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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259259, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364517

RESUMEN

Rice is a widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population. Approximately 90% of the world's rice is grown in Asian continent and constitutes a staple food for 2.7 billion people worldwide. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the devastating diseases of rice. A field experiment was conducted during the year 2016 and 2017 to investigate the influence of different meteorological parameters on BLB development as well as the computation of a predictive model to forecast the disease well ahead of its appearance in the field. The seasonal dataset of disease incidence and environmental factors was used to assess five rice varieties/ cultivars (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati, and IRRI-9). The accumulated effect of two year environmental data; maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall, was studied and correlated with disease incidence. Average temperature (maximum & minimum) showed a negative significant correlation with BLB disease and all other variables; relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed had a positive correlation with BLB disease development on individual varieties. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to indicate potentially useful predictor variables and to rule out incompetent parameters. Environmental data from the growing seasons of July to October 2016 and 2017 revealed that, with the exception of the lowest temperature, all environmental factors contributed to disease development throughout the cropping season. A disease prediction multiple regression model was developed based on two-year data (Y = 214.3-3.691 Max T-0.508 Min T + 0.767 RH + 2.521 RF + 5.740 WS), which explained 95% variability. This disease prediction model will not only help farmers in early detection and timely management of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice but may also help reduce input costs and improve product quality and quantity. The model will be both farmer and environmentally friendly.


O arroz é um alimento básico amplamente consumido por grande parte da população humana mundial. Aproximadamente 90% do arroz do mundo é cultivado no continente asiático e constitui um alimento básico para 2,7 bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O crestamento bacteriano das folhas (BLB) causado por Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae é uma das doenças devastadoras do arroz. Um experimento de campo foi realizado durante os anos de 2016 e 2017 para investigar a influência de diferentes parâmetros meteorológicos no desenvolvimento do BLB, bem como o cálculo de um modelo preditivo para prever a doença bem antes de seu aparecimento em campo. O conjunto de dados sazonais de incidência de doenças e fatores ambientais foi usado para avaliar cinco variedades/cultivares de arroz (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati e IRRI-9). O efeito acumulado de dados ambientais de dois anos; temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluviométrica foram estudados e correlacionados com a incidência da doença. A temperatura média (máxima e mínima) apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a doença BLB e todas as outras variáveis; umidade relativa, precipitação e velocidade do vento tiveram uma correlação positiva com o desenvolvimento da doença BLB em variedades individuais. A análise de regressão stepwise foi realizada para indicar variáveis preditoras potencialmente úteis e para descartar parâmetros incompetentes. Os dados ambientais das safras de julho a outubro de 2016 e 2017 revelaram que, com exceção da temperatura mais baixa, todos os fatores ambientais contribuíram para o desenvolvimento da doença ao longo da safra. Um modelo de regressão múltipla de previsão de doença foi desenvolvido com base em dados de dois anos (Y = 214,3-3,691 Max T-0,508 Min T + 0,767 RH + 2,521 RF + 5,740 WS), que explicou 95% de variabilidade. Este modelo de previsão de doenças não só ajudará os agricultores na detecção precoce e gestão atempada da doença bacteriana das folhas do arroz, mas também pode ajudar a reduzir os custos de insumos e melhorar a qualidade e a quantidade do produto. O modelo será agricultor e ambientalmente amigável.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Temperatura , Plagas Agrícolas , Humedad
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5416, 2022 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109531

RESUMEN

Numerous studies have shown flexible electronics play important roles in health management. The way of power supply is always an essential factor of devices and self-powered ones are very attractive because of the fabrication easiness, usage comfort and aesthetics of the system. In this work, based on the metal-air redox reaction, which is usually used in designing metal-air batteries, we design a self-powered chemoelectric humidity sensor where a silk fibroin (SF) and LiBr gel matrix containing parallel aligned graphene oxide (GO) flakes serve as the electrolyte. The abundant hydrophilic groups in GO/SF and the hygroscopicity of LiBr lead to tight dependence of the output current on the humidity, enabling the sensor high sensitivity (0.09 µA/s/1%), fast response (1.05 s) and quick recovery (0.80 s). As proofs of concept, we design an all-in-one respiratory monitoring-diagnosing-treatment system and a non-contact human-machine interface, demonstrating the applications of the chemoelectric humidity sensor in health management.


