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1.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 153: 106487, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490048

RESUMEN

Computational models of mature bone have been used to predict fracture; however, analogous study of immature diaphyseal fracture has not been conducted due to sparse experimental mechanical data. A model of immature bone fracture may be used to aid in the differentiation of accidental and non-accidental trauma fractures in young, newly ambulatory children (0-3 years). The objective of this study was to characterize the evolution of tissue-level mechanical behavior, composition, and microstructure of maturing cortical porcine bone with uniaxial tension, Raman spectroscopy, and light microscopy as a function of maturation. We asked: 1) How do the monotonic uniaxial tensile properties change with maturation and displacement rate; 2) How does the composition and microstructure change with maturation; and 3) Is there a correlation between composition and tensile properties with maturation? Elastic modulus (p < 0.001), fracture stress (p < 0.001), and energy absorption (p < 0.014) increased as a function of maturation at the quasistatic rate by 110%, 86%, and 96%, respectively. Fracture stress also increased by 90% with maturation at the faster rate (p = 0.001). Fracture stress increased as a function of increasing displacement rate by 28% (newborn p = 0.048; 1-month p = 0.004; 3-month p= < 0.001), and fracture strain decreased by 68% with increasing displacement rate (newborn p = 0.002; 1-month p = 0.036; 3-month p < 0.001). Carbonate-to-phosphate ratio was positively linearly related to elastic modulus, and fracture stress was positively related to carbonate-to-phosphate ratio and matrix maturation ratio. The results of this study support that immature bone is strain-rate dependent and becomes more brittle at faster rates, contributing to the foundation upon which a computational model can be built to evaluate immature bone fracture.


Asunto(s)
Hueso Cortical , Fracturas Óseas , Niño , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Animales , Porcinos , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Fosfatos , Carbonatos , Estrés Mecánico
2.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 153: 106468, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493561

RESUMEN

A 2D plane strain extended finite element method (XFEM) model was developed to simulate three-point bending fracture toughness tests for human bone conducted in hydrated and dehydrated conditions. Bone microstructures and crack paths observed by micro-CT imaging were simulated using an XFEM damage model. Critical damage strains for the osteons, matrix, and cement lines were deduced for both hydrated and dehydrated conditions and it was found that dehydration decreases the critical damage strains by about 50%. Subsequent parametric studies using the various microstructural models were performed to understand the impact of individual critical damage strain variations on the fracture behavior. The study revealed the significant impact of the cement line critical damage strains on the crack paths and fracture toughness during the early stages of crack growth. Furthermore, a significant sensitivity of crack growth resistance and crack paths on critical strain values of the cement lines was found to exist for the hydrated environments where a small change in critical strain values of the cement lines can alter the crack path to give a significant reduction in fracture resistance. In contrast, in the dehydrated state where toughness is low, the sensitivity to changes in critical strain values of the cement lines is low. Overall, our XFEM model was able to provide new insights into how dehydration affects the micromechanisms of fracture in bone and this approach could be further extended to study the effects of aging, disease, and medical therapies on bone fracture.


Asunto(s)
Deshidratación , Fracturas Óseas , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Hueso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagen , Huesos , Fracturas Óseas/diagnóstico por imagen
3.
J Vet Med Sci ; 86(3): 325-332, 2024 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311401

RESUMEN

This study was performed to evaluate cortical bone strength in dogs using a quantitative ultrasound measurement device. In this study, 16 clinically healthy dogs with no lameness underwent measurement of the ultrasound propagation velocity of cortical bone (namely, speed of sound [SOS]) at the radius and tibia. Additionally, computed tomography examination with a calibration phantom was performed in 10 dogs. We calculated the bone mineral density (BMD) and Young's modulus from the computed tomography data using bone strength evaluation software. SOS, BMD, and Young's modulus were statistically compared between the radius and tibia. In addition, we examined the correlation between SOS and BMD and between SOS and Young's modulus. We also examined the correlation between SOS and age in the 13 dogs whose age was known. BMD and Young's modulus were not significantly different between the radius and tibia, but SOS was significantly different (P<0.05). Moreover, SOS and BMD showed a positive correlation in both radius and tibia. Similarly, SOS and Young's modulus showed a positive correlation. In addition, SOS and age showed a strong positive correlation (radius: r=0.77, P<0.05, tibia: r=0.83, P<0.05). Our finding that SOS of the radius and tibia cortical bone was correlated with BMD and Young's modulus indicates that quantitative ultrasound can be useful for evaluating cortical bone strength in dogs.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Huesos , Perros , Animales , Huesos/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/veterinaria , Hueso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagen , Tibia/diagnóstico por imagen
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(2)2024 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399527

