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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043185, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408210

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has posed several medical, psychosocial and economic impacts among the majority of the society. The ambiguity of its transmission, the intense desire of self-protection, family, and friends, the unknown impact of catching the disease itself, unstoppable spread, the panic and outright misinformation lead to acute stress reaction syndrome. However, reliable data related to this contagion lack the prevalence of acute stress reaction syndrome and associated factors among Jimma University Medical Centre hospital visitors in Southwestern Ethiopia. AIMS: The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute stress reaction syndrome during the COVID-19 outbreak among Jimma University Medical Centre Hospital visitors, Ethiopia. METHODS: An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted among 247 visitors of the Jimma University Medical Centre in Ethiopia. The study was conducted within 2 weeks of the first COVID-19 cases detected on 13 March 2020 in Ethiopia. Data on demographic and socioeconomic status were collected during the interview using structured questionnaires. The psychological impact was assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and symptoms of insomnia were measured using the Insomnia Severity Index. Social support was evaluated using Oslo three-item Social Support Scale. Logistic regression was employed to determine the associations between dependent and independent variables. Besides, psychosocial stress score was generated using principal component analysis. A paired permutation test was also performed to determine the variability of psychosocial stress between groups. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 30.47 years, and 76.5% of the participants were male. Acute stress reaction syndrome was detected in 44.1% of hospital visitors. Of the participants, 38.5%, 17.4%, 8.5% and 35.6% had a minimal, mild, moderate and severe psychological impact, respectively. Factors positively associated with acute stress reaction syndrome were individuals who perceived that COVID-19 leads to stigma (adjusted OR (AOR): 3.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 9.45), mild insomnia (AOR: 14.74, 95% CI 6.14 to 35.40), moderate to severe insomnia (AOR: 35.1, 95% CI 10.76 to 114.66), low social support (AOR: 4.08, 95% CI 1.31 to 12.67) and governmental employees (AOR: 8.09, 95% CI 1.38 to 47.18). CONCLUSION: The study revealed the existence of a high prevalence of acute stress reaction syndrome during the COVID-19 outbreak among different groups of the community. Therefore, our results will contribute to the global awareness of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Hospitales Universitarios , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
BJOG ; 128(1): 87-95, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575151

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality as a distraction technique in the management of acute pain and anxiety during outpatient hysteroscopy. DESIGN: Parallel group, prospective randomised controlled trial. SETTING: UK University Hospital. METHODS: Forty consenting, eligible women were randomised to virtual reality intervention (immersive video content as a distraction method) or standard care during outpatient hysteroscopy from August to October 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain and anxiety outcomes were measured as a numeric rating score (scale 0-10). RESULTS: Compared with standard care, women with virtual reality intervention experienced less average pain (score 6.0 versus 3.7, mean difference 2.3, 95% CI 0.61-3.99, P = 0.009) and anxiety (score 5.45 versus 3.3, mean difference 2.15, 95% CI 0.38-3.92, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Virtual reality was effective in reducing pain and anxiety during outpatient hysteroscopy in a mixed-methods randomised control trial. Its wide potential role in ambulatory gynaecological procedures needs further evaluation. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Virtual reality can be used as a part of a multimodal strategy to reduce acute pain and anxiety in patients undergoing outpatient hysteroscopy.


Asunto(s)
Histeroscopía , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Dolor/prevención & control , Realidad Virtual , Adulto , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Dimensión del Dolor , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
BJOG ; 128(1): 114-120, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770781

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) use to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. DESIGN: A trial-based economic evaluation. SETTING: Fifteen French university maternity hospitals. POPULATION: Women enrolled in the TRAAP randomised controlled trial comparing TXA versus placebo in women with vaginal delivery. TRAAP failed to show a reduction in postpartum haemorrhage of at least 500 ml in the intervention arm but evidenced significant lower rates of secondary outcomes related to blood loss. METHODS & MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We estimated direct medical costs from within-trial hospital resources collected prospectively from the study report form. All resources were costed at their value to the hospital. We estimated incremental cost per incremental haemorrhage averted. RESULTS: Among the 4079 women in the TRAAP trial, data necessary to calculate costs were available for 3836 (94.0%). The average total costs in the TXA and control groups were €2278 ± 388 and €2288 ± 409 per woman, respectively (P = 0.79). In women with postpartum haemorrhage of at least 500 ml (trial primary endpoint), costs were €2359 ± 354 and €2409 ± 525 (P = 0.14); for provider-assessed clinically significant postpartum haemorrhage and postpartum haemorrhage of at least 1000 ml, costs were respectively €2316 ± 347 versus €2381 ± 521 (P = 0.22) and €2321 ± 318 versus €2411 ± 590 (P = 0.35) in the tranexamic and placebo groups, respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the use of TXA had a 65-73% probability of saving costs and improving outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of TXA, as both bleeding events and cost may be reduced three out of four times. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Tranexamic acid at vaginal delivery reduces both costs and bleeding events 3 times out of 4.


