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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20588, 2020 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569185

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an increasingly recognized immune-mediated entity that can affect virtually every organ system. Depending on the location of the disease, it can present a wide range of clinical manifestations and even mimic malignancies. Appendiceal involvement in patients with IgG4-related disease is particularly rare and very few cases are reported in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of IgG4-related appendiceal disease in a 42-year-old woman who presents with a subacute onset of right lower quadrant abdominal pain. DIAGNOSIS: Abdominal computed tomography showed a markedly enlarged appendix, raising the concern of malignancy. The diagnosis of IgG4 appendiceal disease was confirmed by postoperative histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent right hemicolectomy. OUTCOMES: After the surgery, the patient had an uneventful recovery and reported a resolution of her symptoms. The serum IgG4 was revaluated 5 days after surgery and returned to its normal values. At the 3-year follow up, the patient had no recurrence of symptoms and her imaging exams remain unremarkable. LESSONS: This study reports the fifth case of IgG4-related appendiceal disease. Increasing awareness of this condition may influence the management of these patients, once patients with IgG4-related disease should be monitored after treatment, due to the risk of recurrence or involvement of other organs.


Asunto(s)
Apéndice/patología , Enfermedad Relacionada con Inmunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Adulto , Apéndice/diagnóstico por imagen , Apéndice/cirugía , Colectomía/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Enfermedad Relacionada con Inmunoglobulina G4/sangre , Enfermedad Relacionada con Inmunoglobulina G4/patología , Enfermedad Relacionada con Inmunoglobulina G4/cirugía , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
2.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(1): 102-104, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524132

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of implant digital impression,in order to provide guidance in digital implant prosthesis. METHODS: According to the requirements, 115 patients undergoing implantation were randomly selected. The implantation impression cap was placed and scanned with CBCT after esteosenesis. Oral cavity was scanned to make the 3D digital implantation model. The model data were obtained by scanning the digital resin implantation models. Based on the remaining teeth, the model data and CBCT data were matched in Nobel Clinicion software. RESULTS: The implantation impression cap in the patient's CBCT was completely matched and overlapped with the digital model in all of the occlusal, coronal and sagittal planes,which meant that the position, direction and angle of the implantation in the oral cavity were exactly the same as those in the digital model made by oral scanning. CONCLUSIONS: 3D digital resin model of oral scanning printing is completely accurate and can be popularized and applied in clinic.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Técnica de Impresión Dental , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Modelos Dentales , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Impresión Tridimensional , Programas Informáticos
3.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 204-209, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530168

RESUMEN

Abstract: Objective To assess the accuracy and reliability of the two 3D measuring methods, structured-light scanning and single-camera photogrammetry in forensic body surface damage and scar measurement. Methods The measuring results of 86 injuries by the ruler method, structured-light scanning and single-camera photogrammetry were compared and evaluated. The area measuring results of 13 simulated scars by the structured-light scanning, single-camera photogrammetry, Photoshop lasso pixel method and PDF reading software were compared and evaluated. The time consumed was recorded. The known specification information of the stickers was used as the standard value to compare the measuring accuracy of the ruler method, structural-light scanning and single-camera photogrammetry, and to calculate the root mean square error (RMSE). The consistency evaluation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the repeatability of 3 measuring results obtained by different operators and the same operator. Results The differences in results of the two 3D measuring methods and the ruler method had no statistical significance; the differences between measuring results made by the structured-light scanning, single-camera photogrammetry and PDF reading software and that of the Photoshop lasso pixel method had no statistical significance. The post-processing of the single-camera photogrammetry consumed more time than that of other methods. When the long-distance group (10-40 cm) was measured, the results obtained by the ruler method were shorter than the standard value. The RMSE value results were structured-light scanning < single-camera photogrammetry < ruler method. The ICC value intragroup and intergroup were greater than 0.99. Conclusion Both structured-light scanning and single-camera photogrammetry can be applied in recording and measuring forensic body surface damage. The former has better performance in measurement accuracy and stability, while the latter has better color performance but longer post-processing time.


