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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 475, 2021 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579690

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to analyze the morphology and position of the tongue and hyoid bone in skeletal Class II patients with different vertical growth patterns by cone beam computed tomography in comparison to skeletal Class I patients. METHODS: Ninety subjects with malocclusion were divided into skeletal Class II and Class I groups by ANB angles. Based on different vertical growth patterns, subjects in each group were divided into 3 subgroups: high-angle group (MP-FH ≥ 32.0°), average-angle group (22.0° ≤ MP-FH < 32°) and low-angle group (MP-FH < 22°). The position and morphology of the tongue and hyoid bone were evaluated in the cone beam computed tomography images. The independent Student's t-test was used to compare the position and morphology of the tongue and hyoid bone between skeletal Class I and Class II groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the measurement indexes of different vertical facial patterns in each group. RESULTS: Patients in skeletal Class II group had lower tongue posture, and the tongue body was smaller than that of those in the Class I group (P < 0.05). The position of the hyoid bone was lower in the skeletal Class II group than in Class I group (P < 0.05). The tongue length and H-Me in the skeletal Class I group with a low angle were significantly larger than those with an average angle and high angle (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the position or morphology of the tongue and hyoid bone in the skeletal Class II group with different vertical facial patterns (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion have lower tongue posture, a smaller tongue body, and greater occurrence of posterior inferior hyoid bone position than skeletal Class I patients. The length of the mandibular body in skeletal Class I patients with a horizontal growth type is longer. The position and morphology of the tongue and hyoid bone were not greatly affected by vertical facial development in skeletal Class II patients.


Asunto(s)
Maloclusión de Angle Clase III , Maloclusión Clase II de Angle , Maloclusión , Cefalometría , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Maloclusión Clase II de Angle/diagnóstico por imagen , Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Lengua/diagnóstico por imagen
2.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(10): 907-912, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355487

RESUMEN

AIM: Dentures play an important role in improving masticatory and oropharyngeal swallowing functions in some edentulous patients without dysphagia. However, few studies have been conducted on patients with dysphagia. This study investigated the effect of dentures on pharyngeal swallowing function in patients with dysphagia. METHODS: Older inpatients with dysphagia who used well-fitting dentures were included in the study. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study findings with and without dentures were compared. Pharyngeal residue and area as spatial, the distance between the maxilla and mandible, hyoid bone/laryngeal displacement, and upper esophageal sphincter opening as kinematics, oral/pharyngeal transit time as temporal measurements, and patient-reported symptoms were evaluated. The primary outcome was the pharyngeal residue measured using the normalized residue ratio scale. Comparisons were made using the paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The mean age of the 27 participants was 86.1 ± 6.8 years. The vallecular residue was more in those without dentures (with dentures: 0.01 [0-0.02], without dentures: 0.03 [0-0.08]; P = 0.003). The pyriform sinus residue showed no significant difference. Denture removal significantly increased the pharyngeal area. The distance between the maxilla and mandible decreased in the absence of dentures, and other kinematic measurements showed no significant differences. Oral/pharyngeal transit time was prolonged without dentures. CONCLUSIONS: Morphological changes caused by the removal of dentures led to pharyngeal expansion, which may result in increased vallecular residue. A treatment plan that considers the effect of dentures on pharyngeal swallowing function may provide rehabilitation that is more effective. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 907-912.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Deglución , Deglución , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Trastornos de Deglución/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Deglución/etiología , Dentaduras , Humanos , Hueso Hioides , Orofaringe
3.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 149: 110849, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329832