Asunto(s)
Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapéutico , Parto Obstétrico , Hemorragia Posparto/prevención & control , Ácido Tranexámico/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/economía , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Francia , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Ácido Tranexámico/economía
5.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(1): 45-50, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571832

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the survival and evolution of pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature born infants beyond 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). DESIGN: A single-centre retrospective cohort study from a university hospital. PATIENTS: Extremely preterm (gestational age <30 weeks and/or birth weight <1000 g) infants, born between 2012 and 2017, in the University Medical Center Groningen with confirmed PH at/beyond 36 weeks PMA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival, mortality rate and PH resolution. Patient characteristics, treatment, presence and evolution of PH were collected from patient charts. RESULTS: Twenty-eight infants were included. All had BPD, while 23 (82%) had severe BPD and 11 infants (39%) died. Survival rates at 1, 3 and 7 months from 36 weeks PMA were 89%, 70% and 58%, respectively. In 16 of the 17 surviving infants, PH resolved over time, with a resolution rate at 1 and 2 years corrected age of 47% and 79%, respectively. At 2.5 years corrected age, the resolution rate was 94%. CONCLUSIONS: These extremely preterm born infants with PH-BPD had a survival rate of 58% at 6 months corrected age. Suprasystemic pulmonary artery pressure was associated with poor outcome. In the current study, infants surviving beyond the corrected age of 6 months showed excellent survival and resolution of PH in almost all cases. Prospective follow-up studies should investigate whether resolution of PH in these infants can be improved by multi-modal therapies, including respiratory, nutritional and cardiovascular treatments.


Asunto(s)
Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidad , Recien Nacido Extremadamente Prematuro , Recién Nacido de muy Bajo Peso , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Análisis de Supervivencia
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 886-891, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697357

RESUMEN

Italy was one of the most affected nations by coronavirus disease 2019 outside China. The infections, initially limited to Northern Italy, spread to all other Italian regions. This study aims to provide a snapshot of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemiology based on a single-center laboratory experience in Rome. The study retrospectively included 6565 subjects tested for SARS-CoV-2 at the Laboratory of Virology of Sapienza University Hospital in Rome from 6 March to 4 May. A total of 9995 clinical specimens were analyzed, including nasopharyngeal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, gargle lavages, stools, pleural fluids, and cerebrospinal fluids. Positivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 8% (527/6565) of individuals, increased with age, and was higher in male patients (P < .001). The number of new confirmed cases reached a peak on 18 March and then decreased. The virus was detected in respiratory samples, in stool and in pleural fluids, while none of gargle lavage or cerebrospinal fluid samples gave a positive result. This analysis allowed to gather comprehensive information on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology in our area, highlighting positivity variations over time and in different sex and age group and the need for a continuous surveillance of the infection, mostly because the pandemic evolution remains unknown.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , /patogenicidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/virología , /epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Laboratorios , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nasofaringe/virología , Derrame Pleural/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Roma/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1013-1022, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729939