Asunto(s)
Cicatriz , Imagenología Tridimensional , Humanos , Fotogrametría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Programas Informáticos
4.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(5): 375-382, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393005

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of three-dimensional(3D) visualization technology in the precision diagnosis and treatment for primary liver cancer. Methods: A total of 1 665 patients with primary liver cancer who admitted to seven medical centers in China between January 2009 to January 2019, diagnosed and treated by 3D visualization protocol were analyzed, and their clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. There were 1 255 males(75.4%) and 410 females(24.6%), with age of (52.9±11.9) years (range: 18 to 86 years). The acquisition of high-quality CT images with submillimeter spatial resolution were conducted using a quality control system. By means of homogenization methods, 3D reconstruction and 3D visualization analysis were performed. Postoperative observation: pathology reports, microvascular invasion, perioperative complications and follow-up. SPSS 25.0 statistical software was used for statistical description and analysis of clinical data. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to calculate overall survival and disease-free survival rate. Results: (1)In the sample of 1 265 patients, 3D reconstructed models clearly displayed as follows. tumor size: ≤2 cm in 155 cases (9.31%), >2 cm to 5 cm in 551 cases (33.09%), >5 cm to 10 cm in 636 cases (38.20%), >10 cm in 323 cases (19.40%). (2) Classification of hepatic blood vessels. Hepatic artery: type Ⅰ(normal type) in 1 494 cases(89.73%),variant hepatic artery in 171 cases (10.27%), including type Ⅱ in 35 cases, type Ⅲ in 38 cases, and other types in 98 cases. Hepatic vein: type Ⅰ (normal) in 1 195 cases (71.77%),variant hepatic veins in 470 cases(28.23%), including type Ⅱ in 376 cases and type Ⅲ in 94 cases. Portal vein:normal type in 1 315 cases (78.98%), variant portal veins in 350 cases (21.02%), including type Ⅰ in 189 cases, type Ⅱin 103 cases, type Ⅲ in 50 cases, type Ⅳ in 8 cases. Hepatic artery variation coexisting with portal vein variation in 24 cases (1.44%). Hepatic vein variation coexisting with portal vein variation in 113 cases (6.79%). Three types of vascular variation in 4 cases (0.24%), including coexistence of type Ⅱ hepatic artery variation or type Ⅰ portal vein variation with type Ⅲ hepatic vein variation in 2 cases,coexistence of type Ⅲ hepatic artery variation or type Ⅲ portal vein variation with type Ⅱ hepatic vein variation in 2 cases. (3) Preoperative liver volume calculation:1 499.3 (514.4)ml (range:641.7 to 6 637.0 ml) of total liver volume, including 479.1 (460.1) ml (range:10.5 to 2 086.8 ml) for liver resection and 959.9 (460.4)ml (range:306.1 to 5 638.0 ml) for residual function. (4)Operative methods: anatomical hepatectomy in 1 458 cases (87.57%); non-anatomic hepatectomy in 207 cases (12.43%). (5)the median operation time was 285(165)minutes (range: 40 to720 minutes). (6)The median intraoperative blood loss was 200(250)ml (range:10 to 4 200 ml) and 346 cases (20.78%) had intraoperative transfusion. (7)Pathology reports: hepatocellular carcinoma in 1 371 cases (82.34%), cholangiocarcinoma in 260 cases (15.62%) and mixed hepatocellular carcinoma in 34 cases (2.04%). Microvascular invasion: M0 in 199 cases, M1 in 64 cases, and M2 in 27 cases. (8)Postoperative complications in 207 cases (12.43%), including Clavien-Dindo grade Ⅰ or Ⅱ in 57 cases, grade Ⅲ or Ⅳ in 147 cases and grade Ⅴ in 3 cases.There were 13 cases (0.78%) of liver failure and 3 cases (0.18%) of perioperative death. (9) The follow-up time was 3.0 to 96.0 months, with a median time of 21.0(17.8) years. The overall 3-year survival and disease-free survival rates were 80.0% and 56.5%, respectively. The overall 5-year survival and disease-free survival rates were 59.7% and 30.0%, respectively. Conclusion: 3D visualization technology plays an important role in realizing accurate diagnosis of anatomical location and morphology of primary liver cancer, improving the success rate of surgery and reducing the incidence of complications.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagen , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagen , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagenología Tridimensional , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/cirugía , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirugía , China , Colangiocarcinoma/cirugía , Femenino , Hepatectomía/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vena Porta/diagnóstico por imagen , Vena Porta/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 208, 2020 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Landmark-based approaches of two- or three-dimensional coordinates are the most widely used in geometric morphometrics (GM). As human face hosts the organs that act as the central interface for identification, more landmarks are needed to characterize biological shape variation. Because the use of few anatomical landmarks may not be sufficient for variability of some biological patterns and form, sliding semi-landmarks are required to quantify complex shape. RESULTS: This study investigates the effect of iterations in sliding semi-landmarks and their results on the predictive ability in GM analyses of soft-tissue in 3D human face. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection and the gender are predicted using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to test the effect of each relaxation state. The results show that the classification accuracy is affected by the number of iterations but not in progressive pattern. Also, there is stability at 12 relaxation state with highest accuracy of 96.43% and an unchanging decline after the 12 relaxation state. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there is a particular number of iteration or cycle where the sliding becomes optimally relaxed. This means the higher the number of iterations is not necessarily the higher the accuracy.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Cara/anatomía & histología , Imagenología Tridimensional , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Componente Principal , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2567-2572, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the utility of high spatial resolution digital positron emission tomography images with the source-to-background ratio (SBR) algorithm for gross tumour volume (GTV) delineation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bowl and spheres (10-37 mm) were filled with fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose to achieve 4-16 times background radioactivity. The images were reconstructed using three isotropic voxel sizes. The SBR and percentage threshold (TH) to SUVmax were calculated. The plots between SBR and TH were fitted using a regression equation. The contoured volumes (CVs) of the spheres were calculated by applying TH. RESULTS: TH was 38.6+75.0/SBR for 4 mm voxel size; 39.6+37.0/SBR for 2 mm; and 38.8+35.2/SBR for 1 mm. The mean relative errors between CV and true volume for 4, 2, and 1 mm voxel sizes were 15%, 7%, and 7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present technique is useful for GTV delineation with reduced contouring error.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Imagenología Tridimensional , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Planificación de la Radioterapia Asistida por Computador , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias/patología , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/métodos , Planificación de la Radioterapia Asistida por Computador/métodos
7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(19): 198104, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469536