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Dysphagia is linked to mortality risk among patients with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD); the present study therefore aimed to clarify the characteristics of hyoid movements during swallowing and to examine the mechanism of dysphagia in patients with PIMD. METHODS: A retrospective video fluoroscopic swallowing study was conducted on 43 patients with PIMD (mean age = 25.4; 25 males, 18 females) and 24 healthy adults (mean age = 44.3; 16 males, 8 females). The movements of the hyoid bone and mandible were tracked frame by frame in the video footage, and their range of movements and trajectories were analyzed. RESULTS: Most patients showed atypical movement trajectories of the hyoid, such as insufficient anterior movement and increased range of mandibular downward movement, compared with normal adults. Moreover, the mechanism of dysphagia was revealed by structural equation modeling, indicating that insufficient anterior movement could lead to pharyngeal residue in the pyriform sinus. CONCLUSION: The insufficient anterior movement of the hyoid could be caused by weak ventral suprahyoid muscles and atypical head and neck posture characteristic of patients with PIMD. It may be useful to predict pharyngeal residue from the range of hyoid movements and trajectories for the prevention of aspiration.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Deglución , Deglución , Adulto , Trastornos de Deglución/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastornos de Deglución/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Movimiento , Estudios Retrospectivos
4.
Head Neck ; 43(9): E41-E44, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227172

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is a well-known complication of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. However, few reports have described hyoid bone ORN and its clinical implications. METHODS: We describe a retrospective case series of previously irradiated patients who were seen with sudden airway compromise, found to have underlying pathological hyoid fractures secondary to osteoradionecrosis. RESULTS: Six patients within postchemoradiation period (3-9 months) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were seen with acute-onset dyspnea. Computed topography (CT) imaging was remarkable for severe airway luminal narrowing and pathological hyoid fractures. All six patients required urgent intervention with direct laryngoscopy and tracheostomy. Intraoperatively, five patients were seen with exposed necrotic hyoid bones. CONCLUSION: The hyoid and its associated musculature strongly influence upper airway patency. ORN may compromise its physiological function and leads to acute airway compromise. Hyoid ORN may hold significant and imperative clinical implications in head and neck cancer post-treatment surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Osteorradionecrosis , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicaciones , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/radioterapia , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteorradionecrosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteorradionecrosis/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299147

RESUMEN

The mandibular and hyoid arches collectively make up the facial skeleton, also known as the viscerocranium. Although all three germ layers come together to assemble the pharyngeal arches, the majority of tissue within viscerocranial skeletal components differentiates from the neural crest. Since nearly one third of all birth defects in humans affect the craniofacial region, it is important to understand how signalling pathways and transcription factors govern the embryogenesis and skeletogenesis of the viscerocranium. This review focuses on mouse and zebrafish models of craniofacial development. We highlight gene regulatory networks directing the patterning and osteochondrogenesis of the mandibular and hyoid arches that are actually conserved among all gnathostomes. The first part of this review describes the anatomy and development of mandibular and hyoid arches in both species. The second part analyses cell signalling and transcription factors that ensure the specificity of individual structures along the anatomical axes. The third part discusses the genes and molecules that control the formation of bone and cartilage within mandibular and hyoid arches and how dysregulation of molecular signalling influences the development of skeletal components of the viscerocranium. In conclusion, we notice that mandibular malformations in humans and mice often co-occur with hyoid malformations and pinpoint the similar molecular machinery controlling the development of mandibular and hyoid arches.


Asunto(s)
Tipificación del Cuerpo , Cartílago/embriología , Hueso Hioides/embriología , Mandíbula/embriología , Animales , Cartílago/citología
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257127

RESUMEN

The hyoid bone fracture has traditionally been attributed to strangulation and hanging. Although rare, ensuing its vague presentation, hyoid bone fracture is oftentimes overlooked and missed, leading to delayed complications. Herein, we are reporting an overlooked hyoid bone fracture in a man who attempted suicide by strangulating himself, whereby Valsalva manoeuvre performed during bedside flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy revealed the fractured segment. As the patient was stable and asymptomatic, he was successfully managed conservatively. We would like to highlight the awareness of the Valsalva manoeuvre, which could elicit hyoid bone fracture as missing or overlooking the fracture may lead to devastating complications which may ensue, such as respiratory distress.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas Óseas , Traumatismos del Cuello , Fracturas Óseas/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Hueso Hioides/lesiones , Masculino , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagen , Maniobra de Valsalva
7.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(2): e056, abr.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254595