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: Surgical guides might impede the flow of coolant to the implant drills during the preparation of the implant bed, potentially contributing to increased temperatures during bone drilling. The objective of this experimental study was to assess the cooling efficiency of various guiding cylinder designs for sleeveless surgical guides used in guided surgery. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, surgical guides with three different guiding cylinder designs were printed. One group had solid cylinders (control) and two test groups (cylinders with pores and cylinders with windows). Forty customized polyurethane blocks with type III bone characteristics were fitted into the guide and fixed in a vise, and implant bed preparations were completed using a simplified drilling protocol with and without irrigation. An infrared thermographic camera was used to record the temperature changes during drilling at the coronal, middle, and apical areas. ANOVA test and Games-Howell post hoc test were used to determine significant thermal differences among groups. Results: A significant thermal increase was observed at the coronal area in the group without irrigation (39.69 ± 8.82) (p < 0.05). The lowest thermal increase was recorded at the surgical guides with windows (21.451 ± 0.703 °C) compared to solid (25.005 ± 0.586 °C) and porous surgical guides (25.630 ± 1.004) (p < 0.05). In the middle and apical areas, there were no differences between solid and porous cylinders (p > 0.05). Conclusions: 3D-printed sleeveless surgical guides with window openings at the guiding cylinders reduce the temperature elevation at the cortical bone in guided implant surgery.


Asunto(s)
Osteotomía , Prótesis e Implantes , Humanos , Hueso Cortical , Microcirugia , Impresión Tridimensional
5.
Bone ; 181: 117041, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325648

RESUMEN

Chronic heavy alcohol consumption may influence the skeleton by suppressing intracortical bone remodeling which may impact the quality of bone and its mechanical properties. However, this aspect has not been thoroughly assessed in either humans or animal models whose cortical bone microstructure resembles the microstructure of human cortical bone. The current study is the first to investigate the effects of chronic heavy alcohol consumption on various mechanical properties of bone in a non-human primate model with intracortical remodeling. Male rhesus macaques (5.3 years old at the initiation of treatment) were induced to drink alcohol and then given the choice to voluntarily self-administer water or ethanol (4 % w/v) for approximately 14 months, followed by three abstinence phases (lasting 34, 41, and 39-46 days) with approximately 3 months of ethanol access in between. During the initial 14 months of open-access, monkeys in the alcohol group consumed an average of 2.9 ± 0.8 g/kg/d ethanol (mean ± SD) resulting in a blood ethanol concentration of 89 ± 47 mg/dl in longitudinal samples taken at 7 h after the daily sessions began. To understand the impact of alcohol consumption on material properties, various mechanical tests were conducted on the distal tibia diaphysis of 2-5 monkeys per test group, including dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) testing, nano-indentation, microhardness testing, compression testing, and fracture resistance curve (R-curve) testing. Additionally, compositional analyses were performed using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Significant differences in microhardness, compressive stress-strain response, and composition were not observed with alcohol consumption, and only minor differences were detected in hardness and elastic modulus of the matrix and osteons from nanoindentation. Furthermore, the R-curves of both groups overlapped, with similar crack initiation toughness, despite a significant decrease in crack growth toughness (p = 0.032) with alcohol consumption. However, storage modulus (p = 0.029) and loss factor (p = 0.015) from DMA testing were significantly increased in the alcohol group compared to the control group, while loss modulus remained unchanged. These results indicate that heavy alcohol consumption may have only a minor influence on the material properties and the composition of cortical bone in young adult male rhesus macaques.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Hueso Cortical , Animales , Masculino , Macaca mulatta , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etanol
6.
World Neurosurg ; 184: e546-e553, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320649

