elevated soil heavy metals and metalloids (HM) concentrations represent a major constraint for UH expansion. Here we provide the first UK-wide assessment of soil HM concentrations (total and bioavailable) in UH soils and the factors influencing their bioavailability to crops. Soils from 200 allotments across ten cities in the UK were collected and analysed for HM concentrations, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations, pH and texture. We found that although HM are widespread across UK UH soils, most concentrations fell below the respective UK soil screening values (C4SLs): 99 % Cr; 98 % As, Cd, Ni; 95 % Cu; 52 % Zn. However, 83 % of Pb concentrations exceeded C4SL, but only 3.5 % were above Pb national background concentration of 820 mg kg-1. The bioavailable HM concentrations represent a small fraction (0.01-1.8 %) of the total concentrations even for those soils that exceeded C4SLs. There was a significant positive relationship between both total and bioavailable HM and soil BC and OC concentrations. This suggest that while contributing to the accumulation of HM concentrations in UH soils, BC and OC may also provide a biding surface for the bioavailable HM concentrations contributing to their immobilisation. These findings have implications for both management of the risk to human health associated with UH growing in urban soils and with management of UH soil. There is a clear need to understand the mechanisms driving soil-to-crop HM transfer in UH to improve potentially restrictive C4SL (e.g. Pb) especially as public demand for UH land is growing. In addition, the UH community would benefit from education programs promoting soil management practices that reduce the risk of HM exposure - particularly in those plots where C4SLs were exceeded.


Asunto(s)
Metaloides , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Disponibilidad Biológica , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Horticultura , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Crecimiento Sostenible , Reino Unido
12.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 66(6): 973-981, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263383

RESUMEN

Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide included in the Stockholm Convention for Persistent Organic Compounds. The utilization of endosulfan as the sole source of carbon and its mineralization was evaluated using pure strains of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Peribacillus simplex, Enterobacter cloacae, Achromobacter spanius, and Pseudomonas putida, isolated from soil with historical pesticide use. The consumption of the α isomer of endosulfan by five of the six strains studied was higher than 95%, while B. subtilis degraded only 76% of the initial concentration (14 mg/L). On the other hand, the degradation of the ß isomer was approximately 86% of the initial concentration (6 mg/L) by B. subtilis, P. simplex, and B. pseudomycoides and 95% by P. putida, E. cloacae, and A. spanius. The ability of A. spanius, P. simplex, and B. pseudomycoides to degrade endosulfan has not been previously reported. The production of endosulfan lactone by the Bacillus strains, as well as A. spanius and P. putida, indicated that endosulfan was degraded by the hydrolytic pathway.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Contaminantes del Suelo , Achromobacter , Bacillus , Biodegradación Ambiental , Endosulfano , Horticultura , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 272, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130637

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Late blight seriously threatens potato cultivation worldwide. The severe and widespread damage caused by the fungal pathogen can lead to drastic decreases in potato yield. Although grafting technology has been widely used to improve crop resistance, the effects of grafting on potato late blight resistance as well as the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we performed RNA transcriptome sequencing analysis and the late blight resistance testing of the scion when the potato late blight-resistant variety Qingshu 9 and the susceptible variety Favorita were used as the rootstock and scion, respectively, and vice versa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rootstock on scion disease resistance and to clarify the related molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the expression levels of genes related to plant-pathogen interactions, plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and plant hormone signal transduction pathways were significantly up-regulated in the scion when Qingshu 9 was used as the rootstock. Some of these genes encoded calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), chitin elicitor receptor kinases (CERKs), LRR receptor serine/threonine protein kinases (LRR-LRKs), NPR family proteins in the salicylic acid synthesis pathway, and MAPKs which were potato late blight response proteins. When Favorita was used as the rootstock, only a few genes of late blight response genes were upregulated in the scion of Qingshu 9. Grafted plants using resistant variety as rootstocks inoculated with P. infestans spores showed significant reductions in lesion size while no significant difference in lesion size was observed when susceptible variety was used as the rootstock. We also showed that this induction of disease resistance in scions, especially scions derived from susceptible potato varieties was mediated by the up-regulation of expression of genes involved in plant disease resistance in scions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that potato grafting using late blight resistant varieties as rootstocks could render or enhance resistance to late blight in scions derived from susceptible varieties via up-regulating the expression of disease resistant genes in scions. The results provide the basis for exploring the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of rootstocks on scion disease resistance.