Asunto(s)
Fibroínas , Grafito , Humanos , Humedad , Metales , Oxidación-Reducción
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273511, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Observations based on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 early into the COVID-19 pandemic have suggested a reduced burden in tropical regions leading to the assumption of a dichotomy between cold and dry and wet and warm climates. OBJECTIVES: Analyzing more than a whole year of COVID-19 infection data, this study intents to refine the understanding of meteorological variables (temperature, humidity, precipitation and cloud coverage) on COVID-19 transmission in settings that experience distinct seasonal changes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A time stratified case-crossover design was adopted with a conditional Poisson model in combination with a distributed lag nonlinear model to assess the short-term impact of mentioned meteorological factors on COVID-19 infections in five US study sites (New York City (NYC); Marion County, Indiana (MCI); Baltimore and Baltimore County, Maryland (BCM); Franklin County, Ohio (FCO); King County, Washington (KCW)). Higher-than-average temperatures were consistently associated with a decreased relative risk (RR) of COVID-19 infection in four study sites. At 20 degrees Celsius COVID-19 infection was associated with a relative risk of 0.35 (95%CI: 0.20-0.60) in NYC, 1.03 (95%CI:0.57-1.84) in MCI, 0.34 (95%CI: 0.20-0.57) in BCM, 0.52 (95%CI: 0.31-0.87) in FCO and 0.21 (95%CI: 0.10-0.44) in KCW. Higher-than-average humidity levels were associated with an increased relative risk of COVID-19 infection in four study sites. Relative to their respective means, at a humidity level of 15 g/kg (specific humidity) the RR was 5.83 (95%CI: 2.05-16.58) in BCM, at a humidity level of 10 g/kg the RR was 3.44 (95%CI: 1.95-6.01) in KCW. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest opposed effects for higher-than-average temperature and humidity concerning the risk of COVID-19 infection. While a distinct seasonal pattern of COVID-19 has not yet emerged, warm and humid weather should not be generally regarded as a time of reduced risk of COVID-19 infections.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Cruzados , Humanos , Humedad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura
4.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 32(5): 720-726, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104526

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Both influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses show a strong seasonal spreading in temperate regions. Several studies indicated that changes in indoor humidity could be one of the key factors explaining this. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to quantify the association between relevant epidemiological metrics and humidity in both influenza and SARS-CoV-2 epidemic periods. METHODS: The atmospheric dew point temperature serves as a proxy for indoor relative humidity. This study considered the weekly mortality rate in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2019 to determine the correlation between the dew point and the spread of influenza. During influenza epidemic periods in the Netherlands, governmental restrictions were absent; therefore, there is no need to control this confounder. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, governmental restrictions strongly varied over time. To control this effect, periods with a relatively constant governmental intervention level were selected to analyze the reproduction rate. We also examine SARS-CoV-2 deaths in the nursing home setting, where health policy and social factors were less variable. Viral transmissibility was measured by computing the ratio between the estimated daily number of infectious persons in the Netherlands and the lagged mortality figures in the nursing homes. RESULTS: For both influenza and SARS-CoV-2, a significant correlation was found between the dew point temperature and the aforementioned epidemiological metrics. The findings are consistent with the anticipated mechanisms related to droplet evaporation, stability of virus in the indoor environment, and impairment of the natural defenses of the respiratory tract in dry air. SIGNIFICANCE: This information is helpful to understand the seasonal pattern of respiratory viruses and motivate further study to what extent it is possible to alter the seasonal pattern by actively intervening in the adverse role of low humidity during fall and winter in temperate regions. IMPACT: A solid understanding and quantification of the role of humidity on the transmission of respiratory viruses is imperative for epidemiological modeling and the installation of non-pharmaceutical interventions. The results of this study indicate that improving the indoor humidity by humidifiers could be a promising technology for reducing the spread of both influenza and SARS-CoV-2 during winter and fall in the temperate zone. The identification of this potential should be seen as a strong motivation to invest in further prospective testing of this non-pharmaceutical intervention.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , Humanos , Humedad , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Estaciones del Año
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274782, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112658