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Estudiar morfométricamente el complejo estilohioideo (CEH) mediante tomografía computarizada multicorte (TCM). Materiales y métodos: Investigación descriptiva, retrospectiva y transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 238 estudios de TCM, pertenecientes a pacientes de ambos sexos con edades entre 20 y 87 años, con indicación de tomografía para el macizo craneofacial. Se realizó la medición de la longitud del CEH en vistas laterales de reconstrucciones volumétricas en 3D. Se obtuvo la distribución de estos casos de acuerdo con edad, sexo, lateralidad, tipo de osificación y motivo de indicación del examen. Resultados: La longitud media del CEH fue de 30,66 ± 10,58 mm. Del total de la muestra, 127 (53,4%) individuos mostraron un CEH elongado; de estos, un 63,8% fueron mujeres y un 64,6% de los pacientes presentó un compromiso bilateral del complejo. La mayoría de los sujetos con un CEH elongado tenían edades comprendidas entre 30 y 59 años. El tipo de osificación encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue del tipo I (elongación continua). En cuanto al motivo de indicación del examen, la mayoría de los pacientes fueron referidos para estudio de la articulación temporomandibular. Conclusiones: La TCM es una herramienta útil en la identificación y el estudio morfométrico de la osificación del CEH, tanto en su longitud como tipo. El examen de un CEH osificado es importante para el diagnóstico diferencial de dolor cervicofacial y disfunción de la articulación temporomandibular. (AU)


Objective: tomography (MCT). Materials and methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study. The sample was made up of 238 MCT studies performed in patients of both sexes between 20 to 87 years of age, with indication of tomography of the craniofacial complex. The length of the SHC was measured in lateral views of 3D volumetric reconstructions. The distribution of these cases was obtained according to age, sex, laterality, type and the reason for the examination. Results: The mean length of the SHC was 30.66 ± 10.58 mm. Of the total sample, 127 (53.4%) individuals showed an elongated SHC; of these, 63.8% were women and 64.6% of the patients presented a bilateral compromise of the complex. Most of the subjects with an elongated SHC were between 30 and 59 years old. The type of ossification most frequently found was type I (continuous elongation). Regarding the reason for the examination, most of the individuals were referred for study of the temporomandibular joint. Conclusions: MCT is a useful tool for the identification and morphometric study of ossification of the SHC, both in length and type. Examination of an ossified SHC is important for the differential diagnosis of cervico-facial pain and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Hueso Temporal , Tomografía Computarizada Multidetector , Hueso Hioides , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Minerva Dent Oral Sci ; 70(3): 97-102, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral breathing and downward tongue position are generally associated with transverse hypo-development of the upper maxilla. Rapid maxillary expansion aims to expand the upper maxilla transversely. This pilot retrospective clinical study evaluates the effects of rapid maxillary expansion therapy on the resting position of the tongue, on the position of the hyoid bone and on clinical respiratory pattern in a group of mouth breathing patients with mono- or bilateral cross-bites due to transversal deficits of the maxilla. METHODS: A total of 39 prepubertal oral breathing subjects with posterior cross-bite (mean age 8.5 year) have been studied. Before (T0) and after treatment (T1), changes in the position of the hyoid bone and tongue were evaluated by comparing latero-lateral radiographs (TLL), while the modification of respiratory patterns by a clinical and anamnestic assessment. RESULTS: After the treatment, the dorsum of tongue moved closer to the palatine vault, the position of the hyoid bone did not undergo significant variations and the respiratory pattern clinically improved in 64% of subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In patients in early stages of oral respiratory development, rapid maxillary expansion promoted correct tongue position but did not produce significant changes in the position of the hyoid bone. It has been observed a general improvement of the breathing pattern.


