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1.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(1): 30-31, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772130

RESUMEN

Design Randomised controlled trial.Intervention Undergraduate students aged 18 to 35 years were randomly allocated to either navigate a bespoke Instagram page featuring 'ideal' facial images as judged by five orthodontists (n = 71) or neutral images of nature (n = 61). Participants were allowed to view the Instagram page once and for a duration of five minutes.Outcome measures The primary outcome was facial dissatisfaction which was measured using the Facial Satisfaction Scale (FSS). Secondary outcomes included: body dissatisfaction, which was measured using the Body Satisfaction Scale (BSS), and overall body and facial dissatisfaction, measured as a sum of scores of BSS and FSS.Data analysis Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate regression analyses.Results Exposure to 'ideal' facial images on Instagram resulted in significantly lower facial satisfaction scores (-2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.32, -0.46 P <0.016), with no significant difference in BSS (-2.74; CI: -5.66, 0.19) and overall scores (-3.49; CI: -6.10, -0.87) when compared to the control group. Based on the multivariate regression analysis, high baseline self-discrepancy scores negatively affected both FSS and BSS.Conclusions Exposure to 'ideal' facial images on Instagram resulted in an immediate and negative impact on FSS when compared to neutral images of nature. While this study is interesting, further robust research to clarify the effect of various social networking sites on facial and bodily satisfaction remains necessary.


Asunto(s)
Insatisfacción Corporal , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagen Corporal , Humanos , Satisfacción Personal , Sonrisa , Adulto Joven
2.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(1): 81-90, 2021.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686017

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the work of the art therapy groups in the Tündérhegy Psychotherapy Department, the possibilities of integrating images into the therapeutic process. It covers questions such as: How can art therapy fit into the work of a Department of Psychotherapy? How do psychodynamic processes appear in art therapy groups? How can the image help to understand and explore something? Why is it important to include in a Department's psychotherapeutic work non-verbal therapies as well as verbal therapies? I would also like to present my own observations, namely that in the case of patients with a personality disorder, body image plays a prominent role in the process of art therapy. In their case, the body plays a central role in self-represen - tations due to the impairment of the mentalization ability, and experiences are often written on the body. I present the above mentioned questions and the role of body image in the art therapy process on two case studies.


Asunto(s)
Terapia con Arte , Psicoterapia , Imagen Corporal , Humanos , Sensación
3.
Public Health ; 192: 1-2, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592316

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The 'Black Lives Matter' (BLM) movement in 2020 exemplifies efforts to counter prejudices and the colourist narrative. Harmful use of topical skin lightening agents continues worldwide despite interdiction or restricted use under domestic, European and international regulations. STUDY DESIGN: Commentary. METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: In this Short Communication, we consider the significance of societal perspectives of skin colour, glocalized whiteness, efforts to attain self-esteem and social mobility through skin lightening practices, and the role of cosmetic products in fuelling this phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing the inadvertent (or indeed conscious) vehicles of systematic racism and sustaining of skin colour prejudices and stereotypes of fair skin beauty by cosmetic companies is warranted. Targeted health messaging is an imperative.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Prejuicio , Racismo/psicología , Autoimagen , Preparaciones para Aclaramiento de la Piel , Cosméticos , Humanos , Preparaciones para Aclaramiento de la Piel/efectos adversos , Pigmentación de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Movilidad Social
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561092

RESUMEN

Community care nurses educate adolescents about body image, but their interventions appear to be ineffective. Body dissatisfaction predicts unhealthy behaviors among adolescents. This study aimed to understand the meanings and factors that influence the concept of body image through a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies from the perspective of adolescents. Ten studies published from 2009-2019 were identified by a search of relevant systematic databases between September and December 2019. The review followed the seven steps of meta-ethnography developed by Noblit and Hare, including a line-of-argument. The synthesis revealed six themes: self-perception of body image; opinions of friends and colleagues; opinions of family; specific features of the school environment; expectations perceived across the mass-media; and strategies, practices, and self-management of body image. An explanatory model was developed that showed adolescents' development of body image and the path towards its establishment. In conclusion, these results should be considered to implement strategies to promote a healthy body image in adolescents by community health and mental health nurses.