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the hematological changes associated with heat exposure in a population of bakers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Personal information was collected using a questionnaire, and a venous blood sample was drawn at the end of a work shift from the bakers and from a control group. The average wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index was measured in the workplaces of both the bakers and the controls. RESULTS: This cross-sectional study involved 137 bakers working in 20 bakeries and 107 controls who were comparable in terms of likely confounding factors. Hemoglobin and platelet values were abnormal among the bakers and statistically significantly different to the control group (P = 0.026, and P = 0.016 respectively). The average WBGT index in the bakeries was 37.4°C, while the average WBGT in the workplaces of the controls was 25.5°C, (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The changes in the bakers' hematological parameters were found to be associated with exposure to high environmental heat at bakeries, as measured by the WBGT index. Preventive measures should be introduced to reduce the adverse effect of heat exposure among bakers and directed toward the worker-equipment-environment triad.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Estrés por Calor , Exposición Profesional , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/epidemiología , Calor , Humanos , Humedad , Masculino , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Lugar de Trabajo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077553

RESUMEN

Heat stress (HS) damages the global beef industry by reducing growth performance causing high economic losses each year. However, understanding the physiological mechanisms of HS in Hanwoo calves remains elusive. The objective of this study was to identify the potential biomarkers and metabolic pathways involving different levels of heat stress in Hanwoo calves. Data were collected from sixteen Hanwoo bull calves (169.6 ± 4.6 days old, BW of 136.9 ± 6.2 kg), which were maintained at four designated ranges of HS according to the temperature-humidity index (THI) including: threshold (22 to 24 °C, 60%; THI = 70 to 73), mild (26 to 28 °C, 60%; THI = 74 to 76), moderate (29 to 31 °C, 80%; THI = 81 to 83), and severe (32 to 34 °C, 80%; THI = 89 to 91) using climate-controlled chambers. Blood was collected once every three days to analyze metabolomics. Metabolic changes in the serum of calves were measured using GC-TOF-MS, and the obtained data were calculated by multivariate statistical analysis. Five metabolic parameters were upregulated and seven metabolic parameters were downregulated in the high THI level compared with the threshold (p < 0.05). Among the parameters, carbohydrates (ribose, myo-inositol, galactose, and lactose), organic compounds (acetic acid, urea, and butenedioic acid), fatty acid (oleic acid), and amino acids (asparagine and lysine) were remarkably influenced by HS. These novel findings support further in-depth research to elucidate the blood-based changes in metabolic pathways in heat-stressed Hanwoo beef calves at different levels of THI. In conclusion, these results indicate that metabolic parameters may act as biomarkers to explain the HS effects in Hanwoo calves.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Estrés por Calor , Animales , Biomarcadores , Bovinos , Femenino , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/veterinaria , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Calor , Humedad , Lactancia , Masculino , Redes y Vías Metabólicas
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078575

RESUMEN

Studying the in-shoe microclimate of older individuals is important for enhancing their foot comfort and preventing foot diseases. However, there is a lack of scientific work that explores the thermo-physiological wear comfort of older individuals with different footwear. This study aims to examine the effects of upper footwear materials on changes and distributions in the foot skin temperature and relative humidity for older individuals. Forty older individuals are recruited to perform sitting and walking activities under four experimental conditions in a conditioning chamber. The findings indicate that footwear upper constructed of highly permeable mesh fabric with large air holes shows fewer changes in foot skin temperature (ranging from 1.3 to 3.3 °C) and relative humidity (ranging from -13.3 to 5.7%) throughout the entire foot during dynamic walking, as well as higher subjective ratings on perceived thermal comfort when compared to footwear made of synthetic leather and composite layers. The findings serve to enhance current understanding of designing footwear with optimum comfort for older adults.