Asunto(s)
Hueso Hioides , Técnica de Expansión Palatina , Cefalometría , Niño , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Proyectos Piloto , Respiración , Estudios Retrospectivos , Lengua
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073586

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Ultrasound provides a radiation-free and portable method for assessing swallowing. Hyoid bone locations and displacements are often used as important indicators for the evaluation of swallowing disorders. However, this requires clinicians to spend a great deal of time reviewing the ultrasound images. (2) Methods: In this study, we applied tracking algorithms based on deep learning and correlation filters to detect hyoid locations in ultrasound videos collected during swallowing. Fifty videos were collected from 10 young, healthy subjects for training, evaluation, and testing of the trackers. (3) Results: The best performing deep learning algorithm, Fully-Convolutional Siamese Networks (SiamFC), proved to have reliable performance in getting accurate hyoid bone locations from each frame of the swallowing ultrasound videos. While having a real-time frame rate (175 fps) when running on an RTX 2060, SiamFC also achieved a precision of 98.9% at the threshold of 10 pixels (3.25 mm) and 80.5% at the threshold of 5 pixels (1.63 mm). The tracker's root-mean-square error and average error were 3.9 pixels (1.27 mm) and 3.3 pixels (1.07 mm), respectively. (4) Conclusions: Our results pave the way for real-time automatic tracking of the hyoid bone in ultrasound videos for swallowing assessment.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Trastornos de Deglución , Deglución , Fluoroscopía , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen
10.
Eur Radiol ; 31(10): 7827-7833, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864138

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Although laryngohyoid fracture indicates the applied neck pressure and is an important finding in hanging individuals, the reported rate varies widely and its true incidence remains controversial. We used computed tomography (CT) studies to investigate the incidence of laryngohyoid fracture in hanging individuals and identify factors contributing to such fractures. METHODS: Considered for inclusion in this study were 107 attempted or successful hanging individuals subjected to CT studies between 2005 and 2019. After excluding 19 whose images were inadequate for evaluation, 88 subjects were included. Body suspension was complete in 20, partial in 49, and unknown in 19; 54 (61.4%) individuals died. Two radiologists performed image analysis and recorded the presence and site of laryngohyoid fractures. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for factor analysis of laryngohyoid fractures; it included the gender, the age (< or ≧ 40 years), the type of suspension (complete or incomplete), and the outcome (death or survival). RESULTS: Of the 88 subjects, 35 (39.8%) presented with laryngohyoid fractures on CT images; the superior horn of the thyroid cartilage was fractured in 32 (91.4%) of the 35. Age was the only factor significantly related to laryngohyoid fracture (odds ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-7.52). CONCLUSIONS: In hanging individuals, the incidence of laryngohyoid fracture on CT images was 39.8%. The superior horn of the thyroid cartilage was the most frequent fracture site. KEY POINTS: • The incidence of laryngohyoid fracture on CT images of hanging individuals was almost 40%; the superior horn of the thyroid cartilage was the most frequent fracture site. • In older hanging individuals, attention must be paid to laryngohyoid fractures on CT images.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas Óseas , Hueso Hioides , Adulto , Anciano , Análisis Factorial , Fracturas Óseas/diagnóstico por imagen , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Incidencia , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806739