RESUMEN

The localization of point sources in optical microscopy enables nm-precision imaging of single-molecules and biological dynamics. We report a new method of localization microscopy using twin Airy beams that yields precise 3D localization with the key advantages of extended depth range, higher optical throughput, and potential for imaging higher emitter densities than are possible using other techniques. A precision of better than 30 nm was achieved over a depth range in excess of 7 µm using a 60×, 1.4 NA objective. An illustrative application to extended-depth-range blood-flow imaging in a live zebrafish is also demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Microscopía/métodos , Animales , Cloaca/irrigación sanguínea , Imagenología Tridimensional/instrumentación , Microscopía/instrumentación , Imagen Molecular/instrumentación , Imagen Molecular/métodos , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional , Pez Cebra
8.
J Environ Manage ; 268: 110521, 2020 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383653

RESUMEN

Due to the influence of buildings on the distribution of flood and their economic and social attributes, 3D spatial information such as the size of buildings and the flooded ratio of buildings relative to their height has an increasing impact on urban flood risk. However, existing flood risk assessment methods mainly use data in 2D and analysis methods are mostly 2D. In this study, flood variation processes were analyzed in the form of 3D dynamic visualization by coupling an urban drainage model and a flood simulation model with 3D visualization methods. By further combining with 3D building models, the 3D spatial information of buildings related to flood was obtained. In order to study the influence of 3D information on flood risk and combine with other multi-source heterogeneous data for integrated analysis, a 3D visualization assessment and analysis method for flood risk, coupled with the projection pursuit-particle swarm optimization algorithm (PP-PSO) was established (3DVAAM-PP-PSO). A case study from Chaohu City, China, was used to demonstrate the method. The results showed that the PP-PSO algorithm can process high-dimensional information and obtain the objective weight of each index. The 3D information from the influenced buildings had an impact on the evaluation results, which needed to be considered. Through the 3D visualization analysis, the overall distribution of flood risk and that around the buildings were obtained in multi-perspectives. The flood risk during different rainfall return periods were analyzed intuitively and comparatively. This study furnishes a novel method for flood risk assessment and analysis by making the most of 3D spatial information.


