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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151200, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699813

RESUMEN

Since livestock product consumption could have a significant effect on tackling climate change, in the few last years, there has been an increasing consumer demand for non-dairy alternatives. Despite plant-based beverages being considered crucial to foster the transition towards sustainable diet models, no studies have yet compared the level of emissions of plant-based beverages with animal-based ones. The present study aims at computing the carbon footprint of cow milk and that of soy drink and evaluating the carbon footprint results in the light of the substitutability of cow's milk with soy drink, analyzing the potential environmental, economic and nutritional trade-offs between the two products. Results highlight that, considering the environmental perspective, soy drink could be a valid substitute of cow milk: its production has a lower carbon footprint, allowing for the achievement of food security objectives. However, focusing on the economic and nutritional perspectives, the high average consumer price of soy drink is associated with an overall lower nutritional level. In order to reach the same nutritional value as 1 L of cow milk in terms of protein intake, the consumption of soy drink should be increased by 13%. Furthermore, soy drink consumption implies paying 66% more than for cow milk, when considering the same protein content.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Leche , Animales , Bebidas , Bovinos , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Femenino
2.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114286, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915389

RESUMEN

Carbon emissions from industry and cities have been the focus of global carbon emissions control, but the need to reduce carbon emissions from large agricultural countries cannot be ignored. This study measured rural carbon emissions based on the energy consumption of rural residents and agricultural production from 2000 to 2018 in China, and the spatial-temporal evolution and variation of rural carbon emissions were analyzed using the quadrant diagram method and Theil index, which also further identified the contribution elements of rural carbon emissions. The gradual growth of rural carbon emissions in China's provinces has been accompanied by a spatial clustering of high emissions, and the carbon emissions among the country's eight regions are characterized by large inter-regional and small intra-regional differences. By identifying the carbon emissions contributions of regions and the carbon sources, we found that the provinces in the central region produce the most emissions, with the top 3 of 11 provinces contributing up to 61.56% of the total national production. Furthermore, emissions from the dominant carbon source in rural China, raw coal, has decreased to 49.22%, and the low use of electricity and natural gas results in the structure of rural carbon sources being weakly decarbonized. The decomposition of carbon emissions indicated that rural economic development plays a prominent contributory role in carbon emissions, whereas energy consumption per unit output value has a significant inhibitory effect on carbon emissions. This study contributes to current carbon emission-related research by identifying the main contributors of rural carbon emissions from multiple perspectives.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Huella de Carbono , China , Desarrollo Económico
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149993, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482145

RESUMEN

The ecological conservation and high-quality development of China's Yellow River Basin is a national strategy proposed in 2019. Under China's goal of achieving a carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, clarifying the carbon footprint of each province and the transfer paths of embodied carbon emissions is crucial to the carbon reduction strategy for this region. This paper uses input-output model and multi-regional input-output model to account for the carbon footprint of nine provinces in the Yellow River Basin, and to estimate the amount of embodied carbon transfer between provinces and industrial sectors. Social network analysis is applied to identify the critical industries in the inter-provincial embodied carbon emission transfers from the three major industries. We found that the per capita carbon footprint of the Yellow River Basin decreased by 23.4% in 2017 compared to 2012. Among the sectoral composition of the carbon footprint of each province, "Processing and manufacturing of petroleum, coking, nuclear fuel, and chemical products", "Construction", "Other services", and "Metal processing and metal, non-metallic products" are the four sectors with a higher proportion of emissions. The embodied carbon emission transfer between the provinces in middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin is much higher than that between the upstream provinces. Among carbon emission transfer network of three major industries in nine provinces,the secondary industry in Shaanxi has the highest centrality and is the most critical industry. This study provides a theoretical basis and data support for formulating carbon emission reduction plans in the Yellow River Basin.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Ríos , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Huella de Carbono , China , Industrias
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150436, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563900