Asunto(s)
Pie , Temperatura Cutánea , Anciano , Pie/fisiología , Humanos , Humedad , Zapatos , Temperatura
8.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080377

RESUMEN

The flue gas from fossil fuel power plants is a long-term stable and concentrated emission source of CO2, and it is imperative to reduce its emission. Adsorbents have played a pivotal role in reducing CO2 emissions in recent years, but the presence of water vapor in flue gas poses a challenge to the stability of adsorbents. In this study, ZIF-94, one of the ZIF adsorbents, showed good CO2 uptake (53.30 cm3/g), and the calculated CO2/N2 (15:85, v/v) selectivity was 54.12 at 298 K. Because of its excellent structural and performance stability under humid conditions, the CO2/N2 mixture was still well-separated on ZIF-94 with a separation time of 30.4 min when the relative humidity was as high as 99.2%, which was similar to the separation time of the dry gas experiments (33.2 min). These results pointed to the enormous potential applications of ZIF-94 for CO2/N2 separation under high humidity conditions in industrial settings.


Asunto(s)
Estructuras Metalorgánicas , Adsorción , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Humedad , Estructuras Metalorgánicas/química , Centrales Eléctricas
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080980

RESUMEN

With increasing urbanization, the application of Internet of things (IoT) technology to city governance has become a trend in architecture, transportation, and healthcare management, making IoT applicable in various domains. This study used IoT to inspect green construction and adopted a front-end sensing system, middle-end wireless transmission, and a back-end multifunctional system structure with cloud management. It integrated civil and electrical engineering to develop environmental monitoring technology and proposed a management information system for the implementation of green engineering. This study collected physical "measurements" of the greening environment on a campus. Ambient temperature and humidity were analyzed to explore the greening and energy-saving benefits of a green roof, a pervious road, and a photovoltaic roof. When the ambient temperature was below 25 °C, the solar panels had an insulation effect on the roof of the building during both 4:00-5:00 and 12:00-13:00, with an optimal insulation effect of 2.45 °C. When the ambient temperature was above 25 °C, the panels had a cooling effect on the roof of the building, whether during 4:00-5:00 or 12:00-13:00, with an optimal cooling effect of 5.77 °C. During the lower temperature period (4:00-5:00), the ecological terrace had an insulation effect on the space beneath, with an effect of approximately 1-3 °C and a mean insulation of 1.95 °C. During the higher temperature period (12:00-13:00), it presented a cooling effect on the space beneath, with an effect of approximately 0.5-9 °C and a mean cooling temperature of 5.16 °C. The cooling effect of the three greening areas on air and ground temperature decreased in the following order: pervious road > photovoltaic roof > ecological terrace.


Asunto(s)
Frío , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ciudades , Humedad , Temperatura
10.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(194): 20220372, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128704

RESUMEN

Grand canonical ensemble molecular dynamics simulations are done to calculate the water content of gecko ß-keratin as a function of relative humidity (RH). For comparison, we experimentally measured the water uptake of scales of the skin of cobra Naja nigricollis. The calculated sigmoidal sorption isotherm is in good agreement with experiment. To examine the softening effect of water on gecko keratin, we have calculated the mechanical properties of dry and wet keratin samples, and we have established relations between the mechanical properties and the RH. We found that a higher RH causes a decrease in the Young's modulus, the yield stress, the yield strain, the stress at failure and an increase in the strain at failure of the gecko keratin. At low RHs (less than 80%), the change in the mechanical properties is small, with most of the changes occurring at higher RHs. The changes in the macroscopic properties of the keratin are explained by the action of sorbed water on the molecular scale. It causes keratin to swell, thereby increasing the distances between amino acids. This has a weakening effect on amino acid interactions and softens the keratin material. The effect is more pronounced at higher RHs.


Asunto(s)
Lagartos , beta-Queratinas , Aminoácidos , Animales , Humedad , Queratinas/química , Agua
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 13058-13065, 2022 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067451