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We describe the incidence of, and identify the risk factors for, a medial breach of the pedicle wall during robotic-assisted cortical bone trajectory (RA-CBT) screw insertion. METHODS: We analyzed a consecutive series of adult patients who underwent RA-CBT screw placement from January 2019 to July 2022. To assess the pedicle wall medial breach, postoperative computed tomography (CT) images were analyzed. Patient demographic data and screw data were compared between patients with and without a medial breach. The Hounsfield units (HUs) on the L1 midvertebral axial CT scan was used to evaluate bone quality. RESULTS: Of 784 CBT screws in 145 patients, 30 (3.8%) had a medial breach in 23 patients (15.9%). One screw was grade 2, and the others were grade 1. Patients with a medial breach had a lower HU value compared with the patients without a medial breach (123.3 vs. 150.5; P = 0.027). A medial breach was more common in the right than left side (5.5% vs. 2.0%; P = 0.014). More than one half of the screws with a medial breach were found in the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) compared with the middle construct or lowest instrumented vertebra (6.7% vs. 1.3% vs. 2.7%; P = 0.003). Binary logistic regression showed that low HU values, right-sided screw placement, and UIV were associated with a medial breach. No patients returned to the operating room for screw malposition. No differences were found in the clinical outcomes between patients with and without a medial breach. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of pedicle wall medial breach was 3.8% of RA-CBT screws in the postoperative CT images. A low HU value measured in the L1 axial image, right-sided screw placement, and UIV were associated with an increased risk of medial breach for RA-CBT screw placement.


Asunto(s)
Tornillos Pediculares , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Fusión Vertebral , Adulto , Humanos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/efectos adversos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/métodos , Tornillos Pediculares/efectos adversos , Hueso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagen , Hueso Cortical/cirugía , Factores de Riesgo , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/efectos adversos , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos
7.
Bone ; 181: 117031, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311304

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Conventional bone imaging methods primarily use X-ray techniques to assess bone mineral density (BMD), focusing exclusively on the mineral phase. This approach lacks information about the organic phase and bone water content, resulting in an incomplete evaluation of bone health. Recent research highlights the potential of ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance imaging (UTE MRI) to measure cortical porosity and estimate BMD based on signal intensity. UTE MRI also provides insights into bone water distribution and matrix organization, enabling a comprehensive bone assessment with a single imaging technique. Our study aimed to establish quantifiable UTE MRI-based biomarkers at clinical field strength to estimate BMD and microarchitecture while quantifying bound water content and matrix organization. METHODS: Femoral bones from 11 cadaveric specimens (n = 4 males 67-92 yrs of age, n = 7 females 70-95 yrs of age) underwent dual-echo UTE MRI (3.0 T, 0.45 mm resolution) with different echo times and high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) imaging (60.7 µm voxel size). Following registration, a 4.5 mm HR-pQCT region of interest was divided into four quadrants and used across the multi-modal images. Statistical analysis involved Pearson correlation between UTE MRI porosity index and a signal-intensity technique used to estimate BMD with corresponding HR-pQCT measures. UTE MRI was used to calculate T1 relaxation time and a novel bound water index (BWI), compared across subregions using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: The UTE MRI-derived porosity index and signal-intensity-based estimated BMD correlated with the HR-pQCT variables (porosity: r = 0.73, p = 0.006; BMD: r = 0.79, p = 0.002). However, these correlations varied in strength when we examined each of the four quadrants (subregions, r = 0.11-0.71). T1 relaxometry and the BWI exhibited variations across the four subregions, though these differences were not statistically significant. Notably, we observed a strong negative correlation between T1 relaxation time and the BWI (r = -0.87, p = 0.0006). CONCLUSION: UTE MRI shows promise for being an innocuous method for estimating cortical porosity and BMD parameters while also giving insight into bone hydration and matrix organization. This method offers the potential to equip clinicians with a more comprehensive array of imaging biomarkers to assess bone health without the need for invasive or ionizing procedures.