RESUMEN

Orthodontic treatment acts through the application of forces and/or by stimulating and redirecting the functional forces within the craniofacial complex. Considering the interrelationship between craniomandibular and craniocervical systems, this intervention may alter craniocervical posture. Thus, our aim is to (a) compare craniocervical posture, hyoid bone position, and craniofacial morphology before, after, and also in the contention phase at least one year after the orthodontic treatment, in patients with temporomandibular disorders and (b) to verify whether the presence of condylar displacement, the skeletal class, or the facial biotype interferes with the abovementioned outcomes. To do so an observational, analytical, longitudinal, and retrospective design study was carried out. A non-probabilistic convenience sampling method was applied. The sample consisted of clinical records of patients diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders in order to compare pre-orthodontic treatment with post-orthodontic treatment (n = 42) and contention phase data (n = 26). A cephalometric analysis of several variables was performed. The p-value was set as 0.05. When the pre- and post-orthodontic treatment data were analyzed, there were statistically significant changes in variables concerning craniocervical posture (CV angle, C0-C1, and AA-PNS) and also concerning hyoid bone position (C3-Rgn). When pre- and post-orthodontic treatment and contention phase data were analyzed the variables concerning craniocervical posture (C0-C1, CVT/Ver, NSL/OPT, NSL/CVT, NSL/Ver; OPT/CVT, OPT/Ver) and facial biotype had statistically significant changes. This allowed us to conclude that in the sample studied, there were significant differences regarding hyoid bone position (pre- versus post-orthodontic treatment) and craniocervical posture (pre- versus post-orthodontic versus contention), with the craniocervical posture being prone to return to basal values. The presence of condylar displacement was found to significantly increase the H-H1 distance in the three moments of evaluation. Facial biotype was found to significantly increase the NSL/Ver angle on hypodivergent compared to hyperdivergent in the contention phase.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular , Cefalometría , Cabeza/anatomía & histología , Humanos , Hueso Hioides , Postura , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular/terapia
12.
J Int Med Res ; 49(4): 300060521999765, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853437

RESUMEN

Thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) is a congenital neck malformation, with a rate of approximately 7% in paediatric patients. TGDC is rarely detected in infants aged younger than 1 year. Even though TGDC is histologically benign, it is associated with preterm delivery or sudden infant death due to airway obstruction, with a mortality rate of 30% to 40%. We report a rare case of a neonate who presented with a large left lateral neck mass. At 7 to 8 months of gestation, magnetic resonance imaging of the foetal neck showed that there was a high possibility of a cervical cystic lymphangioma. The patient had normal vital signs and was afebrile. She was immediately transferred to our Ear, Nose, and Throat Department for further diagnosis and treatment. A computed tomography scan confirmed a large cystic mass that was positioned against a thyroglossal duct. Excision of the mass in the left neck was performed under general anaesthesia without resecting part of the hyoid bone. A histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a TGDC. Follow-up at 1 year showed no recurrence.


Asunto(s)
Linfangioma Quístico , Quiste Tirogloso , Anciano , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Hueso Hioides , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Linfangioma Quístico/diagnóstico por imagen , Linfangioma Quístico/cirugía , Cuello/diagnóstico por imagen , Cuello/cirugía , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Quiste Tirogloso/diagnóstico por imagen , Quiste Tirogloso/cirugía
13.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 24(4): 575-584, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713375

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to characterize the craniofacial and airway morphology of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) individuals using computed tomography (CT) examination. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: This sample included individuals in the age range from 5 to 14 years, consisted of a group of 18 OAVS individuals (12 females and 6 males), Pruzansky-Kaban1 IIB and III and by a paired control group matched by age and sex for comparison of morphometric and airway variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through the CT examination, airway analysis was performed using Dolphin Imaging® Software, and seven morphometric measurements were performed to evaluate craniofacial morphology by Materialize Mimics® Software. To compare airway and morphometric variables, the control group was used. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to compare differences between the groups. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were showed between the control and OAVS groups for the variables: total airway (TA) area, volume and MAA, RP area, RP volume, RP MAA, RG volume, RG MAA, total posterior height diff, Md incl and y-axis asymmetry. Pearson and Spearman's correlation showed mostly moderate correlations between Mand Occlusal canting AS with TA area and RP volume, Ax-Gn with TA area and Hy-C3 with TA volume. CONCLUSIONS: The OAVS's airway was altered and worse than the control group. Our results suggest that the contralateral side of OAVS individuals is unaffected; however, longitudinal assessments are needed to confirm it. Hyoid bone and postural measures play an important role in interpreting airway features of individuals with and without OAVS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Goldenhar , Femenino , Síndrome de Goldenhar/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248770, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730038

