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1.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 12-30, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265365

RESUMEN

To build bridges between hypnosis and contemporary psychoanalysis, this article addresses how hypnosis, when used in psychotherapy, facilitates curative action through its relational essence. The author's extensive experience with hypnosis, psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis orient the narrative toward the unconscious patient-therapist interaction, with particular attention paid to the ethics of the inherent hypnotic seduction. Whether used primarily in relief-oriented ways or geared toward more transformative therapeutic aims, powerful unconscious factors are in play for both patient and therapist and are explicated to illustrate the interactive and frequently unformulated, intersubjective factors that facilitate effective, psychotherapeutic hypnosis. Consequently, therapists attuned to such intersubjective dynamics can make use of their own internal mental activities to understand a patient's current state of mind and level of developmental functioning, and thereby subsequently formulate mutative interventions. For instance, because hypnotizability reflects the ability to play in imaginative space, the regression promoted in hypnotherapy may activate both an illusion of omnipotence and its optimal disillusionment through the relational context. This requires going beyond more traditional, procedural ways of bifurcating hypnotic interventions as being either direct or indirect and instead further distinguish hypnotic interventions in accordance with their maternal and paternal relational dimensions. Arguably, then, the skillful hypnotherapist needs to maintain a coupling interplay between the maternal, maximally receptive and the paternal, more active modes of functioning within hypnotic play space.


Asunto(s)
Hipnosis , Teoría Psicoanalítica , Humanos , Hipnosis/ética , Imaginación , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente/ética , Psicoanálisis , Alianza Terapéutica
2.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 60-73, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265372

RESUMEN

This article examines the spatial and social nature of human relationships with children and adolescents in clinical hypnosis. Beginning with the unique way in which the phenomenon of rapport is intrinsic to the therapeutic uses of hypnosis and is distinct among other therapies, the stage is set for the importance of relational hypnosis. Through the use of case vignettes that illustrate developmental imperatives, relationship factors influencing the clinical interaction are demonstrated in practice. These include transference and countertransference, safety, embodiment, novelty, creativity, respect, trust, equality, being with, loving responses, synchronicity, and empathy. Hypnotic relating exists in a framework through which absorption in play and imagination evokes the child's resources and suggestions are made. In this receptive stance the personalized suggestions lead to an environment for positive change.


Asunto(s)
Hipnosis , Imaginación , Adolescente , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Alianza Terapéutica
3.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(6): 911-915, 2019 Dec 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875363

RESUMEN

This paper aims to realize the decoding of single trial motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG) signal by extracting and classifying the optimized features of EEG signal. In the classification and recognition of multi-channel EEG signals, there is often a lack of effective feature selection strategies in the selection of the data of each channel and the dimension of spatial filters. In view of this problem, a method combining sparse idea and greedy search (GS) was proposed to improve the feature extraction of common spatial pattern (CSP). The improved common spatial pattern could effectively overcome the problem of repeated selection of feature patterns in the feature vector space extracted by the traditional method, and make the extracted features have more obvious characteristic differences. Then the extracted features were classified by Fisher linear discriminant analysis (FLDA). The experimental results showed that the classification accuracy obtained by proposed method was 19% higher on average than that of traditional common spatial pattern. And high classification accuracy could be obtained by selecting feature set with small size. The research results obtained in the feature extraction of EEG signals lay the foundation for the realization of motor imagery EEG decoding.


Asunto(s)
Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Electroencefalografía , Algoritmos , Análisis Discriminante , Imaginación , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador
4.
Science ; 366(6465): 581, 2019 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672886
6.
JAMA ; 322(14): 1353-1354, 2019 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593276
7.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 214-236, 2019.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417009

RESUMEN

To clarify the relationship between literature and psychiatry we can call on the help of the American-English writer Sylvia Plath, who was given electroconvulsive therapy and psychotherapy on a number of occasions for psychiatric illness and later took her own life. This study seeks an answer to five questions. Did Sylvia Plath suffer from psychiatric illness? Did she show signs of the bipolar triad (bipolar affective disorder, trait aggression, substance or behavioural dependence)? Did her activity as a writer have a therapeutic effect? What was the nature of her "confessionalism"? To what extent does her oeuvre reflect her life? Sylvia Plath very probably suffered from a psychiatric illness, namely bipolar 2 affective disorder. The unsuitable treatment of her illness and the interruption of intensive psychotherapy could have contributed to her early death. Together with the bipolar affective disorder, she was also characterised by serious dispositional aggression and emotional dependence. For her, writing was both a source of stress, because her dysthymia intensified her inhibitions, and at the same time self-healing and a self-fulfilling prophecy. The roots of her confessionalism can be found in her personality development suspended in the stage of becoming an adult, and the failure to work through her traumas. Unlike Goethe and Salinger who killed their heroes, having them commit suicide in The Sorrows of Young Werther and A Perfect Day for Bananafish, while both writers recovered from their crisis, Sylvia Plath described a positive development in The Bell Jar and in Ariel, her verse cycle, then put her head in the gas oven. Would she have stayed alive if she had followed the patterns of Goethe and Salinger?