Asunto(s)
Inundaciones , Imagenología Tridimensional , Algoritmos , China , Ciudades , Medición de Riesgo
9.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(1): 56-60, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376566

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the behavioral changes of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 knockout (Itpr2-/- mice) and investigate the blood perfusion changes in the hippocampus using three-dimensional arterial spin labeling (3D-ASL). METHODS: 28 Itpr2-/- mice and 20 wild-type mice were assessed for depressive phenotype using behavioral tests (including sucrose consumption test, tail suspension test, forced swimming test and open field test). 15 Itpr2-/- mice and 14 wild-type mice were randomly selected for 3D-T2WI imaging of the whole brain and 3D-ASL imaging of the middle hippocampal layer, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) of the middle hippocampal layer was calculated. ITK-SNAP was used to delineate the bilateral hippocampal area and measure the average CBF value. RESULTS: Compared with the wild-type mice, Itpr2-/- mice exhibited a distinct depressive phenotype with significantly decreased sucrose preference (P < 0.05) and increased immobile time in tail suspension test (P < 0.05) and forced swimming test (P < 0.01), without obvious changes in the performance in open field test (P > 0.05). Significantly decreased mean CBF values were found in the left and right hippocampus of Itpr2-/- mice as compared with the wild-type mice (left: 73.30 ±5.609 vs 95.77±5.095; right: 73.53±5.700 vs 100.5±4.696; bilateral means: 73.42±5.607 vs98.12±4.754; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Itpr2 deficiency can cause depressive phenotype and affect the cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus of mice.


Asunto(s)
Circulación Cerebrovascular , Depresión/genética , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagenología Tridimensional , Animales , Hipocampo/irrigación sanguínea , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Imagen de Perfusión , Marcadores de Spin
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230259, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243444

RESUMEN

This paper presents AVATREE, a computational modelling framework that generates Anatomically Valid Airway tree conformations and provides capabilities for simulation of broncho-constriction apparent in obstructive pulmonary conditions. Such conformations are obtained from the personalized 3D geometry generated from computed tomography (CT) data through image segmentation. The patient-specific representation of the bronchial tree structure is extended beyond the visible airway generation depth using a knowledge-based technique built from morphometric studies. Additional functionalities of AVATREE include visualization of spatial probability maps for the airway generations projected on the CT imaging data, and visualization of the airway tree based on local structure properties. Furthermore, the proposed toolbox supports the simulation of broncho-constriction apparent in pulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. AVATREE is provided as an open-source toolbox in C++ and is supported by a graphical user interface integrating the modelling functionalities. It can be exploited in studies of gas flow, gas mixing, ventilation patterns and particle deposition in the pulmonary system, with the aim to improve clinical decision making.


Asunto(s)
Asma/patología , Simulación por Computador , Imagenología Tridimensional , Pulmón/patología , Modelos Anatómicos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/patología , Asma/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
11.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(3): 171-176, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343277

RESUMEN

3D virtual planning optimises the predictability of orthognathic surgery. The planning is based on a cone beam computed tomography-scan of the patient as well as a plaster model, and is transferred to the patient by a 3D printed occlusal splint. In 3D printing the build angle influences, among other things, the accuracy (in earlier research, proven in dental crowns), manufacturing time and capacity. In this research, using 10 plaster models, 3 different build angles (0°, 30° and 90°) are compared. The fit of the splints was tested by 2 physicians using plaster models. According to this small sample, the fit does not depend on the build angle. When considering the manufacturing time and capacity, there is a preference for the 90º oriëntation, because it increases the manufacturing capacity and decreases the manufacturing time per splint.


Asunto(s)
Ferulas Oclusales , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Coronas , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Impresión Tridimensional
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229884, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271779