RESUMEN

There are currently no standard evaluation tools for poststroke neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. We previously suggested calculating the relative movements of the hyoid bone and larynx by ultrasonography to evaluate swallowing movement. Swallowing movement is altered in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify whether an ultrasonographic evaluation of swallowing movement facilitates the detection of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Eighteen healthy male elderly participants (the healthy group) and 18 male stroke patients diagnosed with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (the dysphagia group) were enrolled. Participants swallowed 5 mL of liquid and water with an adjusted viscosity and the movements of the hyoid bone and larynx were visualized by ultrasonography. The results obtained revealed significant differences in laryngeal duration (static phase), laryngeal displacement (elevation phase), and the hyoid bone-laryngeal motion ratio (HL motion ratio) between the two groups. A multiple regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors, and laryngeal duration (static phase) and the HL motion ratios were identified as factors affecting dysphagia. In the receiver operation characteristic curve of the two variations, the area under the curve for laryngeal duration (static phase) was 0.744 and the cut-off was 0.26 sec with 72.2% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity; the area under the curve for the HL motion ratio was 0.951 and the cut-off was 0.56 with 88.9% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. Therefore, the objective evaluation of hyoid bone and larynx movements during swallowing by ultrasonography facilitated the detection of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Deglución/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastornos de Deglución/etiología , Deglución/fisiología , Tamizaje Masivo , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagen , Faringe/fisiopatología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Ultrasonografía , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Curva ROC , Análisis de Regresión
15.
Eur J Orthod ; 43(4): 415-423, 2021 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681980

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the three-dimensional (3D) changes of the upper airway in patients with Class II malocclusion treated with functional appliances (FAs). SEARCH METHODS AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: A comprehensive search of seven electronic databases was conducted from the date of inception to 12 July 2020. Manual search was also performed in relevant Chinese and English periodicals. Prospective and retrospective studies evaluating the 3D airway changes after FAs applied on growing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Risk of bias assessment of each included study was performed referring to ROBINS-I. The effects of FAs on upper airway were evaluated by meta-analysis using STATA software. The outcome variables were the changes of oropharyngeal airway volumes (OAVs), nasopharyngeal airway volumes (NAVs), minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) and antero-posterior position of hyoid bone (HB). The overall quality of evidence for each outcome was rated based on Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation recommendations. RESULTS: Nine studies were ultimately included in the systematic review and five were included and analyzed in meta-analysis. The results indicated that the pooled mean differences among these studies were 2162.80 [95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1264.97, 3060.62), 382.20 (95 per cent CI: 140.95, 623.44), 59.91 (95 per cent CI: 41.45, 78.38), and 0.63 (95 per cent CI: -1.97, 3.23) for changes of OAVs, NAVs, MCA, and antero-posterior position of HB, respectively. CONCLUSION: Weak evidence suggests that FAs can increase OAVs, NAVs, and MCA in growing patients with Class II malocclusion. Weak evidence also suggests that antero-posterior position of HB cannot be affected by FAs. Further studies are necessary to assess the stability of its effect on the upper airway in the long term. REGISTRATION: The review protocol was not registered prior to the study.