Asunto(s)
Phytophthora infestans , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Raíces de Plantas/inmunología , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Horticultura/métodos , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Enfermedades de las Plantas/inmunología , Solanum tuberosum/inmunología , Solanum tuberosum/microbiología
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 223, 2021 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rose is an important economic crop in horticulture. However, its field growth and postharvest quality are negatively affected by grey mould disease caused by Botrytis c. However, it is unclear how rose plants defend themselves against this fungal pathogen. Here, we used transcriptomic, metabolomic and VIGS analyses to explore the mechanism of resistance to Botrytis c. RESULT: In this study, a protein activity analysis revealed a significant increase in defence enzyme activities in infected plants. RNA-Seq of plants infected for 0 h, 36 h, 60 h and 72 h produced a total of 54 GB of clean reads. Among these reads, 3990, 5995 and 8683 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in CK vs. T36, CK vs. T60 and CK vs. T72, respectively. Gene annotation and cluster analysis of the DEGs revealed a variety of defence responses to Botrytis c. infection, including resistance (R) proteins, MAPK cascade reactions, plant hormone signal transduction pathways, plant-pathogen interaction pathways, Ca2+ and disease resistance-related genes. qPCR verification showed the reliability of the transcriptome data. The PTRV2-RcTGA1-infected plant material showed improved susceptibility of rose to Botrytis c. A total of 635 metabolites were detected in all samples, which could be divided into 29 groups. Metabonomic data showed that a total of 59, 78 and 74 DEMs were obtained for T36, T60 and T72 (T36: Botrytis c. inoculated rose flowers at 36 h; T60: Botrytis c. inoculated rose flowers at 60 h; T72: Botrytis c. inoculated rose flowers at 72 h) compared to CK, respectively. A variety of secondary metabolites are related to biological disease resistance, including tannins, amino acids and derivatives, and alkaloids, among others; they were significantly increased and enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glucosinolates and other disease resistance pathways. This study provides a theoretical basis for breeding new cultivars that are resistant to Botrytis c. CONCLUSION: Fifty-four GB of clean reads were generated through RNA-Seq. R proteins, ROS signalling, Ca2+ signalling, MAPK signalling, and SA signalling were activated in the Old Blush response to Botrytis c. RcTGA1 positively regulates rose resistance to Botrytis c. A total of 635 metabolites were detected in all samples. DEMs were enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glucosinolates and other disease resistance pathways.


Asunto(s)
Botrytis/patogenicidad , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Glucosinolatos/biosíntesis , Glucosinolatos/genética , Inmunidad de la Planta/genética , Rosa/genética , Rosa/microbiología , China , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Horticultura , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Metaboloma , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Transcriptoma
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147317, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933765

RESUMEN

Horticulture has greatly increased in Argentina in recent decades mainly due to increasing greenhouse utilization and agrochemical consumption, thus representing a threat to adjacent water bodies. Riparian wetlands, however, could attenuate agrochemical contamination. The present work therefore compared insecticide concentrations in bottom sediments in addition to sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella curvispina and investigated the macroinvertebrate composition upstream and downstream from a natural wetland in a small stream draining a basin undergoing intense horticultural production. The wetland surface was covered by macrophytes, mainly Thypha sp., and the insecticide concentrations measured downstream from the wetland were significantly lower, at roughly 19% of the upstream values. The growth rates of H. curvispina were significantly higher when exposed to the sediments downstream from the wetland, while the macroinvertebrate-assemblage composition was significantly different upstream and downstream: the snail Pomacea canaliculata was the dominant species upstream while the amphipod H. curvispina was dominant downstream. Pomacea canaliculata is often the dominant species in the regional streams draining agriculture and horticultural basins. Hyalella curvispina is sensitive to pesticide toxicity and is often dominant in streams draining extensive livestock basins and within a biosphere reserve. We conclude that riparian wetlands effectively attenuate horticulture contamination in pampean streams and should therefore be preserved and restored.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agricultura , Animales , Argentina , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Horticultura , Insecticidas/análisis , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Humedales
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250209, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886610