Asunto(s)
Hueso Cortical , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Niño , Estudios de Factibilidad , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Hueso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Agua
8.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 8(1): 21, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316687

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship of two commonly used quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters, speed of sound (SoS) and attenuation coefficient (α), with water and macromolecular contents of bovine cortical bone strips as measured with ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: SoS and α were measured in 36 bovine cortical bone strips utilizing a single-element transducer with nominal 5 MHz center frequency based on the time of flight principles after accommodating for reflection losses. Specimens were then scanned using UTE MRI to measure total, bound, and pore water proton density (TWPD, BWPD, and PWPD) as well as macromolecular proton fraction and macromolecular transverse relaxation time (T2-MM). Specimens were also scanned using microcomputed tomography (µCT) at 9-µm isometric voxel size to measure bone mineral density (BMD), porosity, and pore size. The elastic modulus (E) of each specimen was measured using a 4-point bending test. RESULTS: α demonstrated significant positive Spearman correlations with E (R = 0.69) and BMD (R = 0.44) while showing significant negative correlations with porosity (R = -0.41), T2-MM (R = -0.47), TWPD (R = -0.68), BWPD (R = -0.67), and PWPD (R = -0.45). CONCLUSIONS: The negative correlation between α and T2-MM is likely indicating the relationship between QUS and collagen matrix organization. The higher correlations of α with BWPD than with PWPD may indicate that water organized in finer structure (bound to matrix) provides lower acoustic impedance than water in larger pores, which is yet to be investigated thoroughly. RELEVANCE STATEMENT: This study highlights the importance of future investigations exploring the relationship between QUS measures and all major components of the bone, including the collagenous matrix and water. Investigating the full potential of QUS and its validation facilitates a more affordable and accessible tool for bone health monitoring in clinics. KEY POINTS: • Ultrasound attenuation demonstrated significant positive correlations with bone mechanics and mineral density. • Ultrasound attenuation demonstrated significant negative correlations with porosity and bone water contents. • This study highlights the importance of future investigations exploring the relationship between QUS measures and all major components of the bone.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Protones , Animales , Bovinos , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Huesos/diagnóstico por imagen , Hueso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagen , Agua
9.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 74, 2024 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332369

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Endoscopically assisted screw fixation with lumbar interbody fusion is rarely performed. We succeeded in implanting the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screws under the guidance of unilateral biportal endoscopy (UBE). METHOD: We attempted endoscopically assisted screw fixation in a patient with degenerative spondylolisthesis. Through a third portal, ipsilateral CBT screws were implanted without complications. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully performed unilateral biportal endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (ULIF) with CBT and reversed CBT screws. Compared with percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) placement, this procedure is a minimally invasive, endoscopic alternative that allows precise screw placement.


Asunto(s)
Tornillos Pediculares , Fusión Vertebral , Espondilolistesis , Humanos , Espondilolistesis/diagnóstico por imagen , Espondilolistesis/cirugía , Endoscopía , Hueso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagen , Hueso Cortical/cirugía , Huesos , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 152: 106442, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330876

RESUMEN

Antlers are bony structures composed predominantly of primary osteons with unique mechanical properties due to their specific use by deer as weapon and shield. Antler bone fracture resistance has attracted prior scrutiny through experimental tests and theoretical models. To characterize antler mechanical properties, compression of cubes, or bending or tensioning of rectangular bars have been performed in the literature with variations in the protocols precluding comparisons of the data. Compression testing is a widely used experimental technique for determining the mechanical properties of specimens excised from cortical or cancellous regions of bone. However, the recommended geometry for compression tests is the cylinder, being more representative of the real performances of the material. The purpose of research was to report data for compressive strength and stiffness of antler cortical bone following current guidelines. Cylinders (n = 296) of dry antler cortical bone from either the main beam or the tines of Cervus elaphus, Rangifer tarandus, Cervus nippon and Damadama were tested. This study highlights the fact that compression of antler cortical bone cylinders following current guidelines is feasible but not applicable in all species. Standardization of the testing protocols could help to compare data from the literature. This study also confirms that sample localization has no effect on the mechanical properties, that sample density has a significant impact and allows enriching the knowledge of the mechanical properties of dry antler cortical bone.