Asunto(s)
Antropología Cultural , Imagen Corporal , Adolescente , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Autoimagen
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 38(1): 161-168, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198853

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: la práctica sistemática de ejercicio físico podría influir en la percepción y distorsión de la imagen corporal de mujeres adultas. OBJETIVO: analizar la evolución de la percepción y la distorsión de la imagen corporal en mujeres adultas que realizan una práctica sistemática de Pilates en suelo (PS) o Pilates con aparatos (PA). METODOLOGÍA: un total de 35 mujeres adultas participaron en un programa de PS (n = 19) o PA (n = 26) durante 16 semanas, dos días por semana. La imagen corporal se valoró antes y después de las intervenciones con el cuestionario "Inventario de la conducta alimentaria 3" (EDI-3), la escala de evaluación de la imagen corporal de Gardner y la escala de siluetas de Thompson y Gray. RESULTADOS: el grupo de PS mostró una reducción significativa de la insatisfacción con los glúteos, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la imagen percibida, el índice de distorsión, el índice de insatisfacción, la imagen mental percibida, la imagen afectiva percibida, el índice de insatisfacción cognitiva y el índice de insatisfacción afectiva (p < 0,05; TE: 0,26-0,80). En relación con el grupo de PA se encontró una disminución significativa de la insatisfacción con los muslos, la insatisfacción con las caderas, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, el índice de insatisfacción, el índice de insatisfacción cognitiva y el índice de insatisfacción afectiva (p < 0,05; 0,22-0,79). CONCLUSIONES: la práctica sistemática de PS o PA mejora la imagen corporal en mujeres adultas, reduciéndose el grado de insatisfacción corporal de las mismas


INTRODUCTION: the systematic practice of physical exercise may influence the perception and distortion of body image in adult women. OBJECTIVE: to analyze the evolution of body image perception and distortion in adult women who performed a systematic practice of mat Pilates (PM) or Pilates with apparatus (PA). METHODS: a total of 35 adult women participated in a PM (n = 19) or PA (n = 26) program for 16 weeks, two days a week. Body image was assessed before and after the interventions using the Eating Behavior Inventory 3 (EBI-3), Gardner's body image assessment scale, and Thompson and Gray's silhouette scale questionnaires. RESULTS: the PM group showed a significant reduction in dissatisfaction with buttocks, dissatisfaction with body image, perceived image, distortion index, dissatisfaction index, perceived mental image, perceived affective image, cognitive dissatisfaction index, and affective dissatisfaction index (p < 0.05; ES: 0.26-0.80). As compared to the PA group, a significant reduction was shown in dissatisfaction with thighs, dissatisfaction with hips, dissatisfaction with body image, dissatisfaction index, cognitive dissatisfaction index, and affective dissatisfaction index (p < 0.05; 0.22-0.79). CONCLUSION: the systematic practice of PM or PA improves body image in adult women, reducing their body dissatisfaction


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Imagen Corporal , Técnicas de Ejercicio con Movimientos , Percepción , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica Breve , Análisis de Varianza , Autoevaluación , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología
6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(1): 69-82, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398706

RESUMEN

Gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) men are at higher risk of negative body image. As having a negative body image is related to negative mood, sexual, and health outcomes, identifying and providing community-friendly tools for GBQ men is important. This paper describes the creation and evaluation of Rainbow Reflections, a comic anthology developed to promote awareness of and communication about body image. Rainbow Reflections includes comics from 38 trans- and cis-GBQ artists who drew inspiration from personal narratives based on pre-determined themes in the empirical literature and interactive inserts based on evidence-based practice. To evaluate Rainbow Reflections, 167 trans- and cis-GBQ men completed pre-post measures before/after viewing a selection of comics and responded to an open-ended question about their experience. Overall, participants rated the comic book positively, with a majority (61.1%) indicating that they would recommend the book to a friend. After viewing the comics, participants reported greater comfort with initiating conversations about body image, greater satisfaction with their bodies, and reported higher estimates of how common body image concerns are for queer men. Themes that emerged from open-ended responses included participants reflecting on personal struggles (~ 30%), relating with the stories of others (~ 22%), reflecting on the standards of queer men (~ 18%), recognizing cis-privilege (~ 11%), reflecting on others' struggles (~ 9%), negative feedback about the comics (~ 7%), and balancing masculine and feminine (~ 3%). Results of the study provide preliminary evidence for Rainbow Reflections as an effective community-friendly tool to promote awareness of and communication about body image for GBQ men.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal/psicología , Investigación Empírica , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Libros , Comunicación , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Nurs Open ; 8(1): 147-155, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318822