RESUMEN

The European sunflower moth, Homoesoma nebulellum (Denis et Schiffermüller), emerged as a major new pest in Bayannur, China, in 2006. Insecticidal control with a single application is problematic because timing is critical, and multiple applications increase production and environmental costs. Management of H. nebulellum by planting date adjustment can be effective, but the optimal time window for late planting is unknown. Natural levels of H. nebulellum infestation were compared among sunflowers planted on five dates from April 25 to June 5 in two years, and the relationship between timing of adult abundance and flowering assessed. Delaying planting of sunflower from the traditional planting period of April 25 -May 5 to May 15 -June 5 significantly decreased damage by H. nebulellum. Seed infestation rate was 30-40 times higher, and number of larvae/head 75-100 times higher in the earliest two plantings than in the latest two. Within two years of implementing delayed planting in Bayannur city, infestation area decreased from 72% in 2006 to 1.5% in 2008, and production losses decreased from 4.5 ton/ha in 2006 to 0.36 ton/ha in 2008, a 97% decrease compared to 2006. Moreover, the infestation area caused by H. nebulellum was continuously controlled below 5.3% of the planting area since 2008. We found the overlap between the first two days of flowering and peak adult presence was the key factor influencing level of damage caused by H. nebulellum. Because the number of eggs laid in the first two days of flowering accounted for 68% of the total, and sunflower seed infestation rate was positively correlated with the number of trapped adults weighted by proportion of daily oviposition. Oviposition of the majority of eggs in the first two days of flowering suggests an evolutionary mechanism whereby females choose host plants most conducive to larval development, consistent with the preference-performance hypothesis.


Asunto(s)
Helianthus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Horticultura , Insecticidas , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , China
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(4): 1575-1584, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886784

RESUMEN

This article aims to analyze health care and exposure to pesticides within the context of productive and reproductive practices or the everyday life of horticulturists in the Green Belt of the City of Cordoba (GBCC), Argentina, from the individual, particular and general domains as the comprehensive framework of health determining processes. An explanatory analytical study was implemented which included the use of mixed methodologies between 2013 and 2017. A triangulation analysis was carried out of the results of the quantitative and qualitative aspects. It was observed that the dominant agricultural productive model has determined the deterioration of the productive conditions and exposure to pesticides of the horticultural population of the GBCC. Deficient systems for regulating land use, weak legislation and control from the State in accordance with the context impact on everyday life and block the horticulturists' individual health protection practices.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Argentina , Ciudades , Atención a la Salud , Horticultura , Humanos , Plaguicidas/análisis , Plaguicidas/toxicidad
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882830