Asunto(s)
Cuernos de Venado , Ciervos , Animales , Hueso Cortical , Fuerza Compresiva , Fenómenos Físicos
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 152: 106432, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354566

RESUMEN

Various studies have shown that the water content affects the elastic behavior of cortical bone. However, there is disagreement regarding the reversibility of the elastic behavior with rewetting. This study investigates this issue using an intrinsic approach, i.e., moisture manipulation and material testing were always carried out on the same specimen. The test results were then evaluated separately for each of several specimens. In total, 24 specimens of human cortical bone from the ischiopubic ramus were examined. The water content was varied in 11 steps, and the corresponding elastic moduli were determined using three-point bending tests within the elastic range. Moisture adjustment was achieved mainly using desiccators, accelerated by forced convection. Reference samples stored in the same manner were evaluated microscopically. The experiments confirmed the known correlation between water content reduction and stiffness increase of cortical bone. Complete drying increased the elastic modulus by about 83 %. By rewetting, the stiffness was significantly reduced again, though not only to the initial state, but even about 24 % below this. Thus, an irreversible alteration of the elastic behavior was observed. Decay of the reference samples was not observed. Therefore, decay is not the main reason for the significant loss of stiffness. In terms of the storage conditions for cortical bone specimens, an environment with 100 % relative humidity yielded the best match with the initial state. This storage method can therefore be recommended for biomechanical specimens used to determine in-vivo-like material parameters.


Asunto(s)
Huesos Pélvicos , Humanos , Pelvis , Hueso Cortical , Módulo de Elasticidad , Agua
12.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 78, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358573

RESUMEN

Robot-assisted (RA) technology has been shown to be a safe aid in spine surgery, this meta-analysis aims to compare surgical parameters and clinical indexes between robot-assisted cortical bone trajectory (CBT) and fluoroscopy-assisted (FA) cortical bone trajectory in spinal surgery. We searched databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. The study selection process was guided by the PICOS (Patient/Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study Design) strategy. The risk of bias in non-randomized comparative studies was assessed using the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. We performed this meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3 software (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark), and the level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Six articles involving 371 patients and 1535 screws were included in this meta-analysis. RA-CBT outperformed FA-CBT in terms of various parameters, such as accuracy of pedicle screw position (both Gertzbein-Robbins scale and Ding scale), avoidance of superior facet joint violation (FJV), and reduction of neurological injury. Our meta-analysis offered a thorough evaluation of the efficacy and safety of RA-CBT in spinal surgery. The findings revealed that RA-CBT produced statistically significant results in terms of pedicle screw position accuracy and superior facet joint violation prevention. In terms of surgical parameters and clinical indexes, future research and clinical practice should investigate the efficacy of RA-CBT further. The study was registered in the PROSPERO (CRD42023466280).


Asunto(s)
Tornillos Pediculares , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Robótica , Humanos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/métodos , Hueso Cortical , Fluoroscopía
13.
Eur Spine J ; 33(3): 1069-1080, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246903

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes and radiographic outcomes of cortical bone trajectory (CBT) and traditional trajectory (TT) pedicle screw fixation in patients treated with single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). METHODS: This trial included a total of 224 patients with lumbar spine disease who required single-level TLIF surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to the CBT and TT groups at a 1:1 ratio. Demographics and clinical and radiographic data were collected to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CBT and TT screw fixation in TLIF. RESULTS: The baseline characteristic data were similar between the CBT and TT groups. Back and leg pain for both the CBT and TT groups improved significantly from baseline to 24 months postoperatively. The CBT group experienced less pain than the TT group at one week postoperatively. The postoperative radiographic results showed that the accuracy of screw placement was significantly increased in the CBT group compared with the TT group (P < 0.05). The CBT group had a significantly lower rate of FJV than the TT group (P < 0.05). In addition, the rate of fusion and the rate of screw loosening were similar between the CBT and TT groups according to screw loosening criteria. CONCLUSION: This prospective, randomized controlled analysis suggests that clinical outcomes and radiographic characteristics, including fusion rates and caudal screw loosening rates, were comparable between CBT and TT screw fixation. Compared with the TT group, the CBT group showed advantages in the accuracy of screw placement and the FJV rate. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: This trial has been registered at the US National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry: NCT03105167.