RESUMEN

Leaf-air partition coefficient (Kleaf-air) values are needed to understand and predict pesticide volatilization and persistence in agroecosystems. The objectives of this work were to measure Kleaf-air values and foliar penetration for the insecticide chlorpyrifos (as an active ingredient alone and in a pesticide formulation) on alfalfa (lucerne) leaves at a range of temperatures and relative humidities and when using leaves collected in different summer months. Kleaf-air values were measured using a solid-phase fugacity meter. A portion of the leaves were also used for foliar penetration experiments. Kleaf-air values for chlorpyrifos as an active ingredient alone decreased with temperature, while the effects of temperature on chlorpyrifos in the formulation were negligible. No correlations between Kleaf-air values and relative humidity were observed. Foliar penetration increased with temperature for chlorpyrifos both as an active ingredient and in the formulation. Increasing foliar penetration with temperature is attributed to increasing diffusion into inner leaf layers. Both volatilization and foliar penetration affect the measured Kleaf-air values, so understanding the link between these processes is necessary to predict Kleaf-air values. The leaf collection date had a substantial effect on the measured Kleaf-air values, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the role of leaf properties on Kleaf-air.


Asunto(s)
Cloropirifos , Insecticidas , Plaguicidas , Humedad , Insecticidas/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/química , Temperatura
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 296: 119920, 2022 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087975

RESUMEN

Exploration of functional materials based on sustainable and renewable biomolecules has been of much interest. Herein, nature-inspired photonic films were proposed by incorporation of bio-based lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) into chiral nematic cellulose crystals (CNCs). Evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) formed oriented and layered structure of the nanocomposites iridescent films with enlarged helix pitches by intercalation of higher amounts of LNPs. Decreased crystallite sizes and expanding layer gaps indicated the homogeneous distribution and hydrophobic interactions between CNCs and LNPs. Distinguished UV absorption capabilities with over 90 % shielding capabilities in UVB region and increased hydrophobicity with the contact angle of 75° were achieved for the composite films due to the presence of hydrophobic lignin. The proposed optical films also showed outstanding cytocompatibility owing to all-natural components introduced into the materials, which may display great potentials in many fields such as stimuli sensing, anti-counterfeiting and wearable devices.


Asunto(s)
Nanocompuestos , Nanopartículas , Celulosa/química , Humedad , Lignina , Nanocompuestos/química , Nanopartículas/química
13.
Nat Plants ; 8(8): 971-978, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941216

RESUMEN

Stomata are orifices that connect the drier atmosphere with the interconnected network of more humid air spaces that surround the cells within a leaf. Accurate values of the humidities inside the substomatal cavity, wi, and in the air, wa, are needed to estimate stomatal conductance and the CO2 concentration in the internal air spaces of leaves. Both are vital factors in the understanding of plant physiology and climate, ecological and crop systems. However, there is no easy way to measure wi directly. Out of necessity, wi has been taken as the saturation water vapour concentration at leaf temperature, wsat, and applied to the whole leaf intercellular air spaces. We explored the occurrence of unsaturation by examining gas exchange of leaves exposed to various magnitudes of wsat - wa, or Δw, using a double-sided, clamp-on chamber, and estimated degrees of unsaturation from the gradient of CO2 across the leaf that was required to sustain the rate of CO2 assimilation through the upper surface. The relative humidity in the substomatal cavities dropped to about 97% under mild Δw and as dry as around 80% when Δw was large. Measurements of the diffusion of noble gases across the leaf indicated that there were still regions of near 100% humidity distal from the stomatal pores. We suggest that as Δw increases, the saturation edge retreats into the intercellular air spaces, accompanied by the progressive closure of mesophyll aquaporins to maintain the cytosolic water potential.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Hojas de la Planta , Difusión , Humedad , Fotosíntesis/fisiología , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Temperatura
14.
Langmuir ; 38(32): 9863-9873, 2022 08 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913402