RESUMEN

Aim: To investigate the psychological status of medical staff with medical device-related nasal and facial pressure ulcers (MDR PUs) during the outbreak of COVID-19, analyse the correlation between their psychological status and personality traits, so as to provide a reference for personalized psychological support. Design: A total of 207 medical staff who were treating the COVID-19 epidemic from Hunan and Hubei provinces were enrolled in this analytic questionnaire-based study. Methods: We used these measures: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and demographic information forms online. Results: Medical staff wearing protective equipment are particularly susceptible to nasal and facial MDR PUs, which is increasing their social appearance anxiety; neuroticism is significantly related to social appearance anxiety and negative emotion. We should pay more attention to their psychological state, cultivate good personality characteristics and reduce negative emotions, and thereby alleviate their MDR PUs-related appearance anxiety.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Traumatismos Faciales/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Equipo de Protección Personal/efectos adversos , Úlcera por Presión/psicología , Adulto , Imagen Corporal/psicología , /terapia , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Traumatismos Faciales/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Pruebas de Personalidad , Úlcera por Presión/etiología
8.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 231-237, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342222

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Adequate adjustment to bodily changes during various phases of cancer treatment is important to patients' emotional well-being. The Body Image Scale (BIS) is a widely used tool for assessment of body image concerns in different cancer types. However, a cut point score indicative of clinically relevant body image concerns has not been established. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the previously suggested, but not validated, BIS cut point score of ≥ 10 is an adequate indicator of psychological distress. METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional study, 590 adult patients were recruited from a psychiatric oncology clinic (November 2017-March 2018). Patient-reported body image concerns, depression, anxiety, and emotional distress were assessed with the BIS, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer, respectively. RESULTS: Almost half of the patients had a BIS score ≥ 10; these were more likely to be younger, female, Hispanic, and to have breast cancer than patients with a score < 10. BIS scores were positively associated with depression, anxiety, and distress scores. A BIS score ≥ 10 was a significant predictor of moderate depression and anxiety (odds ratios = 3.555 [95% CI 2.478-5.102] and 3.655 [2.493-5.358]; p < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to have assessed the validity of the previously suggested clinically relevant BIS cut point score of ≥ 10 as an indicator of psychological distress. Our results suggest that a BIS score of ≥ 10 or higher should lead to follow-up on body image concerns and/or appropriate referral.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal/psicología , Neoplasias de la Mama/psicología , Distrés Psicológico , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Apariencia Física/fisiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Am Fam Physician ; 103(1): 22-32, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382560