RESUMEN

Finland and Poland share similar environmental interests with regard to their wastewater effluents eventually being discharged to the Baltic Sea. However, differences in the influent wastewater characteristics, treatment processes, operational conditions, and carbon intensities of energy mixes in both countries make these two countries interesting for carbon footprint (CF) comparison. This study aimed at proposing a functional unit (FU) which enables a comprehensive comparison of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in terms of their CF. Direct emissions had the highest contribution (70%) to the total CF. Energy consumption dominated the total indirect emissions in both countries by over 30%. Polish WWTPs benefitted more from energy self-sufficiency than Finnish plants as a result of higher electricity emission factors in Poland. The main difference between indirect emissions of both countries were attributed to higher chemical consumption of the Finnish WWTPs. Total pollution equivalent removed (TPErem) FU proposed enabled a better comparison of WWTPs located in different countries in terms of their total CF. High correlations of TPErem with other FUs were found since TPErem could balance out the differences in the removal efficiencies of various pollutants. Offsetting CF was found a proper strategy for the studied WWTPs to move towards low-carbon operation. The studied WWTPs could reduce their CF from up to 27% by different practices, such as selling biofuel, electricity and fertilizers. These findings are applicable widely since the selected WWTPs represent the typical treatment solutions in Poland, Finland and in the Baltic Sea region.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Purificación del Agua , Carbono , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(11): 3997-4003, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898116

RESUMEN

Clarifying carbon and nitrogen emissions of different peanut rotation planting system can provide an effective reference to achieve high yield, high efficiency, and low carbon and nitrogen emissions. Based on field surveys on agricultural inputs and field managements, we calculated the carbon footprint and nitrogen footprint of three planting modes (rape-peanut rotation, wheat-peanut rotation and peanut monoculture) in Huanggang, Hubei Province. The results showed that compared with wheat-peanut rotation, carbon emission per unit area of rape-peanut rotation decreased by 7.8%, carbon emission per unit net present value decreased by 36.9%, the nitrogen emission per unit area decreased by 12.5%, and nitrogen emission per unit net present value decreased by 41.9%. Compared with peanut monoculture, rape-peanut rotation reduced carbon and nitrogen emissions by 19.6% and 30.8%, respectively. The net income of rape-peanut rotation was 1.4 times as that of wheat-peanut rotation and 2.4 times as that of peanut monoculture. It is suggested that rape-peanut rotation could achieve the synergistic benefits of high yield and efficiency and low carbon and nitrogen emissions, which is conducive to the green, high quality, and high efficiency production of oil crops.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Nitrógeno , Agricultura , Arachis , Huella de Carbono
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 15, 2021 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905115

RESUMEN

The study reviewed carbon footprint (CF) analyses for milk production in Latin America from cradle to farm gate. The objective was to estimate (1) the effect of feeding management (zero-grazing, semi-confinement, and pasture), (2) cattle system (specialized dairy vs. dual-purpose), and (3) region (tropical vs. temperate) on milk production (kg/cow/day) and CF (kg CO2eq/kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM)). A systematic literature review was conducted, and for the final analysis, a total of 32 individual CF (from 11 studies) were used. Studies included in the final analysis allowed to calculate CF per kg FPCM, included upstream emissions calculations, and used the IPCC's tier 2 approach for enteric methane emissions. The range of the CF observed in the region was from 1.54 to 3.57 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM. Feeding management had a significant effect on milk production, but not on CF. Zero-grazing compared with pasture systems had a 140% greater milk production (20.1 vs. 8.4 kg milk/cow/day), but numerically greater CF for pasture systems (2.6 vs. 1.7 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM). Compared with specialized dairy cattle, dual-purpose cattle produced less milk (P < 0.001) and higher CF (P < 0.05). Compared with temperate regions, tropical region systems produced less milk and higher CF. In conclusion, in Latin America, the cattle system and region have a significant impact on CF, whereas the feeding management (zero-grazing, semi-confinement, and pasture) does not impact the CF of milk produced.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Industria Lechera , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Femenino , Lactancia , América Latina , Metano/análisis , Leche/química
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 90, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910024