Asunto(s)
Tornillos Pediculares , Fusión Vertebral , Humanos , Tornillos Pediculares/efectos adversos , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Hueso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagen , Hueso Cortical/cirugía , Dolor/etiología
14.
Bone ; 180: 116998, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184100

RESUMEN

Osteon morphology provides valuable information about the interplay between different processes involved in bone remodelling. The correct quantitative interpretation of these morphological features is challenging due to the complexity of interactions between osteoblast behaviour, and the evolving geometry of cortical pores during pore closing. We present a combined experimental and mathematical modelling study to provide insights into bone formation mechanisms during cortical bone remodelling based on histological cross-sections of quiescent human osteons and hypothesis-testing analyses. We introduce wall thickness asymmetry as a measure of the local asymmetry of bone formation within an osteon and examine the frequency distribution of wall thickness asymmetry in cortical osteons from human iliac crest bone samples from women 16-78 years old. Our measurements show that most osteons possess some degree of asymmetry, and that the average degree of osteon asymmetry in cortical bone evolves with age. We then propose a comprehensive mathematical model of cortical pore filling that includes osteoblast secretory activity, osteoblast elimination, osteoblast embedment as osteocytes, and osteoblast crowding and redistribution along the bone surface. The mathematical model is first calibrated to symmetric osteon data, and then used to test three mechanisms of asymmetric wall formation against osteon data: (i) delays in the onset of infilling around the cement line; (ii) heterogeneous osteoblastogenesis around the bone perimeter; and (iii) heterogeneous osteoblast secretory rate around the bone perimeter. Our results suggest that wall thickness asymmetry due to off-centred Haversian pores within osteons, and that nonuniform lamellar thicknesses within osteons are important morphological features that can indicate the prevalence of specific asymmetry-generating mechanisms. This has significant implications for the study of disruptions of bone formation as it could indicate what biological bone formation processes may become disrupted with age or disease.


Asunto(s)
Osteón , Osteoblastos , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Osteón/anatomía & histología , Huesos , Osteocitos , Hueso Cortical
15.
Bone ; 181: 117024, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38266952

RESUMEN

Functional adaptation refers to the active modification of bone structure according to the mechanical loads applied daily to maintain its mechanical integrity and adapt to the environment. Functional adaptation relates to bone mass, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone morphology (e.g., trabecular bone architecture). In this study, we discovered for the first time that another form of bone functional adaptation of a cortical bone involves a change in bone quality determined by the preferential orientation of apatite nano-crystallite, a key component of the bone. An in vivo rat ulnar axial loading model was adopted, to which a 3-15 N compressive load was applied, resulting in approximately 440-3200 µÉ› of compression in the bone surface. In the loaded ulnae, the degree of preferential apatite c-axis orientation along the ulnar long axis increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 13 N, whereas the increase in BMD was not dose-dependent. The Young's modulus along the same direction was enhanced as a function of the degree of apatite orientation. This finding indicates that bone has a mechanism that modifies the directionality (anisotropy) of its microstructure, strengthening itself specifically in the loaded direction. BMD, a scalar quantity, does not allow for load-direction-specific strengthening. Functional adaptation through changes in apatite orientation is an excellent strategy for bones to efficiently change their strength in response to external loading, which is mostly anisotropic.


Asunto(s)
Apatitas , Huesos , Ratas , Animales , Apatitas/química , Módulo de Elasticidad , Hueso Cortical , Densidad Ósea/fisiología
16.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 112(1): e35356, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38247241

RESUMEN

Sterilization of structural bone allografts is a critical process prior to their clinical use in large cortical bone defects. Gamma irradiation protocols are known to affect tissue integrity in a dose dependent manner. Alternative sterilization treatments, such as supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 ), are gaining popularity due to advantages such as minimal exposure to denaturants, the lack of toxic residues, superior tissue penetration, and minor impacts on mechanical properties including strength and stiffness. The impact of SCCO2 on the fracture toughness of bone tissue, however, remains unknown. Here, we evaluate crack initiation and growth toughness after 2, 6, and 24 h SCCO2 -treatment using Novakill™ and ethanol as additives on ~11 samples per group obtained from a pair of femur diaphyses of a canine. All mechanical testing was performed at ambient air after 24 h soaking in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS). Results show no statistically significant difference in the failure characteristics of the Novakill™-treated groups whereas crack growth toughness after 6 and 24 h of treatment with ethanol significantly increases by 37% (p = .010) and 34% (p = .038), respectively, compared to an untreated control group. In contrast, standard 25 kGy gamma irradiation causes significantly reduced crack growth resistance by 40% (p = .007) compared to untreated bone. FTIR vibrational spectroscopy, conducted after testing, reveals a consistent trend of statistically significant differences (p < .001) with fracture toughness. These trends align with variations in the ratios of enzymatic mature to immature crosslinks in the collagen structure, suggesting a potential association with fracture toughness. Additional Raman spectroscopy after testing shows a similar trend with statistically significant differences (p < .005), which further supports that collagen structural changes occur in the SCF-treated groups with ethanol after 6 and 24 h. Our work reveals the benefits of SCCO2 sterilization compared to gamma irradiation.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Fracturas Óseas , Animales , Perros , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacología , Etanol/farmacología , Huesos , Hueso Cortical , Colágeno/farmacología
17.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 7, 2024 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166794