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those in whom it is unnecessary for spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. METHODS: This study involved 132 patients in whom diverticular bleeding was diagnosed on lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. We evaluated the rate of identification of the bleeding diverticulum during endoscopy and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. RESULTS: In 26 patients (20%), bleeding diverticulum was identified during endoscopy. Extravasation or fluid collection on CT imaging was an important factor of successful identification of the bleeding source on endoscopy. Of the 104 patients in the conservative treatment group, 91 (87%) were able to be discharged after spontaneous hemostasis. Univariate analysis revealed a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis in patients without extravasation and fluid collection on CT imaging, those without adhesion of blood during endoscopy, those without diabetes, and those with a hemoglobin level ≥10 g/dL. CONCLUSION: In patients with colonic diverticular bleeding, extravasation or fluid collection on CT is an important factor related to the identification of the bleeding diverticulum. Patients without characteristic CT findings had a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis after conservative treatment. BACKGROUND: Diverticular bleeding is the most frequent cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding accounting for 20%-40% of all cases in Japan and 20%-48% of all those in the Western countries[1, 2]. The prevalence of colonic diverticula tends to increase with age; thus, the overall prevalence of diverticular bleeding is expected to increase in the future. In Japan, the Japanese Gastroenterological Association published guidelines on colonic diverticulitis in 2017; these guidelines recommend the performance of lower gastrointestinal endoscopic examination within 24 h in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding suspected to be diverticular bleeding[3]. It has been reported that, for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, urgent endoscopy helps avoid embolotherapy, colectomy, massive blood transfusion, and repeat bleeding[1, 4, 5]. However, it is often difficult to identify the bleeding point [6]; further, there are many challenging cases wherein it is difficult to decide whether urgent endoscopy should be performed in situations where there is insufficient medical staff, such as during nighttime and on holidays. Bleeding is reported to stop spontaneously with conservative treatment alone in 70% of diverticular bleeding cases[7, 8]. In particular, when determining the treatment policy for diverticular bleeding and in the case of patients at high risk of complications following endoscopy, such as older patients, those with poor performance status or cardiovascular disease, and those in whom spontaneous hemostasis can be expected, urgent endoscopy should be avoided, and elective endoscopy should be selected. Therefore, the type of cases wherein urgent endoscopy is effective and the type wherein it is unnecessary need to be clarified. Thus far, there have been very few reports of the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom spontaneous hemostasis was achieved. We aimed to assess the characteristics of patients in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those for whom it is unnecessary. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the identification rate for the responsible diverticulum in patients with diverticular bleeding and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment.


Asunto(s)
Líquidos Corporales/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Diverticulares/diagnóstico por imagen , Divertículo del Colon/diagnóstico por imagen , Extravasación de Materiales Terapéuticos y Diagnósticos/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagenología Tridimensional , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Colonoscopía , Tratamiento Conservador , Enfermedades Diverticulares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Diverticulares/terapia , Divertículo del Colon/complicaciones , Divertículo del Colon/terapia , Femenino , Hemostasis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228402, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271782

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The application of three-dimensional scan models offers a useful resource for studying craniofacial variation. The complex mathematical analysis for facial point acquisition in three-dimensional models has made many craniofacial assessments laborious. METHOD: This study investigates three-dimensional (3D) soft-tissue craniofacial variation, with relation to ethnicity, sex and age variables in British and Irish white Europeans. This utilizes a geometric morphometric approach on a subsampled dataset comprising 292 scans, taken from a Liverpool-York Head Model database. Shape variation and analysis of each variable are tested using 20 anchor anatomical landmarks and 480 sliding semi-landmarks. RESULTS: Significant ethnicity, sex, and age differences are observed for measurement covering major aspects of the craniofacial shape. The ethnicity shows subtle significant differences compared to sex and age; even though it presents the lowest classification accuracy. The magnitude of dimorphism in sex is revealed in the facial, nasal and crania measurement. Significant shape differences are also seen at each age group, with some distinct dimorphic features present in the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of shape variation show that white British individuals have a more rounded head shape, whereas white Irish individuals have a narrower head shape. White British persons also demonstrate higher classification accuracy. Regarding sex patterns, males are relatively larger than females, especially in the mouth and nasal regions. Females presented with higher classification accuracy than males. The differences in the chin, mouth, nose, crania, and forehead emerge from different growth rates between the groups. Classification accuracy is best for children and senior adult age groups.