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is currently very limited information on the nature and prevalence of post-COVID-19 symptoms after hospital discharge. METHODS: A purposive sample of 100 survivors discharged from a large University hospital were assessed 4 to 8 weeks after discharge by a multidisciplinary team of rehabilitation professionals using a specialist telephone screening tool designed to capture symptoms and impact on daily life. EQ-5D-5L telephone version was also completed. RESULTS: Participants were between 29 and 71 days (mean 48 days) postdischarge from hospital. Thirty-two participants required treatment in intensive care unit (ICU group) and 68 were managed in hospital wards without needing ICU care (ward group). New illness-related fatigue was the most common reported symptom by 72% participants in ICU group and 60.3% in ward group. The next most common symptoms were breathlessness (65.6% in ICU group and 42.6% in ward group) and psychological distress (46.9% in ICU group and 23.5% in ward group). There was a clinically significant drop in EQ5D in 68.8% in ICU group and in 45.6% in ward group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study from the United Kingdom reporting on postdischarge symptoms. We recommend planning rehabilitation services to manage these symptoms appropriately and maximize the functional return of COVID-19 survivors.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Sobrevivientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cuidados Críticos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 231: 113653, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ongoing global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused over 4.7 million infections greatly challenging healthcare workers (HCW) and medical institutions worldwide. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has shown to significantly impact mental and physical health of HCW. Thus, implementation of testing facilities supporting HCW are urgently needed. METHODS: A low-threshold SARS-CoV-2 testing facility was introduced at the University Hospital Bonn, Germany, in March 2020. Irrespective of clinical symptoms employees were offered a voluntary and free SARS-CoV-2 test. Furthermore, employees returning from SARS-CoV-2 risk regions and employees after risk contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected patients or employees were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pharyngeal swabs were taken and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of SARS-CoV-2 was performed, test results being available within 24 h. Profession, symptoms and reason for SARS-CoV-2 testing of employees were recorded. RESULTS: Between 9th March and April 30, 2020, a total of 1510 employees were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. 1185 employees took advantage of the low-threshold testing facility. One percent (n = 11) were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 18% being asymptomatic, 36% showing mild and 36% moderate/severe symptoms (missing 10%). Furthermore, of 56 employees returning from SARS-CoV-2 risk regions, 18% (10/56) were tested SARS-CoV-2 positive. After risk contact tracking by the hospital hygiene 6 patient-to-employee transmissions were identified in 163 employees with contact to 55 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. CONCLUSION: In the absence of easily accessible public SARS-CoV-2 testing facilities low-threshold SARS-CoV-2 testing facilities in hospitals with rapid testing resources help to identify SARS-CoV-2 infected employees with absent or mild symptoms, thus stopping the spread of infection in vulnerable hospital environments. High levels of professional infection prevention training and implementation of specialized wards as well as a perfectly working hospital hygiene network identifying and tracking risk contacts are of great importance in a pandemic setting.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Hospitales Universitarios , Personal de Hospital , Adulto , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 74(1): 24-32, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144126

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac troponin, a marker of myocardial injury, is frequently observed in patients with COVID-19 infection. Our objective was to analyze myocardial injury and its prognostic implications in patients with and without COVID-19 infection treated in the same period of time. METHODS: The present study included patients treated in a university hospital with cardiac troponin I measurements and with suspected COVID-19 infection, confirmed or ruled out by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The impact was analyzed of cardiac troponin I positivity on 30-day mortality. RESULTS: In total, 433 patients were distributed among the following groups: confirmed COVID-19 (n=186), 22% with myocardial injury (n=41); and ruled out COVID-19 (n=247), 21.5% with myocardial injury (n=52). The confirmed and ruled out COVID-19 groups had a similar age, sex, and cardiovascular history. Mortality was significantly higher in the confirmed COVID-19 group than in the ruled out group (19.9% vs 5.3%, P <.001). In Cox multivariate regression analysis, cardiac troponin I was a predictor of mortality in both groups (confirmed COVID-19 group: HR, 3.54; 95%CI, 1.70-7.34; P=.001; ruled out COVID-19 group: HR, 5.57; 95%CI, 1.70-18.20; P=.004). The predictive model analyzed by ROC curves was similar in the 2 groups (P=.701), with AUCs of 0.808 in the confirmed COVID-19 group (0.750-0.865) and 0.812 in the ruled out COVID-19 group (0.760-0.864). CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial injury is detected in 1 in every 5 patients with confirmed or ruled out COVID-19 and predicts 30-day mortality to a similar extent in both circumstances.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Cardiomiopatías/mortalidad , Troponina I/sangre , Anciano , /complicaciones , /estadística & datos numéricos , Cardiomiopatías/sangre , Intervalos de Confianza , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Curva ROC , Análisis de Regresión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1990-1996, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189602