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Modified cortical bone trajectory (MCBT) technique was proposed by our team in previous studies, but its biomechanical properties at adjacent segments have not been discussed yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical properties of modified cortical bone trajectory (MCBT) technique on adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) in transforaminal intradiscal lumbar disc fusion (TLIF) compare to traditional bone trajectory (TT) technique and cortical bone trajectory (CBT) technique. METHODS: The four human cadaveric lumbar specimens were provided by the anatomy teaching and research department of Xinjiang Medical University and four intact finite element models of the L1-S1 segment were generated. For each of these, three transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedures with three different fixation techniques were reconstructed at the L4-L5 segment, as follows: TT-TT (TT at both L4 and L5 segments), CBT-CBT (CBT at both L4 and L5 segments), MCBT-MCBT (MCBT at both L4 and L5 segments). The range of motion and von Mises stress of the intervertebral disc of the L3-L4 and L5-S1 segments were recorded with a 400N compressive load and 7.5 Nm moments in flexion, extension, left-right bending, and left-right rotation. RESULTS: The peak ROM of the L3-L4 segment in the MCBT-MCBT group was reduced by 10.5%, 6.1%, 12.2%, 4.1%, and 1.5% in flexion, extension, left-right bending, and left rotation compared to the TT-TT group and reduced by 1.8%, 5.5%, 10.0%, 12.8%, and 8.8% in flexion, left-right bending, and left-right rotation compared to the CBT-CBT group, respectively. The MCBT-MCBT group has the lowest peak ROM of the L3-L4 segment in flexion, left bending, and right rotation, the lowest peak ROM of the L5-S1 segment in extension and right rotation, and the lowest peak von Mises stress of the intervertebral disc at the L5-S1 segment in right rotation compared to the TT-TT and CBT-CBT group. In addition, the peak von Mises stress at the L3-L4 segment was lowest and more dispersed in all motions, the MCBT-MCBT group exhibited lower peak ROM of the L5-S1 segment in flexion, extension, and right rotation, and showed lower peak von Mises stress of the disc at the L5-S1 segment in flexion, extension, and right rotation compared with the TT-TT group. CONCLUSION: The modified cortical bone trajectory technique may have a beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of ASD in the L4-L5 TLIF model compared to the traditional bone trajectory technique and cortical bone trajectory technique.


Asunto(s)
Vértebras Lumbares , Fusión Vertebral , Humanos , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/efectos adversos , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Hueso Cortical/cirugía , Rango del Movimiento Articular
18.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 151: 106403, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237206

RESUMEN

This study proposed and validated a 2D finite element (FE) model for conducting in-silico simulations of in-situ nanoindentation tests on mineralized collagen fibrils (MCF) and the extrafibrillar matrix (EFM) within human cortical bone. Initially, a multiscale cohesive FE model was developed by adapting a previous model of bone lamellae, encompassing both MCF and EFM. Subsequently, nanoindentation tests were simulated in-silico using this model, and the resulting predictions were compared to AFM nanoindentation test data to verify the model's accuracy. The FE model accurately predicted nanoindentation results under wet conditions, closely aligning with outcomes obtained from AFM nanoindentation tests. Specifically, it successfully mirrored the traction/separation curve, nanoindentation modulus, plastic energy dissipation, and plastic energy ratio obtained from AFM nanoindentation tests. Additionally, this in-silico model demonstrated its ability to capture alterations in nanoindentation properties caused by the removal of bound water, by considering corresponding changes in mechanical properties of the collagen phase and the interfaces among bone constituents. Notably, significant changes in the elastic modulus and plastic energy dissipation were observed in both MCF and EFM compartments of bone, consistent with observations in AFM nanoindentation tests. These findings indicate that the proposed in-silico model effectively captures the influence of ultrastructural changes on bone's mechanical properties at sub-lamellar levels. Presently, no experimental methods exist to conduct parametric studies elucidating the ultrastructural origins of bone tissue fragility. The introduction of this in-silico model presents an invaluable tool to bridge this knowledge gap in the future.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Hueso Cortical , Humanos , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Estrés Mecánico , Huesos/metabolismo , Hueso Cortical/metabolismo , Colágeno/química
19.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 151: 106387, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246092