Asunto(s)
Cefalometría , Cara/anatomía & histología , Imagenología Tridimensional , Caracteres Sexuales , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Análisis de Varianza , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Análisis Discriminante , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Componente Principal , Adulto Joven
14.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(4): 302-310, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241307

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging have enabled demonstration of endolymphatic hydrops, and the clinical application of these imaging studies in Ménière's disease is being explored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our centre's experience to date of hydrops magnetic resonance imaging in patients with episodic vertigo. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a high-resolution three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence on a 3 Tesla scanner at 4 hours following double-dose gadolinium administration. RESULTS: The study included 31 patients, 28 of whom had a clinical diagnosis of Ménière's disease. In unilateral Ménière's disease, magnetic resonance imaging was able to lateralise endolymphatic hydrops to the clinically symptomatic ear in all cases. Mild hydrops was often seen in clinically asymptomatic ears. CONCLUSION: There is a good correlation between the clinical symptoms and lateralisation of hydropic changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Further refinements of imaging techniques and grading system will likely improve the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utilisation of hydrops magnetic resonance imaging.


Asunto(s)
Hidropesía Endolinfática/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Enfermedad de Meniere/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Gadolinio/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Enfermedad de Meniere/clasificación , Enfermedad de Meniere/fisiopatología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vértigo/diagnóstico , Vértigo/epidemiología
15.
Anesth Analg ; 130(5): 1244-1254, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular waveforms contain information for clinical diagnosis. By learning and organizing the subtle change of waveform morphology from large amounts of raw waveform data, unsupervised manifold learning helps delineate a high-dimensional structure and display it as a novel 3-dimensional (3D) image. We hypothesize that the shape of this structure conveys clinically relevant inner dynamics information. METHODS: To validate this hypothesis, we investigate the electrocardiography (ECG) waveform for ischemic heart disease and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform in dynamic vasoactive episodes. We model each beat or pulse to be a point lying on a manifold-like a surface-and use the diffusion map (DMap) to establish the relationship among those pulses. The output of the DMap is converted to a 3D image for visualization. For ECG datasets, first we analyzed the non-ST-elevation ECG waveform distribution from unstable angina to healthy control in the 3D image, and we investigated intraoperative ST-elevation ECG waveforms to show the dynamic ECG waveform changes. For ABP datasets, we analyzed waveforms collected under endotracheal intubation and administration of vasodilator. To quantify the dynamic separation, we applied the support vector machine (SVM) analysis and reported the total accuracy and macro-F1 score. We further performed the trajectory analysis and derived the moving direction of successive beats (or pulses) as vectors in the high-dimensional space. RESULTS: For the non-ST-elevation ECG, a hierarchical tree structure comprising consecutive ECG waveforms spanning from unstable angina to healthy control is presented in the 3D image (accuracy = 97.6%, macro-F1 = 96.1%). The DMap helps quantify and visualize the evolving direction of intraoperative ST-elevation myocardial episode in a 1-hour period (accuracy = 97.58%, macro-F1 = 96.06%). The ABP waveform analysis of Nicardipine administration shows interindividual difference (accuracy = 95.01%, macro-F1 = 96.9%) and their common directions from intraindividual moving trajectories. The dynamic change of the ABP waveform during endotracheal intubation shows a loop-like trajectory structure, which can be further divided using the manifold learning knowledge obtained from Nicardipine. CONCLUSIONS: The DMap and the generated 3D image of ECG or ABP waveforms provides clinically relevant inner dynamics information. It provides clues of acute coronary syndrome diagnosis, shows clinical course in myocardial ischemic episode, and reveals underneath physiological mechanism under stress or vasodilators.


Asunto(s)
Bases de Datos Factuales , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Aprendizaje Automático no Supervisado , Análisis de Ondículas , Humanos , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 423-426, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056457

RESUMEN

The aim of this investigation was to define the volume and area of the airway in subjects with Class II and Class III skeletal deformity. A cross-sectional study was designed including subjects with facial deformity defined by Steiner's analysis in subjects with indication of orthognathic surgery who presented diagnosis by cone beam computerised tomography. We determined the measurements of maximum area, minimum area and volume of the airway. The data were compared using Spearman's test, with statistical significance defined as p<0.05. 115 subjects were included: 61.7 % Class II and 38.3 % Class III, mean age 27.8 years (± 11.6). A significant difference was observed in the area and volume measurements in the groups studied, with significantly smaller measurements found in Class II (p=0.034). The minimum area was 10.4 mm2 smaller in Class II patients than in Class III, while the general volume of the airway was 4.1 mm3 smaller in Class II than in Class III. We may conclude that Class II subjects present a smaller airway volume than Class III subjects.