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the biggest public health threat the world has seen in many years and poses new challenges and opportunities to healthcare systems. The new reality imposed by the pandemic requires a modification of practices to ensure the health and safety of patients and medical teams. The purpose of this article is to share the experiences of the pharmacy department of the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM) in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Seven of the most important issues will be addressed: crisis management, internal communications, employee stress, reorganisation of workspaces, reorganisation of pharmacist workforce, telework and schedule management. Some of the changes made in human resources deployment will likely remain even post-pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Farmacéuticos/organización & administración , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/organización & administración , Recursos Humanos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123771, 2021 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254782

RESUMEN

Understanding the transmission mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 is a prerequisite to effective control measures. To investigate the potential modes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, 21 COVID-19 patients from 12-47 days after symptom onset were recruited. We monitored the release of SARS-CoV-2 from the patients' exhaled breath and systematically investigated environmental contamination of air, public surfaces, personal necessities, and the drainage system. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 0 of 9 exhaled breath samples, 2 of 8 exhaled breath condensate samples, 1 of 12 bedside air samples, 4 of 132 samples from private surfaces, 0 of 70 samples from frequently touched public surfaces in isolation rooms, and 7 of 23 feces-related air/surface/water samples. The maximum viral RNA concentrations were 1857 copies/m3 in the air, 38 copies/cm2 in sampled surfaces and 3092 copies/mL in sewage/wastewater samples. Our results suggest that nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur via multiple routes. However, the low detection frequency and limited quantity of viral RNA from the breath and environmental specimens may be related to the reduced viral load of the COVID-19 patients on later days after symptom onset. These findings suggest that the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 differ from those of SARS-CoV in healthcare settings.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Heces/virología , Femenino , Fómites/virología , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Viral/análisis , /aislamiento & purificación , Esputo/virología
12.
World J Surg ; 45(1): 10-17, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted postgraduate training programmes worldwide. This study aims to evaluate the Nigerian situation with respect to surgical training, with a view to identifying gaps and proffering solutions. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of surgical residents in Nigeria was conducted between 27 July 2020 and 14 August 2020. A structured questionnaire designed using the free software Google Forms® was utilised for the study. The questionnaire was electronically distributed randomly to 250 surgical residents via emails and social media platforms including WhatsApp and Telegram. The data obtained was analysed by Google Forms®. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethics and research unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. RESULTS: At the end of the study period, 207 surgical residents completed and submitted the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 82.8%. The majority of respondents reported a reduction (164, 79.2%) or cancellation (11, 5.3%) of postgraduate programmes in their institutions. Of those who had academic programmes, meetings were done using virtual technology in all instances. The majority of respondents reported seeing fewer patients in the outpatient clinics (173, 83.6%), as well as a reduction in the number of emergency and elective operations (58.5% and 90.8%, respectively). About a third of the respondents (70, 33.8%) were contemplating emigrating from the country. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the clinical, research and teaching components of surgical training in Nigeria. It has, however, led to increased adoption of digital technology which should be further explored in the face of current realities.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirugía General/educación , Internado y Residencia , Pandemias , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pobreza , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(1): 115200, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980807

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States created a unique situation where multiple molecular SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic assays rapidly received Emergency Use Authorization by the FDA and were validated by laboratories and utilized clinically, all within a period of a few weeks. We compared the performance of four of these assays that were evaluated for use at our institution: Abbott RealTime m2000 SARS-CoV-2 Assay, DiaSorin Simplexa COVID-19 Direct, Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2, and Abbott ID NOW COVID-19. Nasopharyngeal and nasal specimens were collected from 88 ED and hospital-admitted patients and tested by the four methods in parallel to compare performance. ID NOW performance stood out as significantly worse than the other 3 assays despite demonstrating comparable analytic sensitivity. Further study determined that the use of a nasal swab compared to a nylon flocked nasopharyngeal swab, as well as use in a population chronically vs. acutely positive for SARS-CoV-2, were substantial factors.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , /aislamiento & purificación , /normas , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Límite de Detección , Nasofaringe/virología , Nariz/virología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(1): 54-61, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337671