RESUMEN

Eating disorders are potentially life-threatening conditions characterized by disordered eating and weight-control behaviors that impair physical health and psychosocial functioning. Early intervention may decrease the risk of long-term pathology and disability. Clinicians should interpret disordered eating and body image concerns and carefully monitor patients' height, weight, and body mass index trends for subtle changes. After diagnosis, visits should include the sensitive review of psychosocial and clinical factors, physical examination, orthostatic vital signs, and testing (e.g., a metabolic panel with magnesium and phosphate levels, electrocardiography) when indicated. Additional care team members (i.e., dietitian, therapist, and caregivers) should provide a unified, evidence-based therapeutic approach. The escalation of care should be based on health status (e.g., acute food refusal, uncontrollable binge eating or purging, co-occurring conditions, suicidality, test abnormalities), weight patterns, outpatient options, and social support. A healthy weight range is determined by the degree of malnutrition and pre-illness trajectories. Weight gain of 2.2 to 4.4 lb per week stabilizes cardiovascular health. Treatment options may include cognitive behavior interventions that address body image and dietary and physical activity behaviors; family-based therapy, which is a first-line treatment for youths; and pharmacotherapy, which may treat co-occurring conditions, but should not be pursued alone. Evidence supports select antidepressants or topiramate for bulimia nervosa and lisdexamfetamine for binge-eating disorder. Remission is suggested by healthy biopsychosocial functioning, cognitive flexibility with eating, resolution of disordered behaviors and decision-making, and if applicable, restoration of weight and menses. Prevention should emphasize a positive focus on body image instead of a focus on weight or dieting.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/terapia , Anamnesis , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Anorexia Nerviosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nerviosa/terapia , Trastorno por Atracón/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Atracón/terapia , Bulimia Nerviosa/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nerviosa/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Derivación y Consulta/organización & administración , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Am J Surg ; 221(1): 187-194, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Relative to conventional laparoscopy, Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery has been associated with improved cosmesis. This study investigated preoperative and postoperative patient perceptions of LESS surgery and what factors may affect those perceptions. METHODS: Patients undergoing LESS Surgery were queried before and after their operations. Body image and other factors were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively in 881unselected patients undergoing LESS surgery utilizing Likert scale questionnaires. Responses were collated and analyzed. Data are reported as median (mean ± SD), where appropriate. RESULTS: 881 patients studied had a median age of 59 (57 ± 15.3) years and had a median Body Mass Index of 27 (28 ± 6.2) kg/m2. 65% were women. 343 (39%) had undergone a previous abdominal operation(s). Prior to LESS surgery, patients reported neutral body image scores and rated their overall appearance satisfaction as 40% (37% ± 30.7) on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). 68% were unwilling to undergo LESS surgery if it involved more risk relative to traditional laparoscopy as safety was their number one concern. Postoperatively, patients reported a significant improvement in body image perception and safety was no longer their foremost concern. CONCLUSION: Preoperatively, patients are most concerned with safety (e.g. risk) with secondary concerns of cost and pain but they were less concerned with their appearance. Postoperatively, safety is much, much less of an issue (because it has been achieved) and appearance is more paramount with significant improvements in their self-assessed appearance. With LESS surgery patients indicate a high level of satisfaction with cosmesis.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Laparoscopía/psicología , Satisfacción del Paciente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Laparoscopía/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Periodo Posoperatorio , Autoinforme
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339240

RESUMEN

Background: Depressive symptoms during pregnancy may cause unfavorable consequences for both the mother and the infant's physiological and psychological health. Recent evidence indicates that body image plays an important role in prenatal depression. The present study's main purpose was to investigate the level of acceptance of physical appearance in pregnant women, their attitudes toward pregnancy and maternity, and some obstetric characteristics as significant predictors in the development of depression. Methods: A sample of 150 Polish pregnant women completed a set of self-report questionnaires, including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Attitudes toward Maternity and Pregnancy Questionnaire (PRE-MAMA), and the Body-Self Questionnaire (EA-BSQ). All participants also answered a brief sociodemographic and obstetric information questionnaire. Results: A hierarchical binary logistic regression was conducted to predict prenatal depression from selected obstetric variables (unplanned pregnancy, multiparity, and miscarriages) and psychological variables (appearance evaluation and positive or anxious attitudes toward pregnancy and maternity). It was found that higher levels of negative evaluation of appearance increased chances of depression in pregnant women by almost one-and-a-half. The analysis revealed that positive attitudes toward pregnancy and maternity were the most important protective factor for depression. Conclusions: The results confirmed the importance of dissatisfaction with body image during pregnancy as a predictor of the onset of prenatal depression. However, in clinical practice, this risk factor should be considered in combination with positive maternal attitudes, not separately. The implications for future studies and interventions in the field of prenatal depression are discussed in this work.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal , Depresión Posparto , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Adulto , Ansiedad , Actitud , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(6): 1217-1225, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198314

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: entre las gimnastas adolescentes se ha observado cierta preocupación por el peso, con dietas insuficientes en energía y algunos nutrientes en búsqueda del máximo rendimiento. Esta preocupación puede estar relacionada con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, menstruación irregular, cansancio y descanso insuficiente. OBJETIVOS: evaluar el estado diétético-nutricional, la composición corporal, el comportamiento alimentario y la preocupación por la imagen corporal de las gimnastas de competición. MÉTODOS: estudio observacional y transveral en el que participaron 33 gimnastas femeninas (edad: M = 14,52, DT = 1,85), subélite, de entre 11 y 18 años de edad. Se realizaron valoraciones antropométricas, se les aplicó un test de actitudes alimentarias (EAT-26) y un cuestionario sobre la figura corporal (BSQ), y se las entrevistó, recogiéndose datos sociodemográficos, sociodeportivos, de salud y sobre la ingesta. RESULTADOS: la dieta de las deportistas es principalmente deficitaria en agua, carbohidratos, proteínas, vitaminas D y E, fibra, hierro y calcio, con sobreingesta de vitamina A y sodio. Las deportistas presentan normopeso y valores altos de masa muscular, bajos de masa grasa y medios de los componentes del somatotipo (endomorfo equilibrado con tendencia a central). Se detectaron dos casos de riesgo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) y preocupación por la imagen corporal percibida en un cuarto de la muestra. CONCLUSIONES: el riesgo de padecer un TCA se relaciona con el consumo de fármacos prohibidos o sustancias adictivas, la menstruación irregular, el cansancio y dormir menos horas