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the carbon footprint of the Brazilian diet and of sociodemographic strata of this population. METHODS: Carbon footprint of the diet was estimated based on data from two 24-hour diet records, obtained in 2008 and 2009, from a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years and over (n = 34,003) and on environmental impact coefficients of food and culinary preparations consumed in Brazil (gCO2e/kg). Means with 95% confidence intervals of food consumption (kcal/person/day) and the carbon footprint of the diet (gCO2e/person/day and in gCO2e/2,000kcal) were calculated for the population as a whole and for strata according to sex, age, income, education, macro-regions and Federative Unit. Linear regression models were used to identify significant differences (p < 0.05) in the dietary carbon footprint of different sociodemographic strata. RESULTS: The average carbon footprint of the Brazilian diet was 4,489gCO2e/person/day. It was higher for males, for the age group from 20 to 49 years and for the North and Midwest regions, and tended to increase with income and education. The pattern of association of footprint with sociodemographic variables did not change substantially with adjustment for differences in the amount of food consumed, except for a reduction in the relative excess of the footprint among males and an increase in the relative excess of the footprint in the Midwest region. CONCLUSION: The carbon footprint of the Brazilian diet exceeds by about 30% the footprint of the human diet, which could simultaneously meet the nutritional requirements of a healthy diet and the global goal of containing the increase in the planet's average temperature. The pattern of association of this footprint with sociodemographic variables can help identify priority targets for public actions aimed at reducing the environmental impacts of food consumption in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Dieta , Adulto , Brasil , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Necesidades Nutricionales , Adulto Joven
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15323-15332, 2021 11 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729979

RESUMEN

Promoting sustainable food consumption is critical to meet the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. The existing research using average diets and the individual one-day diet recall data to obtain insights into food carbon footprints (CFs) may neglect the diverse food purchasing patterns in different households (HHs). In this paper, we analyzed detailed grocery shopping records of 57,578 U.S. HHs to evaluate the associated food CFs. The cradle-to-farm-gate CFs of 83 food items were calculated using a process-based life cycle assessment model adapted to the U.S. condition. Using the CF of a healthy and sustainable diet as the benchmark, we quantified the CF reduction potentials for each HH. Our results suggest three key strategies to reduce HH food CFs: (1) lowering the over-purchasing in small (one- or two-person) HHs can achieve two-thirds of the recognized carbon emission reduction potentials; (2) reducing the intake of snacks, ready-made food, and drinks leads to as much as, if not more, carbon emission reduction than changing diets; and (3) more attention needs to be paid to reduce the carbon intensity of food items with large purchased volume.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Alimentos , Dieta , Humanos
14.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(20): 71-72, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767231
16.
Waste Manag ; 136: 93-103, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653854

RESUMEN

Liquid packaging board (LPB) is an integral part of storing and transporting liquid food. In addition to its significant advantages, LPB has been challenging the existing waste management sector since its introduction into the market. In most European countries, LPB waste is either incinerated or recycled in the recycling facilities where fibre is recycled, and the repulping reject is separated for incineration. Mechanical recycling and chemical recycling processes are other options for repulping reject treatment. This study used life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare the environmental impacts of three treatment processes, incineration, mechanical recycling and chemical recycling; each was considered with the functional unit of 1 tonne of repulping reject. Furthermore, two sub-scenarios based on the substituted heat produced by energy from the treatment processes were considered. In substituting biomass-based heat sources, chemical recycling generated the lowest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, about 560 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects, followed by the mechanical recycling process (approximately 740 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping reject). The maximum amount of GHG was emitted from the incineration scenario, which was about 1900 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects. By substituting natural gas-based heat sources, chemical recycling generated about 290 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects. On the contrary, the mechanical recycling process generated about 430 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects and incineration process generated 960 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects. Uncertainty analysis showed that some assumptions significantly impact the results; however, the chemical recycling process had the lowest environmental impact in almost all uncertainty analysis.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Huella de Carbono , Incineración
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501620