El objetivo de esta investigación de definir el volumen y área de vía aérea en sujetos con deformidad esqueletal clase II y III. Se diseñó un estudio de corte transversal incluyendo sujetos con deformidad facial definida según análisis de Stainer en sujetos con indicación de cirugía ortognática que presentaran una tomografía computadorizada de haz cónico como elemento diagnóstico; en este examen se determinaron medidas de área mayor, menor de vía aérea y volumen presente; los datos fueron comparados utilizando pruebas estadísticas con el test de spearman considerando el valor de p<0,05 para definir significancia estadística. 115 sujetos fueron incluidos, siendo 61,7 % de tipo clase II y 38,3 % de sujetos clase III, con una edad promedio de 27,8 años (± 11,6). Se observó una diferencia significativa en mediciones de area y volumen en los grupos estudiados, siendo el grupo de clase II significativamente menor (p=0,034). El área de menor tamaño fue 10,4 mm2 en pacientes clase II que en pacientes clase III, mientras que el volumen general de la vía área fue 4,1 menor en los clase II que en los clase III. Es posible concluir que los sujetos de clase II presentan menor volumen de vía área que los sujetos clase III.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico por imagen , Anomalías Craneofaciales/diagnóstico por imagen , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistema Respiratorio/anatomía & histología , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagenología Tridimensional
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 367-373, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056449

RESUMEN

Sexual dimorphism in Homo-sapiens is a phenomenon of a direct product of evolution by natural selection where evolutionary forces acted separately on the sexes which brought about the differences in appearance between male and female such as in shape and size. Advances in morphometrics have skyrocketed the rate of research on sex differences in human and other species. However, the current challenges facing 3D in the acquisition of facial data such as lack of homology, insufficient landmarks to characterize the facial shape and complex computational process for facial point digitization require further study in the domain of sex dimorphism. This study investigates sexual dimorphism in the human face with the application of Automatic Homologous Multi-points Warping (AHMW) for 3D facial landmark by building a template mesh as a reference object which is thereby applied to each of the target mesh on Stirling/ESRC dataset containing 101 subjects (male = 47, female = 54). The semi-landmarks are subjected to sliding along tangents to the curves and surfaces until the bending energy between a template and a target form is minimal. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection and the features are classified using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with an accuracy of 99.01 % which demonstrates that the method is robust.


El dimorfismo sexual en el Homo-sapiens es un fenómeno directo de la evolución por selección natural, donde las fuerzas evolutivas actuaron por separado en los sexos, lo que provocó las diferencias en la apariencia entre hombres y mujeres, tal como la forma y tamaño. Los avances en el área de la morfometría, han generado un aumento significativo de las investigaciones en las diferencias de sexo en humanos y otras especies. Sin embargo, los desafíos actuales que enfrenta el 3D en el análisis de datos faciales, como la falta de homología, puntos de referencia insuficientes para caracterizar la forma facial y la complejidad del proceso computacional para la digitalización de puntos faciales, requiere un estudio adicional en el área del dimorfismo sexual. Este estudio investiga el dimorfismo sexual en el rostro humano con la aplicación de la deformación automática de múltiples puntos homólogos para el hito facial 3D, mediante la elaboración de una malla de plantilla como objeto de referencia, y se aplica en cada una de las mallas objetivas en el conjunto de datos Stirling / ESRC que contiene 101 sujetos (hombre = 47, mujer = 54). Los semi-puntos de referencia se deslizan a lo largo de las tangentes a las curvas y superficies hasta que la energía de flexión entre una plantilla y una forma objetivo es mínima. El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) se utiliza para la selección de características y las características se clasifican mediante el análisis discriminante lineal (ADL) con una precisión del 99,01 %, lo que demuestra la validez del método.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Caracteres Sexuales , Tejido Conectivo/anatomía & histología , Cara/anatomía & histología , Análisis Discriminante , Análisis Multivariante , Tejido Conectivo/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagenología Tridimensional , Cara/diagnóstico por imagen , Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 348-355, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056446

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Photogrammetry is becoming increasingly popular in morphological research and teaching due to its portability, ability to reliably render 3D models, and quality-to-price relationship relative to some popular surface scanners. Compared to surface scanners, however, the learning process in photogrammetry can be very time consuming. Here we describe common mistakes of photo capture in close-range photogrammetry that greatly affect 3D output and tips to improve them. Problems were identified after the 3D model construction of 780 hand bones of chimpanzees and gorillas from museum collections. Their hands are composed of 27 bones which vary in length and complexity. We show how lighting, object position and orientation, camera angle, and background affect the 3D output. By taking these factors into account, time and error rates for beginners can be greatly reduced and 3D model quality can be considerably improved.