INTRODUCTION: among adolescent gymnasts some concern for body weight has been observed, with diets inadequate in energy and some nutrients in the search for maximum performance. OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary-nutritional status, body composition, eating behavior, and perceived body image concerns of female gymnasts at sub-national competition levels. In addition, to study the relationship between the prevalence of the risk of eating disorders and variables such as substance use, irregular menstruation, fatigue, and hours of sleep. MATERIALS AND METHOD: a total of 33 female subelite gymnasts participated (age: M = 14.52, SD = 1.85), with age ranging from 11 to 18 years. Anthropometric evaluations (restricted profile) were made, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were administered, and the subjects were then interviewed for collecting sociodemographic, socio-sports, health, and food intake data. RESULTS: the results showed that their diet was deficient, among other micro- and macro-nutrients, in water, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins D and E, fiber, iron and calcium, whereas they ingested an excess of vitamin A and sodium. These athletes had normal weight, high muscle mass values, low fat mass levels, and intermediate somatotype components (balanced endomorph with a tendency to central). Two cases at risk for an eating disorder, and concerns related to perceived body image in a quarter of the sample were identified. CONCLUSION: the risk of having an eating disorder is related to the consumption of prohibited drugs or addictive substances, irregular menstruation, tiredness, and fewer hours of sleep


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Gimnasia/fisiología , Valor Nutritivo/fisiología , Composición Corporal , Conducta Alimentaria , Imagen Corporal , Percepción , Estudios Transversales , Antropometría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321884

RESUMEN

The current study aimed to identify potential psychosocial risk and protective factors contributing to eating disorders in adolescents, and observe any differences between genders and Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a total of 2605 (1063 male) adolescents, who were assessed for disordered eating, body-image satisfaction and investment, appearance/weight-related anxiety, situational dysphoria, media influences, self-esteem, and body appreciation. The results revealed that weight/appearance-related anxiety and situational dysphoria were the most significant risk factors for both genders. Pressures from the media posed a significant risk only for males and the internalization of the thin ideal only for females; however, the internalization of the athletic ideal did not pose as a significant risk factor. Compared to gender, these risk factors did not differ based on BMI. Additionally, body appreciation was found to be a robust protective factor (unlike global self-esteem) for both genders, and across all BMI groups. The findings indicate that the most significant risk and protective factors of eating disorders do not differ largely for male and female adolescents or different BMIs. Intervention and prevention programs would therefore benefit from the inclusion of exercises that reduce the constructs of weight/appearance-related anxiety and situational dysphoria, and promote body appreciation.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Adolescente , Imagen Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Autoimagen , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(11): 811-818, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361688

RESUMEN

Objectives Although previous studies have discussed the "voluntary" withdrawal of older drivers' driving license to prevent traffic accidents, there is less evidence about the experience of giving up driving. The present study investigated the decision-making process in the "voluntary" withdrawal of the driver's license and the conceptual meaning of "voluntary" among individuals who have experienced or shortly plan the event, as well as the transitions in their social relationships, social interactions, and body image perceptions.Methods Qualitative research was undertaken to examine the explanatory research question in City A, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. A semi-structured interview was conducted with eight male participants. They were asked related questions, for example, the meaning of driving, lifestyle changes, and so on. Data were recorded and transcribed into transcripts to be analyzed using the grounded theory approach.Results The qualitative data revealed that when participants perceived their "body" as alienated from their "self" during driving or daily living, they became confused because they needed to be conscious of the aroused existence of the "self" that operates their "body," which was previously integrated with their "self." This awareness led the individuals to the process of "voluntary" withdrawal from driving in coping with their reflected "self" while they gradually distrusted their "self" regarding their deteriorating "body." Some participants lost their "self" and felt that they were forced to stop driving "voluntarily" when their "self" was determined as belonging to a risky "body," whereas others could decide "voluntary" driving cessation and realize their "self" through social interactions when they "re-evaluated" their "self" in light of their life stories. Both types of participants had "difficulties" after driving cessation; however, the latter effectively emphasized the re-construction of the "self" and "self"-based decision-making process due to aging.Conclusion The decision-making process in the withdrawal of a driver's license due to aging resembled the process of coping with disabilities. Previous relationships between "self," "body," and society might be affected by age- or illness-triggered events. Encouraging the re-construction of "self" and its relationships might alleviate the psychological impact on elderly people facing "voluntary" retirement from driving.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Adaptación Psicológica , Envejecimiento/psicología , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Imagen Corporal , Toma de Decisiones , Relaciones Interpersonales , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374153