RESUMEN

Lateral flow assays and paper microfluidics have the potential to replace benchtop instrumented medical diagnostic systems with instrument-free systems that rely on passive transport of liquid through micro-porous paper substrates. Predicting the imbibition dynamics of liquid through dry paper substrates is mostly modeled through the Lucas-Washburn (LW) equations. However, the LW framework assumes that the fluid front exhibits a sharp boundary between the dry and wet phases across the liquid imbibition interface. Additionally, the relative humidity in the environment results in moisture trapped within the pores of the paper substrates as the paper attains an equilibrium with the ambient air. Here, we apply a two-phase transport framework based on Brooks and Corey's model to capture imbibition dynamics on partially saturated paper substrates. The model is experimentally validated and is then used to predict the liquid-paper imbibition dynamics in simulated environments with 1-70% relative humidity. The model was also used to determine the saturation gradient of liquid along the imbibition interface of the paper substrate. Insights from these studies enabled us to determine the mechanism of the liquid transport in partially saturated porous paper substrates. The model also enabled us to evaluate the optimal paper shapes and relative humidity of the environment that maximize imbibition rates and minimize imbibition front broadening. Finally, we evaluate the effect of moisture content of paper on the rate of paper-based biochemical reaction by amplifying a sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA target via reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Taken together, this study provides some important guidelines to academic and applied researchers working in point-of-care diagnostics to develop paper-based testing platforms that are capable of functioning in a robust manner across multiple environmental conditions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , ARN Viral , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Humedad , Porosidad , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(16)2022 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36015786

RESUMEN

Chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM), but most of the current research mainly focuses on the detection of mechanical properties and there are few studies on the multi-physical parameters (for example, temperature and humidity) in the climatic environment around the structure. Thus, it is necessary to design a small and compact sensor for multi-parameter detection. This paper proposes a multi-parameter chipless RFID sensor based on microstrip coupling, which supports 4-bit ID code and integrates two detection functions of temperature and humidity. Through linear normalization fitting, the sensitivity of the sensor is about 2.18 MHz/RH in the ambient relative humidity test and the sensitivity of the sensor is about 898.63 KHz/°C in the experimental test of water bath heating from 24.6 °C to 75 °C. In addition, this paper proposes an engineering application detection method, designs a lightweight dynamic spectrum detection and wireless transmission platform based on a lightweight vector network analyzer (VNA) and realizes the real-time extraction and transmission of RFID spectrum sensing data. The means are more flexible and economical than traditional experimental scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivo de Identificación por Radiofrecuencia , Humedad , Dispositivo de Identificación por Radiofrecuencia/métodos , Temperatura
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271760, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947557

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, analyses on global data have not reached unanimous consensus on whether warmer and humid weather curbs the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We conjectured that this lack of consensus is due to the discrepancy between global environmental data such as temperature and humidity being collected outdoors, while most infections have been reported to occur indoors, where conditions can be different. Thus, we have methodologically investigated the effect of temperature and relative humidity on the spread of expired respiratory droplets from the mouth, which are assumed to be the main cause of most short-range infections. Calculating the trajectory of individual droplets using an experimentally validated evaporation model, the final height and distance of the evaporated droplets is obtained, and then correlated with global COVID-19 spread. Increase in indoor humidity is associated with reduction in COVID-19 spread, while temperature has no statistically significant effect.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Humedad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura
17.
Anal Chem ; 94(32): 11224-11229, 2022 08 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917478

RESUMEN

A crack-free micrometer-sized compact structure of 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene-terephthaldehyde-covalent organic frameworks (TAPB-PDA-COFs) was constructed in situ at the tip of a theta micropipette (TMP). The COF-covered theta micropipette (CTP) then created a stable liquid-gas interface inside COF nanochannels, which was utilized to electrochemically analyze the content and distribution of ammonia gas in the microenvironments. The TMP-based electrochemical ammonia sensor (TEAS) shows a high sensing response, with current increasing linearly from 0 to 50,000 ppm ammonia, owing to the absorption of ammonia gas in the solvent meniscus that connects both barrels of the TEAS. The TEAS also exhibits a short response and recovery time of 5 ± 2 s and 6 ± 2 s, respectively. This response of the ammonia sensor is remarkably stable and repeatable, with a relative standard deviation of 6% for 500 ppm ammonia gas dispensing with humidity control. Due to its fast, reproducible, and stable response to ammonia gas, the TEAS was also utilized as a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) probe for imaging the distribution of ammonia gas in a microspace. This study unlocks new possibilities for using a TMP in designing microscale probes for gas sensing and imaging.