RESUMEN: La fotogrametría está siendo cada vez más popular en la investigación y enseñanza morfológica. Esto debido a su portabilidad, confiabilidad de los modelos 3D y buena relación calidadprecio. Comparada con los escáneres de superficie, sin embargo, el proceso de aprendizaje de la fotogrametría puede llevar mucho tiempo. Aquí se describen errores comunes en la toma de fotos para fotogrametería que afectan de manera importante la creación de los modelos 3D, así como consejos para superarlos. Los problemas descritos fueron identificados luego de la construcción de 780 modelos 3D de huesos de la mano de chimpancés y gorillas depositados en distintas colecciones de museos. Las manos de estas especies están compuestas por 27 huesos que varían en tamaño y complejidad. En este artículo mostramos como la luz, la posición y orientación del objeto, el ángulo de la cámara y el fondo de la imagen afectan el resultado en 3D. Considerando estos factores, personas que están aprendiendo esta técnica pueden reducir de manera importante el tiempo y la probabilidad de error, y mejorar considerablemente la calidad de los modelos 3D.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Huesos/diagnóstico por imagen , Fotogrametría/métodos , Mano/diagnóstico por imagen , Huesos/anatomía & histología , Pan troglodytes , Imagenología Tridimensional , Gorilla gorilla , Mano/anatomía & histología
19.
Chin J Dent Res ; 23(1): 33-42, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232227

RESUMEN

Deformities of the maxillofacial region following trauma and ablative surgery are devastating and not uncommon. Reconstruction of such defects is a surgically challenging procedure. Conventionally, reconstruction of dental arch defects lacks preoperative customised planning and relies heavily on the surgeon experience to ensure optimum surgical outcomes. The restoration of the dental arch shape and function has taken precedence after an extensive tumour resection surgery, especially in the current age of technological advancement. Thus, personalised and accurate reconstruction of dental arch defects has become a new goal. Computer-assisted surgery, especially navigation-assisted surgery, has gained popularity of late, in reconstructing deformities and restoring facial symmetry, appearance and function in the maxillofacial region. This technology provides a clearer three-dimensional visualisation of the area of interest and its relationship with the adjacent vital structures. Together with preoperative virtual surgical planning, it allows more specific and accurate osteotomies, thus reducing the ischemia and total operating times substantially. The risk of complications is also minimised whilst improving the final surgical outcomes. The use of the intraoperative navigation system and other computer-assisted surgical techniques during surgery can significantly improve the precision of the reconstruction of dental arch deformities, and achieve personalised and functional reconstructive goals while enhancing the quality of life of patients postoperatively. The Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Chinese Stomatological Association provides the present professional perspective and treatment protocol for navigation-guided reconstruction of dental arch defects, to allow standardisation of the technique while promoting its application among oral and maxillofacial surgeons.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Cirugía Asistida por Computador , Algoritmos , Consenso , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Calidad de Vida
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233198

RESUMEN

A technology called Trace Registration (TR) has been introduced to allow dynamic navigation of implant placement without the need for a thermoplastic stent. This study was undertaken in order to validate the accuracy of the TR protocol for dynamically guided implant surgery. A retrospective, observational, in vivo study was performed using dynamic navigation via the TR protocol. The preoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) plan was superimposed and registered (aligned) with the postoperative CBCT scan to assess accuracy parameters. A total of 136 implants were placed in 59 partially edentulous arches. Mean deviation between the planned and actual position for all implants was 0.67 mm at the coronal level (entry point), 0.9 mm at the apical level, and 0.55 mm in depth, with an angle discrepancy of 2.50 degrees. Tracing 5 to 6 teeth tended to improve accuracy results compared to tracing 3 to 4 teeth. TR is as accurate as traditional registration and statically guided methods for implant surgery.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Boca Edéntula , Cirugía Asistida por Computador , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Estudios Retrospectivos
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