RESUMEN

The study explored reasons for exercise as possible mediators of the relationship between body appreciation and exercise avoidance motivation and between body surveillance and exercise avoidance motivation. Using a cross-sectional design, 131 women with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher completed measures of body surveillance, body appreciation, reasons for exercise, and exercise avoidance motivation. Mediation analyses indicated that appearance-oriented reasons for exercise partially mediated the body surveillance-exercise avoidance motivation relationship. Health and fitness professionals, organizations, and environments should avoid reinforcing appearance-oriented reasons for exercise. Rather, empowering exercise experiences and environments should be created as they seem to benefit women regardless of reasons for exercise.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ejercicio Físico , Motivación , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22427, 2020 12 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380732

RESUMEN

It has been shown that mere observation of body discontinuity leads to diminished body ownership. However, the impact of body discontinuity has mainly been investigated in conditions where participants observe a collocated static virtual body from a first-person perspective. This study explores the influence of body discountinuity on the sense of embodiment, when rich visuomotor correlations between a real and an artificial virtual body are established. In two experiments, we evaluated body ownership and motor performance, when participants interacted in virtual reality either using virtual hands connected or disconnected from a body. We found that even under the presence of congruent visuomotor feedback, mere observation of body discontinuity resulted in diminished embodiment. Contradictory evidence was found in relation to motor performance, where further research is needed to understand the role of visual body discontinuity in motor tasks. Preliminary findings on physiological reactions to a threat were also assessed, indicating that body visual discontinuity does not differently impact threat-related skin conductance responses. The present results are in accordance with past evidence showing that body discontinuity negatively impacts embodiment. However, further research is needed to understand the influence of visuomotor feedback and body morphological congruency on motor performance and threat-related physiological reactions.


Asunto(s)
Retroalimentación Sensorial/fisiología , Mano , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Realidad Virtual , Adulto , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Psicofisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(11): e00059220, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331590

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to verify the influence of pressure from sociocultural agents on dissatisfaction with face and body in young women mediated by the internalization of the lean and muscular body and to identify the contribution of individual characteristics to this model. A total of 612 university female students participated of study. The students completed the Portuguese versions of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 and of the Body Area Scale-Revised and a sociodemographic questionnaire. A hypothetical model was constructed using structural equation modeling to test the relationship between the variables. The model fit and the significance of the hypothetical paths were verified. The results provide evidence that the greater the pressure of sociocultural agents and the internalization of the lean body, the more women were dissatisfied with body and face appearance. The media contributed to a greater internalization of the muscular body, which reduced the body dissatisfaction. The practice of physical activity and a higher economic level contributed to a greater internalization of the muscular body, which reduced body dissatisfaction. A higher economic level also influenced the internalization of the lean body and increased the dissatisfaction with face and body. A higher body mass index contributed to a greater pressure from sociocultural agents, greater internalization of the lean body, and greater dissatisfaction with body and face. The relationships identified in the model can contribute to the development of strategies aimed at reducing body dissatisfaction and eating disorders in the population, such as body acceptance.