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has driven transformation in every aspect of the healthcare delivery system. The unpredictable onset and magnitude of COVID-19 infections resulted in wide gaps in preparedness for healthcare systems. The development of protocols to address both scarcity of resources and staff protection continues to be essential for risk mitigation. RECENT FINDINGS: The northeast region of the United States had a rapid early surge of COVID-19 infections leading to the exhaustion of critical care capacity. In addition, northeastern hospitals experienced decrease in elective surgical interventions, including organ transplantation. Limited availability of COVID-19 testing and personal protective equipment further fueled the pandemic. This commentary highlights a comprehensive innovative approach to addressing the operating room and hospital demands, as well as the shortages in resources and staffing during the pandemic. SUMMARY: The VCU Department of Anesthesiology operated at 40% of its regular operating room volume throughout the COVID-19 pandemic because of the increased demand from emergency cases. The delay in the peak surge allowed Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Anesthesiology to develop a comprehensive infrastructure resulting in resulting is maximal workforce risk mitigation.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Anestesia en Hospital/organización & administración , /prevención & control , /estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Universitarios/organización & administración , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Estados Unidos
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(1): 49-55, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116054

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in parturient women, their partners, and their newborns and the association of such antibodies with obstetric and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: From April 4 to July 3, 2020, in a single university hospital in Denmark, all parturient women and their partners were invited to participate in the study, along with their newborns. Participating women and partners had a pharyngeal swab and a blood sample taken at admission; immediately after delivery, a blood sample was drawn from the umbilical cord. The swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by polymerase chain reaction, and the blood samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Full medical history and obstetric and neonatal information were available. RESULTS: A total of 1,313 parturient women (72.5.% of all women admitted for delivery at the hospital in the study period), 1,188 partners, and 1,206 newborns participated in the study. The adjusted serologic prevalence was 2.6% in women and 3.5% in partners. Seventeen newborns had SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and none had immunoglobulin M antibodies. No associations between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and obstetric or neonatal complications were found (eg, preterm birth, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, Apgar score, low birth weight, umbilical arterial pH, need for continuous positive airway pressure, or neonatal admission), but statistical power to detect such differences was low. Full serologic data from 1,051 families showed an absolute risk of maternal infection of 39% if the partner had antibodies. CONCLUSION: We found no association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and obstetric or neonatal complications. Sixty-seven percent of newborns delivered by mothers with antibodies had SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. A limitation of our study is that we lacked statistical power to detect small but potentially meaningful differences between those with and without evidence of infection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , /epidemiología , Recién Nacido/sangre , Parejas Sexuales , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Complicaciones del Trabajo de Parto/epidemiología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , /inmunología
16.
J Surg Res ; 257: 363-369, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892132

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Popliteal artery injuries are the second most common arterial injuries below the inguinal ligament. We aimed to compare outcomes in patients with popliteal injuries by hospital teaching status utilizing the National Trauma Data Bank Research Data Set (NTDB-RDS) 2013-2016. METHODS: Four-year retrospective study using the NTDB-RDS, evaluating popliteal vascular injuries. Patients were divided by popliteal injury type and teaching status into; nonteaching hospital (NTH), community teaching (CTH), or University teaching (UTH). Demographics and outcome measures were compared between groups. Risk-adjusted mortality odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. RESULTS: 3,577,168 patients were in the NTDB-RDS, with 1120 having a popliteal injury, (incidence = 0.03%). There was no significant difference in the amputation rate between patients treated in NTHs, CTHs, or UTHs (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the raw mortality rate between patients treated in NTHs, CTHs, or UTHs. After adjusting for confounders; compared to NTH, the odds ratio for mortality for popliteal artery injuries in the CTH group was significantly higher (OR: 15.95, 95% CI: 1.19-213.84), and for the UTH group the mortality was also significantly higher (OR: 5.74, 95% CI: 0.45-72.95). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of popliteal vascular injuries was 0.03% for 2013-2016. Patients with popliteal artery injuries treated at community teaching hospitals have a 16 times higher risk of mortality and at university teaching hospitals have a 5.7 times higher risk of mortality than patients treated at nonteaching hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Universitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Arteria Poplítea/lesiones , Lesiones del Sistema Vascular/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 532-537, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157297