RESUMEN

Spain is one of the leading wine-producing and -exporting countries and has traditionally been dominant in trade and world production in the sector. In an increasingly changing context, in which worldwide wine exports are growing exponentially, it is essential to study their impact on climate change as the transport of goods generates a significant volume of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work, then, was to analyse the variation in the carbon footprint generated by Spanish wine exports between 2011 and 2016. To this end, a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model was used, showing that the emissions associated with wine operations have increased less than exports, which might suggest that sustainable growth has been included as a goal in the wine supply chain. The methodology used has the advantage of allowing the calculation of direct and indirect emissions. At the same time, the results can provide relevant information to practitioners and policymakers due to the expected evolution of European environmental regulations and trades, in terms of carbon footprint.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Vino , Carbono , Huella de Carbono , España
19.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113698, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530365

RESUMEN

This study aimed to quantify greenhouse gas emissions derived from the production-consumption of rice in Hubei-a major rice-producing province in central China. This research employed primary and secondary data collection methods. Primary data sources included interviews and experimental observations from seven counties in Hubei collected from June 2016 to December 2016. Secondary data sources-including national datasets, inter-governmental reports, and peer-reviewed articles-were used to extract relevant data, such as emission factors, and national and provincial rice output. Life Cycle Assessment was employed to build a comprehensive inventory and map of the rice carbon footprint, including the following five stages: production inputs, farm management, growth period, processing and sale, and consumption. Uncertainty analysis was performed to validate the reliability of carbon footprint estimations. Results showed that the carbon footprint for every 1 ton of polished rice in Hubei ranged between 4.19-6.81 t CO2e/t and was 5.39 t CO2e/t on average. Greenhouse gas emissions were primarily produced from rice fields during the growth stage (over 60% of greenhouse gas emissions of the whole life cycle of rice), followed by the consumption stage, and the production and transportation of agricultural inputs. Uncertainty analysis estimations indicated acceptable levels of reliability. This study's results indicate that the production and consumption of rice is a significant contributor to agricultural carbon emissions in Hubei-consistent with national estimates that place China as the largest carbon dioxide emitter globally. This research provides further insight into future policies and targeted initiatives for the efficient use of low-carbon agricultural inputs for rice production and consumption stages in China.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Huella de Carbono , Oryza , China , Efecto Invernadero , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Incertidumbre
20.
N Z Med J ; 134(1541): 13-21, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531593

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to improve the sustainability of ophthalmic care require methods to measure its environmental impact and a baseline measurement to compare against in the future. We aimed to measure the carbon footprint of cataract surgery in Wellington. METHODS: We used Eyefficiency, an application using established footprinting methods, to estimate the emissions produced by phacoemulsification surgery in two public and two private hospitals. We measured (1) power consumption, (2) procurement of disposable items and pharmaceuticals, (3) waste disposal emissions and (4) travel (other potential sources were excluded). Where possible we used New Zealand emissions coefficients. RESULTS: We recorded data from 142 cataract surgeries. The average emissions produced by cataract surgery in the region was estimated to be 152kg of carbon dioxide equivalent. This is equivalent to 62L of petrol and would take 45m2 of forest one year to absorb. The great majority of emissions were from procurement, mostly disposable materials, and the second greatest contribution was from travel (driving). CONCLUSION: Estimating the carbon footprint of cataract surgery is becoming easier, but improved methods for measuring the footprint of procured supplies are needed. There are significant opportunities for emissions reduction in the most common surgical procedure in New Zealand.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Implantación de Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificación , Extracción de Catarata , Equipos Desechables , Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Hospitales Privados , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Implantación de Lentes Intraoculares/instrumentación , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios , Nueva Zelanda , Facoemulsificación/instrumentación , Plásticos , Viaje , Emisiones de Vehículos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos
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