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Juniperus procera Hoechst. ex Endl. is a medicinal tree in Saudi Arabia, primarily in the Enemas region, but it is locally threatened due to die-back disease and difficulties regarding seed reproduction (seed dormancy and underdeveloped embryonic anatomy, and germination rate < 40%). Hence, the alternative methods for reproduction of Juniperus procera are really needed for conservation and getting mass propagation for pharmaceutical uses. RESULTS: In this manuscript, we articulated the successful in vitro shoot multiplication and callus induction of J. procera by using young seedling as explants and detected an important antibacterial and antitumor product. Explants were grown on different types of media with the supplement of different combinations of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) at different concentrations. The best media for shoot multiplication was Woody Plant Media (WPM) supplemented with PGRs (0.5 µM of IAA and 0.5 µM BAP or 0.5 µM IBA and 0.5 µM BAP). Whereas for callus induction and formation Woody Plant Media (WPM) with the addition of PGRs (0.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.5 µM BAP) was better than the Chu Basal Salt Mixture (N6), Gamborg's B-5 Basal Medium (B5), and Murashige and Skoog media. The possibility of multiplication of J. procera in vitro creates significant advantages to overcome the difficulties of seeds dormancy for the reproduction of plants, conservation of trees, and getting mass propagation material for pharmaceutical studies. The shoot and callus extract of J. procera was detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed more than 20 compounds related to secondary metabolites, which contained antibacterial and antitumor agents, such as ferruginol, Retinol, and Quinolone as well as confirmed by Direct Analysis in Real Time, Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (DART-ToF-MS). Podophyllotoxin (PTOX) was detected in callus material by HPLC with sigma standard and confirmed by DART-ToF-MS and UV spectra. CONCLUSION: We successfully conducted in vitro shoot multiplication and callus induction from J. procera seedlings using WPM and a different combination of PGRs and, detected an important antibacterial and antitumor product such as ferruginol and podophyllotoxin. According to our findings, J. procera has become a new natural source of novel bioactive compounds.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Juniperus/química , Juniperus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fitoquímicos/análisis , Horticultura , Extractos Vegetales/química , Brotes de la Planta/química , Arabia Saudita , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 199, 2021 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902454

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has rarely been applied in plant science, particularly to study plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we evaluated the freezing resistance of floribunda roses (Rosa Floribunda) during frost dehardening using the EIT technique to identify a new method for rapid and non-destructive measurement of plant freezing resistance. RESULTS: The current was the excitation source, the boundary voltage value was measured, and then the boundary voltage reconstructed value was formed. Using an imaging algorithm, the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of impedance or impedance variation was reconstructed. The EIT reconstructed values decreased obviously with the decline in freezing temperatures. The EIT reconstructed values of stems had the best fit to the logistic equation, and subsequently, the semi-lethal temperatures were calculated. The freezing resistance results evaluated using EIT reconstructed values were linearly correlated with the results of the traditional electrolyte leakage (EL) method (r = 0.93, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, after freezing tests, the reconstructed values of EIT images could be used to quantitatively evaluate the freezing resistance of floribunda rose stems. The present study provides a reference for the further application of the EIT technique for non-destructive and rapid detection of plant freezing resistance.


Asunto(s)
Congelación , Horticultura/métodos , Rosa/fisiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Impedancia Eléctrica , Horticultura/instrumentación , Tallos de la Planta/fisiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/instrumentación , Tiempo (Meteorología)
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1046-1057, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864348

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study examined how household food insecurity (HFI) and chronic stress relate to adiposity among Tsimane' hunter-forager-horticulturalists in remote Bolivia with limited access to energy-dense processed foods that promote weight gain among industrialized populations. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional data on HFI (via the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale [HFIAS]), hair cortisol concentration (HCC), adiposity (BMI, body fat percentage [%BF]), and sociodemographics were collected from 171 men, 164 women, and 167 children. Linear mixed-effects models tested linear, quadratic, joint, and interactive relationships between adiposity measures and both the HFIAS score and HCC. RESULTS: Among children, each 3-point HFIAS score increase was associated with a 0.44-point higher %BF (SE = 0.22, P = 0.04). However, each 20% increase in HCC was associated with a -0.29-point difference in %BF (SE = 0.12, P = 0.01). Among men, a slight curvilinear relationship emerged between HFIAS and BMI. HFIAS and HCC were unrelated to adiposity measures among women. HCC did not modify relationships between HFIAS and adiposity in any subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: These findings from a remote, small-scale population suggest that positive associations between HFI and adiposity are not isolated to contexts of industrialized food environments and heavy reliance on processed foods. However, these dynamics and the role of stress appear to differ by sex and age group.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/etnología , Conducta Alimentaria/etnología , Inseguridad Alimentaria , Cabello/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bolivia/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Cabello/química , Horticultura , Humanos , Hambre/etnología , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Pueblos Indígenas , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...