Asunto(s)
Estructuras Metalorgánicas , Amoníaco/química , Humedad , Estructuras Metalorgánicas/química , Solventes
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(33): 37878-37886, 2022 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948056

RESUMEN

To date, multifunctional sensors have aroused widespread concerns owing to their vital roles in the healthcare area. However, there are still significant challenges in the fabrication of functionalized integrated devices. In this work, hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterns are constructed on polyester-spandex-blended knitted fabric surface by the chemical click method, enabling accurate deposition of functionalized materials for sensitive and stable motion and humidity sensing. Representatively, a conductive silver nanowire (Ag NW) network was deliberately deposited on only the designated hydrophilic fabric surface to realize accurate, repeatable, and stable motion sensing. Such a Ag NWs sensor recorded a low electrical resistance (below 60 Ω), stable resistance cycling response (over 2000 cycles), and fast response time to humidity (0.46 s) during the sensing evaluation. In addition to experimental sensing, real human motions, such as mouth-opening and joint-flexing (wrist and neck), could also be detected using the same sensor. Similar promising outputs were also obtained over the humidity sensor fabricated over the same chemical click method, except the sensing material was replaced with polydopamine-modified carboxylated carbon nanotubes. The resultant sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity to not only experimentally adjusted environment humidity but also to the moisture content of breath and skin during daily activities. On top of all these, both sensors were fabricated over highly flexible fabric that offers high wearability, promising great application potential in the field of healthcare monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Nanotubos de Carbono , Nanocables , Química Clic , Humanos , Humedad , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Plata , Textiles
19.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114080, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964674

RESUMEN

A number of studies suggest that meteorological conditions are related to the risk of Legionnaires' disease (LD) but the findings are not consistent. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association of weather with sporadic LD and highlight the key meteorological conditions related to this outcome. PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and OpenGrey were searched on 26-27 March 2020 without date, language or location restrictions. Key words included "legionellosis", "legionnaires' disease", combined with "meteorological conditions", "weather", "temperature", "humidity", "rain", "ultraviolet rays", "wind speed", etc. Studies were excluded if they did not examine the exposure of interest, the outcome of interest and their association or if they only reported LD outbreak cases. The study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and it was registered in PROSPERO (#CRD42020168869). There were 811 articles, of which 17 were included in the review. The studies investigated different meteorological variables and most of them examined the combined effect of several variables. The most commonly examined factors were precipitation and temperature, followed by relative humidity. The studies suggested that increased precipitation, temperature and relative humidity were positively associated with the incidence of LD. There was limited evidence that higher wind speed, pressure, visibility, UV radiation and longer sunshine duration were inversely linked with the occurrence of LD. A period of increased but not very high temperatures, followed by a period of increased precipitation, favour the occurrence of LD. Increased awareness of the association of temperature and precipitation and LD occurrence among clinicians and public health professionals can improve differential diagnosis for cases of sporadic community-acquired pneumonia and at the same time contribute to improving LD surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de los Legionarios , Humanos , Humedad , Enfermedad de los Legionarios/epidemiología , Enfermedad de los Legionarios/etiología , Meteorología , Temperatura , Tiempo (Meteorología)
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35957425

RESUMEN

Strawberries are sensitive fruits that are afflicted by various pests and diseases. Therefore, there is an intense use of agrochemicals and pesticides during production. Due to their sensitivity, temperatures or humidity at extreme levels can cause various damages to the plantation and to the quality of the fruit. To mitigate the problem, this study developed an edge technology capable of handling the collection, analysis, prediction, and detection of heterogeneous data in strawberry farming. The proposed IoT platform integrates various monitoring services into one common platform for digital farming. The system connects and manages Internet of Things (IoT) devices to analyze environmental and crop information. In addition, a computer vision model using Yolo v5 architecture searches for seven of the most common strawberry diseases in real time. This model supports efficient disease detection with 92% accuracy. Moreover, the system supports LoRa communication for transmitting data between the nodes at long distances. In addition, the IoT platform integrates machine learning capabilities for capturing outliers in collected data, ensuring reliable information for the user. All these technologies are unified to mitigate the disease problem and the environmental damage on the plantation. The proposed system is verified through implementation and tested on a strawberry farm, where the capabilities were analyzed and assessed.


Asunto(s)
Fragaria , Internet de las Cosas , Agricultura , Granjas , Humedad
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