Asunto(s)
Insatisfacción Corporal , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Imagen Corporal , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3248-3251, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018697

RESUMEN

The Rubber Hand Illusion can be used to induce the illusion that a fake hand is part of one's own body. Thus, it can be used to alter the body representation. It was also reported that the Rubber Hand Illusion induces a proprioceptive drift of one's real hand toward the fake hand. The Rubber Hand Illusion can be induced when the fake hand is placed farther in the sagittal plane (distally) compared to the real hand. In this case, the induced update of the body representation is an elongation of the arm. Virtual Reality and haptic technologies can be used to manipulate the perceived scenario in a virtual version of the Rubber Hand Illusion, the Virtual Hand Illusion. We developed a novel platform consisting in a virtual reality application integrating an optical motion capture device and haptic stimulators to study the manipulation of the body representation. We developed two experimental protocols to induce embodiment of an elongated arm: one validated in previous studies, that employs congruent visuo-motor-tactile stimulation, and one reproducing the typical Virtual Hand Illusion where only congruent visuo-tactile stimulation was employed. We tested both protocols with healthy participants.


Asunto(s)
Ilusiones , Percepción del Tacto , Imagen Corporal , Mano , Humanos , Propiocepción
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239419, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085663

RESUMEN

The hijab is central to the lives of Muslim women across the world but little is known about the actual effects exerted by this garment on perceptions of the wearer. Indeed, while previous research has suggested that wearing the hijab may affect the physical attractiveness of women, the actual effect of wearing the hijab on perceptions of female facial attractiveness by Muslim men in a Muslim country is largely unknown. Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of the hijab on female facial attractiveness perceived by practising Muslim men living in their native Muslim country (the United Arab Emirates). Participants were presented with frontal-head images of women shown in three conditions: in the fully covered condition, heads were completely covered by the hijab except for the face; in the partially covered condition, heads were completely covered by the hijab except for the face and areas around the forehead and each side of the face and head; in the uncovered condition, heads had no covering at all. The findings revealed that faces where heads were uncovered or partially covered were rated as equally attractive, and both were rated as substantially more attractive than faces where heads were fully covered. Thus, while wearing the hijab can suppress female facial attractiveness to men, these findings suggest that not all hijab wearing has this effect, and female facial attractiveness for practising Muslim men living in their native Muslim country may not be reduced simply by wearing this garment. Indeed, from the findings we report, slight changes to the positioning of the hijab (the partially covered condition) produce perceptions of facial attractiveness that are no lower than when no hijab is worn, and this may have important implications for wearing the hijab in Muslim societies. Finally, we argue that the pattern of effects we observed is not explained by anti-Islamic feeling or cultural endogamy, and that a major contributory factor is that being fully covered by the hijab occludes external features, especially the hair and lateral parts of the head and face, which, when normally visible, provide a substantial perceptual contribution to human facial attractiveness.


Asunto(s)
Belleza , Vestuario , Islamismo/psicología , Adulto , Imagen Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1562, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a consequence of 'Western' acculturation, eating disorders and body image disturbances, such as fatness phobia and body dysmorphic disorders towards musculature and body shape, are emerging in Africa, with young people the most affected. It is therefore important to accurately assess perceptions of body shape. However, the existing body image assessment scales lack sufficient accuracy and validity testing to compare body shape perception across different African populations. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Body Shape Scale (BOSHAS) to evaluate body shape perceptions related body image disorders in African populations. METHODS: To develop the BOSHAS, anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese (both sexes included; 40.1% females overall) were taken for three body shape criteria: somatotype components, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio. Subjects were selected to cover a wide variability in body shape and were photographed in full face and profile positions. To validate the BOSHAS, the scale was administered twice (2 weeks apart) to 106 participants (aged 31.2 ± 12.6 years) to assess its reliability. In addition, a questionnaire measuring different aspects of body shape (e.g. musculature) was also administered (n = 597; aged 36.7 ± 15.6 years) to assess its convergent validity. RESULTS: The BOSHAS includes two sex-specific subscales of 10 photographs each. Most participants were able to repeat their BOSHAS preference order. Test-retest reliability was also consistent in estimating Current Body Shape (CBS), Desired Body Shape and Ideal Body Shape for participants and their partners. CBS was correlated with BMI, and different BOSHAS indices were consistent with declarations obtained by questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The BOSHAS is the first sex-specific scale of real African models photographed in face and profile, including large body shape variability. The validation protocol showed good validity and reliability for evaluating body shape perceptions and dissatisfaction of Africans.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Somatotipos/psicología , Relación Cintura-Cadera/psicología , Adulto Joven
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