RESUMEN

Comprehensive characterization of the transversely isotropic mechanical properties of long bones along both the longitudinal and circumferential gradients is crucial for developing accurate mathematical models and studying bone biomechanics. In addition, mechanical testing to derive elastic, plastic, and failure properties of bones is essential for modeling plastic deformation and failure of bones. To achieve these, we machined a total of 336 cortical specimens, including 168 transverse and 168 longitudinal specimens, from four different quadrants of seven different sections of 3 bovine femurs. We conducted three-point bending tests of these specimens at a loading rate of 0.02 mm/s. Young's modulus, yield stress, tangential modulus, and effective plastic strain for each specimen were derived from correction equations based on classical beam theory. Our statistical analysis reveals that the longitudinal gradient has a significant effect on the Young's modulus, yield stress, and tangential modulus of both longitudinal and transverse specimens, whereas the circumferential gradient significantly influences the Young's modulus, yield stress, and tangential modulus of transverse specimens only. The differences in Young's modulus and yield stress between longitudinal specimens from different sections are greater than 40%, whereas those between transverse specimens are approximately 30%. The Young's modulus and yield stress of transverse specimens in the anterior quadrant were 18.81%/15.46% and 18.34%/14.88% higher than those in the posterior and lateral quadrants, respectively. There is no significant interaction between the longitudinal gradient and the circumferential gradient. Considering the transverse isotropy, it is crucial to consider loading direction when investigating the impact of circumferential gradients in the anterior, lateral, medial, and posterior directions. Our findings indicate that the conventional assumption of homogeneity in simulating the cortical bone of long bones may have limitations, and researchers should consider the anatomical position and loading direction of femur specimens for precise prediction of mechanical responses.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Hueso Cortical , Animales , Bovinos , Estrés Mecánico , Módulo de Elasticidad/fisiología , Fémur/fisiología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos
20.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 144(2): 731-740, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38049535

RESUMEN

AIM: Distal femur fractures (DFF) are rare, but associated with high complication rates and mortality, particularly in patients with osteoporosis. To improve preoperative assessment, we analyzed if cortical bone thickness on CT and AP radiographs is associated with clinical parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study of adult patients presenting at a level-one trauma center, with a DFF between 2011 and 2020. Clinical parameters for bone quality, such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), energy impact level of trauma, and known history of osteoporosis, were assessed. Mean cortical bone thickness (CBTavg) on AP radiograph was determined using a previously published method. Cortical thickness on CT scan was measured at 8 and 14 cm proximal to the articular surface of the lateral condyle. RESULTS: 71 patients (46 females) between 20 and 100 years were included in the study. Cortical thickness determined by CT correlated significantly with CBTavg measurements on AP radiograph (Spearman r = 0.62 to 0.80; p < 0.001). Cortical thickness was inversely correlated with age (Spearman r = - 0.341 to - 0.466; p < 0.001) and significantly associated with trauma impact level and history of osteoporosis (p = < 0.001). The CT-based values showed a stronger correlation with the clinical parameters than those determined by AP X-ray. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cortical thickness of the distal femur correlates with clinical parameters of bone quality and is therefore an excellent tool for assessing what surgical care should be provided. Interestingly, our findings indicate that cortical thickness on CT is more strongly correlated with clinical data than AP radiograph measurements.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas Femorales Distales , Osteoporosis , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Densidad Ósea , Absorciometría de Fotón , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Hueso Cortical , Fémur/diagnóstico por imagen , Fémur/cirugía
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