Asunto(s)
Maloclusión Clase II de Angle , Humanos , Hueso Hioides , Maloclusión Clase II de Angle/diagnóstico por imagen , Maloclusión Clase II de Angle/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos , Sistema Respiratorio , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 15-20, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780179

RESUMEN

Abstract: Objective To explore the feasibility of the CT image reconstruction of laryngeal cartilage and hyoid bone in adult age estimation using data mining methods. Methods The neck thin slice CT scans of 413 individuals aged 18 to <80 years were collected and divided into test set and train set, randomly. According to grading methods such as TURK et al., all samples were graded comprehensively. The process of thyroid cartilage ossification was divided into 6 stages, the process of cricoid cartilage ossification was divided into 5 stages, and the synosteosis between the greater horn of hyoid and hyoid body was divided into 3 stages. Multiple linear regression model, support vector regression model, and Bayesian ridge regression model were developed for adult age estimation by scikit-learn 0.17 machine learning kit (Python language). Leave-one-out cross-validation and the test set were used to further evaluate performance of the models. Results All indicators were moderately or poorly associated with age. The model with the highest accuracy in male age estimation was the support vector regression model, with a mean absolute error of 8.67 years, much higher than the other two models. The model with the highest accuracy in female adult age estimation was the support vector regression model, with a mean absolute error of 12.69 years, but its accuracy differences with the other two models had no statistical significance. Conclusion Data mining technology can improve the accuracy of adult age estimation, but the accuracy of adult age estimation based on laryngeal cartilage and hyoid bone is still not satisfactory, so it should be combined with other indicators in practice.


Asunto(s)
Hueso Hioides , Cartílagos Laríngeos , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Minería de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Cartílagos Laríngeos/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
17.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(3): 256-262, 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663155

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the effect of extraction on upper airway in skeletal class Ⅰ adolescents. Methods: According to random number table method, 30 skeletal class Ⅰteenagers who underwent orthodontic straight wire treatment were selected randomly in Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University between January 2016 and December 2019. There were 13 males and 17 females, aged (13.7±1.5) years (12.2-15.7 years). In all patients, four first premolars were removed and the upper and lower anterior teeth were retracted under non-maximal anchorage (non-implant anchorage or face bow). The cone-beam CT (CBCT) data before and after orthodontic extraction treatments were studied. The three-dimensional model of the upper airway was reconstructed and segmented, and the relevant indexes of oropharyngeal volume and cross-sectional area were measured. Cephalograms was generated to measure tooth-jaw indexes and hyoid position. The changes of each index before and after orthodontic treatment were compared. The correlation between the changes in the volume or sectional area of the oropharyngeal airway and the changes in the dental and maxillary indexes and the hyoid position was tested. Results: Compared with those before treatment, palatopharyngeal volume, glossopharyngeal volume, oropharyngeal total volume, and minimum transection area increased by 632 (558) mm3, 758 (549) mm3, 1 454 (955) mm3 and 14 (29) mm2 respectively, and statistically significant differences were found (P<0.05). The minimum oropharyngeal area was mostly located in the glossopharynx. The cross-sectional area and the maximum anterior-posterior diameter of uvula tip decreased by (4±10) mm2 and (0.4±0.8) mm respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the maximum lateral diameter before and after treatment (P>0.05). The ratio of the maximum antero-posterior diameter to the maximum lateral diameter at the uvula tip decreased from 0.589 (0.034) before treatment to 0.535 (0.047) after treatment (P<0.05), indicating that its shape tends to be more elliptic after treatment. In addition, the change of cross-sectional area at the apex of uvula was positively correlated with the changes of mandibular central incisor lip inclination and the distances from the upper and lower central incisor points to the Frankfort plane perpendicular to the sella point (UI-FHp and LI-FHp) (P<0.05). Conclusions: The impact of orthodontic extraction treatment on oropharyngeal airway was generally small in skeletal class Ⅰ adolescents. However, it could change the shape of the airway to some extent. The change of airway cross-sectional area at the uvula tip was positively correlated with the retraction of anterior teeth.