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) after preventive protocol implementation. METHODS: A total of 5750 HCWs were included in the study. Those in contact with COVID-19 patients were allocated into a high-risk or a low-risk group based on contact type (PPE- or non-PPE-protected); high-risk workers underwent nasopharyngeal swab tests, while among low-risk workers, swab tests were carried out only for symptomatic workers (active surveillance). The prevalence was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: 3570 HCWs had contact with 1065 COVID-19 patients. Among them, 3494 were subjected to active surveillance (low-risk group); 2886 (82.60%) were subjected to a swab test; and 15 were positive (0.52%). Seventy-six HCWs (2.13% of exposed) were included in the high-risk group, and a swab test was mandatory for each participant. Overall, 66 (86.84% of high-risk) were negative, and 10 were positive (13.16%), resulting in a higher risk of infection than in the low-risk group [OR = 29.00; 95% CI:12.56-66.94; p < 0.0001]. CONCLUSION: To date, the SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence is 0.70% among exposed HCWs and 0.435% among all HCWs working at the examined university hospital. The correct use of PPE and the early identification of symptomatic workers are essential factors to avoiding nosocomial clusters.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Infección Hospitalaria/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Universitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , /fisiología
19.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 17-26, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1145877

RESUMEN

Objetivo: verificar a demanda de hemoculturas, aspirados traqueais e uroculturas realizadas no HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH e a prevalência dos microrganismos identificados no período de janeiro a junho de 2016. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo documental com abordagem quantitativa. Resultados: o setor de microbiologia realizou 488 hemoculturas, 427 uroculturas e 197 aspirados traqueais. A positividade de hemoculturas mostrou-se entre 10,9 à 25,7%, e o percentual de contaminações variou de 6,8 à 14,0%. Os microrganismos mais prevalência nas hemoculturas foram Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) e Klebisiella pneumoniae (9,6%). Nas uroculturas foram Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) e Escherichia coli (12,5%). Nos aspirados traqueais foram Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusão: a cultura mais solicitada foi hemocultura. A bactéria mais prevalente nas hemoculturas foi Staphylococcus epidermidis, nos aspirados traqueais Acinetobacter baumannii e nas uroculturas Klebisiella pneumoniae


Objective: the study's purpose has been to verify the demand for blood cultures, tracheal aspirates and urine cultures performed at a University Hospital from the Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/EBSERH), as well as the predominance of microorganisms identified over the period from January to June 2016. Methods: it is a retrospective documentary study with a quantitative approach. Results: the microbiology sector carried out 488 blood cultures, 427 urine cultures and 197 tracheal aspirates. The positivity of blood cultures was between 10.9 and 25.7%, and the percentage of contaminations ranged from 6.8 to 14.0%. The most prevalent microorganisms in blood cultures were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.6%). In urine cultures were Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.1%), Candida sp. (13.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%). In tracheal aspirates were Acinetobacter baumannii (29.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%). Conclusion: the most requested culture was blood culture. The most prevalent bacterium in blood cultures was Staphylococcus epidermidis, in tracheal aspirates was Acinetobacter baumannii, and in urine cultures was Klebsiella pneumoniae


Objetivo: el propósito del trabajo es verificar la demanda de hemocultivos, aspirados traqueales y urocultivos realizados en el Hospital Universitário de la Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH) y la prevalencia de los microorganismos identificados en el período de enero a junio de 2016. Métodos: este trabajo es un estudio retrospectivo documental con abordaje cuantitativo. Resultados: el sector de microbiología realizó 488 hemocultivos, 427 urocultivos y 197 aspirados traqueales. La positividad de hemocultivos se mostró entre el 10,9 al 25,7%, y el porcentaje de contaminaciones varía de 6,8 a 14,0%. Los microorganismos más prevalentes en los hemocultivos fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) y Klebsiella pneumoniae (9,6%). En los urocultivos fueron Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) y Escherichia coli (12,5%). En los aspirados traqueales fueron Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) y Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusión: la cultura más solicitada fue hemocultivo. La bacteria más prevalente en los hemocultivos fue Staphylococcus epidermidis, en los aspirados traqueales, Acinetobacter baumannii y en los urocultivos, Klebisiella pneumoniae


Asunto(s)
Orina/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Cultivo de Sangre , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Prevalencia , Acinetobacter baumannii , Escherichia coli , Hospitales Universitarios , Klebsiella pneumoniae
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