Asunto(s)
Mandíbula , Maxilar , Adolescente , Diente Premolar , Cefalometría , Niño , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Femenino , Humanos , Hueso Hioides , Masculino , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(3): 321-328, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723104

RESUMEN

Objective: This study investigated the relationship between hyoid position and vertical dental dimensions (overbite), and the influence of gender on the location of this bone. Methods: One hundred and seventy-four standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs were randomly selected from a pool of radiographs of patients seeking orthodontic treatment with ages ranging from 10 to 58 years. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their vertical dental dimensions (overbite) into reduced, normal, and increased overbite groups. The hyoid bone position was determined by four horizontal linear and three vertical linear line measurements. Associations between the position of the bone and different vertical dental patterns were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison analysis. Results: There was a progressive increase in the horizontal linear position of the hyoid bone parameters across the groups from the reduced through normal to increase overbite. Similarly, a statistical reduction in the vertical linear positions of the hyoid bone parameters was found across the groups from reduced overbite through normal overbite to increased overbite (P < 0.05). The vertical linear hyoid bone positions were located higher in the male than in female subjects. Tukey's multiple comparison analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference in the vertical linear hyoid bone positions between reduced and normal overbite groups and between reduced and increased overbite groups. Conclusion: The hyoid bone was positioned more antero-inferiorly and more postero-superiorly in subjects with reduced overbite and increased overbite, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Hueso Hioides , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometría , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Hueso Hioides/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(2): 569-573, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704982

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to quantify upper airway changes following mandibular orthognathic surgery. Treatment records of 50 patients who underwent mandibular orthognathic surgery were divided into 2 groups, that is, Group 1: Cases treated with Mandibular Advancement Surgery and Group 2: Cases treated with Mandibular Setback Surgery with 25 patients in each group. The Lateral Cephalogram and Acoustic Pharyngometry records of both groups were studied at T0 (01 week before surgery) and T1 (01 year postsurgery) for changes in linear airway measurements (Nasopharyngeal Airway Space - NAS, Superior Airway Space - SAS, Posterior Airway Space - PAS and Hypopharyngeal Airway Space (HAS)), hyoid bone position (Mandibular Plane Hyoid distance), mean area and mean volume. The percentage change and change in these parameters per millimeter advancement or setback of mandible at T1 was calculated. A significant increase in linear airway parameters (SAS and PAS); decrease in hyoid distance; and increase in volume and area of upper airway was observed at T1 in Group 1 and reverse was observed in Group 2. The change in airway parameters (SAS, PAS, mean volume and area) was more significant in Group 1 as compared to Group 2. In the current airway centric approach, meticulous assessment and prediction of long-term airway changes post surgery should be an integral part of ortho-surgical diagnosis and treatment planning and suitable modifications in the treatment plan must be made to cater for any potential adverse effects on airway.


Asunto(s)
Maloclusión de Angle Clase III , Cirugía Ortognática , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Cefalometría , Humanos , Hueso Hioides , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/cirugía , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagen
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1946): 20210052, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715426

RESUMEN

All mammalian infants suckle, a fundamentally different process than drinking in adults. Infant mammal oropharyngeal anatomy is also anteroposteriorly compressed and becomes more elongate postnatally. While suckling and drinking require different patterns of muscle use and kinematics, little insight exists into how the neuromotor and anatomical systems change through the time that infants suckle. We measured the orientation, activity and contractile patterns of five muscles active during infant feeding from early infancy until weaning using a pig model. Muscles not aligned with the long axis of the body became less mediolaterally orientated with age. However, the timing of activation and the contractile patterns of those muscles exhibited little change, although variation was larger in younger infants than older infants. At both ages, there were differences in contractile patterns within muscles active during both sucking and swallowing, as well as variation among muscles during swallowing. The changes in anatomy, coupled with less variation closer to weaning and little change in muscle firing and shortening patterns suggest that the neuromotor system may be optimized to transition to solid foods. The lesser consequences of aspiration during feeding on an all-liquid diet may not necessitate the evolution of variation in neuromotor function through infancy.


Asunto(s)
Deglución , Hueso Hioides , Animales , Electromiografía , Contracción Muscular , Porcinos , Destete
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