Asunto(s)
Ira , Personajes , Imaginación , Literatura Moderna/historia , Suicidio/historia , Suicidio/psicología , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Trastorno Bipolar/terapia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Escritura/historia
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102902, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404744

RESUMEN

Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) demonstrate inefficient motor planning ability with a tendency to opt for non-optimal planning strategies. Motor imagery can provide an insight to this planning inefficiency, as it may be a strategy for improving motor planning and thereby motor performance for those with DCD. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of end-state-comfort (ESC) and the minimal rotation strategy using a grip selection task in children with DCD with and without motor imagery instructions. Boys with (n = 14) and without DCD (n = 18) aged 7-12 years completed one, two and three colour sequences of a grip selection (octagon) task. Two conditions were examined; a Motor Planning (MP) condition requiring only the performance of the task and a Motor Imagery and Planning (MIP) condition, which included an instruction to imagine performing the movement before execution. For the MP condition, children with DCD ended fewer trials in ESC for the one (p = 0.001) and two colour (p = 0.002) sequences and used a minimal rotation strategy more often than those without DCD. For the MIP condition, the DCD group significantly increased their use of the ESC strategy for the one colour sequences (p = 0.014) while those without DCD improved for the two colour (p = 0.008) sequences. ESC level of the DCD group on the MIP condition was similar to those without DCD at baseline for all colour sequences. Motor imagery shows potential as a strategy for improving motor planning in children with DCD. Implications and limitations are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Imaginación/fisiología , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/psicología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/fisiopatología , Movimiento/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Rotación
9.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 125-132, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183642

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática en la literatura científica existente sobre la creatividad en función de la edad, haciendo especial énfasis en las diferencias que se presentan entre cada etapa evolutiva del desarrollo humano, comprobando si existe disminución de esta capacidad a lo largo de la vida. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en las bases de datos, Web of Science, Scopus y PsycINFO, tomando en cuenta publicaciones realizadas entre 2010 y 2017 en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 25 artículos que se analizaron en base a diferentes características como los instrumentos empleados. Los resultados muestran hetero-geneidad en los hallazgos y se discuten los resultados tratando de arrojar luz sobre la comprensión de los mismos


The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the existing scientific literature on creativity based on age, with spe-cial emphasis on the differences that occur between each evolutionary stage of human development, checking whether there is a de-crease in this capacity over a lifetime. A literature review was carried out using the databases Web of Science, Scopus and PsycINFO, taking into account publications produced between 2010 and 2017 in Spanish or English. We selected 25 articles that were analyzed based on different characteristics such as the instruments used. The results show heterogeneity in the findings. We discuss the results, attempting to shed light on their interpretation


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Creatividad , Factores de Edad , Desempeño de Papel , Imaginación/fisiología , Aptitud/fisiología
10.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 41(4): 219-226, jul.-ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183099

RESUMEN

Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática fue resumir toda la evidencia relativa a los efectos de la imaginería motora realizada durante el periodo de inmovilización después de una lesión o en el inmediato posquirúrgico y los efectos sobre el dolor, la fuerza, la función y el rango articular. Métodos: Se hicieron búsquedas sistemáticas en todos los idiomas y en 4 bases de datos: PubMed, OtSeeker, Cinhal, WOS y PEDro. Se seleccionaron los estudios elegibles publicados hasta noviembre de 2018. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que investigaron los efectos de la intervención de imaginería motora durante el periodo de inmovilización después de una lesión o en el inmediato posquirúrgico de miembro superior. Se utilizó la escala PEDro de calidad metodológica. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 4 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, 2 con calidad metodológica buena y 2 con calidad metodológica insuficiente. El rango articular se evaluó en los 4ensayos, el dolor en 2, la fuerza en 3 y en uno la función. Se observaron cambios positivos en el grupo de imaginería motora en el rango articular en 3 estudios: 2 de calidad metodológica buena (n = 40 y n = 18) y uno de calidad insuficiente (n = 18); en el dolor, en un estudio de calidad buena (n = 40); en la fuerza en 2 estudios: uno de calidad buena (n = 40) y uno de insuficiente (n = 18) y en la función, en uno de calidad buena (n = 40). Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran beneficios positivos en el uso de imaginería motora aplicándola inmediatamente después del periodo posquirúrgico o en personas sanas simulando una inmovilización


Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to make a detailed examination of all the evidence concerning the effects of motor imagery (MI) performed during the immobilisation period after an injury, or in the immediate postoperative period, and the effects on pain, strength, function, and joint range. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in all languages and in 4 electronic databases: PubMed, OTseeker, Cinahl, WOS and PEDro. Eligible studies published up to November 2018 were selected. Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effects of a motor imagery intervention performed during the period of immobilisation after an injury, or in the immediate postoperative upper limb were included. methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Results: Four randomised clinical trials were selected, 2 with good methodological quality and 2 with insufficient methodological quality. The joint range was evaluated in the 4 trials, pain in 2, strength in 3, and function in one. Positive changes were observed in the group of motor imagery in the joint mobility in 3 studies: 2 of good methodological quality (n = 40 and n = 18) and one insufficient (n= 18), in pain in one study of good quality (n = 40), in strength in 2 studies: one good quality (n = 40) and 1 insufficient (n = 18) and in function in 1 of good quality (n = 40). Conclusions: The results show positive benefits in the use of motor imagery applied immediately after the postoperative period or in healthy people simulating an immobilisation


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Limitación de la Movilidad , Periodo Posoperatorio , Destreza Motora , Imágenes (Psicoterapia)/métodos , Movimiento/fisiología , Inmovilización , Imaginación/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Balance Postural/fisiología
11.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(2): 141-152, 2019 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321955

RESUMEN

The number of electrode channels in a brain-computer interface affects not only its classification performance, but also its convenience in practical applications. However, an effective method for determining the number of channels has not yet been established for motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces. This paper proposes a novel evolutionary search algorithm, binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization, for channel selection, which is implemented in a wrapping manner, coupling common spatial pattern for feature extraction, and support vector machine for classification. The fitness function of binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization is defined as the weighted sum of classification error rate and relative number of channels. The classification performance of the binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization-based common spatial pattern was evaluated on an electroencephalograph data set and an electrocorticography data set. It was subsequently compared with that of other three common spatial pattern methods: using the channels selected by binary particle swarm optimization, all channels in raw data sets, and channels selected manually. Experimental results showed that the proposed binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization-based common spatial pattern method outperformed the other three common spatial pattern methods, significantly decreasing the classification error rate and number of channels, as compared to the common spatial pattern method using whole channels in raw data sets. The proposed method can significantly improve the practicability and convenience of a motor imagery-based brain-computer interface system.


Asunto(s)
Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Encéfalo/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Electroencefalografía , Humanos , Imaginación , Movimiento , Teoría Cuántica , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
12.
Br J Sociol ; 70(5): 2169-2175, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313282
13.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107727, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276757

RESUMEN

Previous studies suggested that highly math-anxious (HMA) individuals invest more attentional resources than their low math-anxious (LMA) peers in numerical tasks, and have worse spatial skills. We aimed to explore whether they also need to apply more resources in spatial tasks. In this study, HMA and LMA individuals saw normal or mirror-reversed letters in six orientations and made mirror-normal decisions. In both groups, response times and errors increased with angular deviation from upright and the ERP mental rotation effect was found. However, HMAs were slower to respond than their LMA counterparts. Interestingly, the HMA group showed a larger P3b in greater deviations for normal letters and in all mirrored letters. Since P3b amplitude reflects the attentional resources invested in the categorization of relevant stimuli, HMA individuals may need to devote more processing effort than their LMA peers when performing mental rotation. This finding is consistent with the Attentional Control Theory.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Imaginación/fisiología , Matemática , Procesamiento Espacial/fisiología , Toma de Decisiones , Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Evocados , Femenino , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Tiempo de Reacción , Rotación , Adulto Joven
14.
BJOG ; 126(11): 1327, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264366
15.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 38: 100669, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176283

RESUMEN

Developmental cognitive neuroscience is flourishing but there are new challenges and new questions to be asked. I argue that we need a bigger picture and an evolutionary framework. This brings some challenges, such as the need to rewrite the old story of nature and nurture, and the need to systematically investigate innate predispositions. While brain imaging has provided some splendid insights and new puzzles to solve, its limitations must not be ignored. Can they help us to find out more about the extent to which the infant brain already configures the adult brain? Can we find out why neurodevelopmental disorders often have severe consequences on cognition and behaviour, despite the mitigating force of brain plasticity? I wish to encourage researchers of the future to take risks by letting their imagination inspire theories to pursue hard questions. I end with a wish list of topics, from start-up kits to abstract reasoning, that I hope can be tackled afresh. However, collecting physiological and behavioural data is not enough. We need a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cognitive development.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Imaginación/fisiología , Plasticidad Neuronal/fisiología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Humanos , Lactante
16.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 4317078, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191631

RESUMEN

Due to the nonlinear and high-dimensional characteristics of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG), it can be challenging to get high online accuracy. As a nonlinear dimension reduction method, landmark maximum variance unfolding (L-MVU) can completely retain the nonlinear features of MI-EEG. However, L-MVU still requires considerable computation costs for out-of-sample data. An incremental version of L-MVU (denoted as IL-MVU) is proposed in this paper. The low-dimensional representation of the training data is generated by L-MVU. For each out-of-sample data, its nearest neighbors will be found in the high-dimensional training samples and the corresponding reconstruction weight matrix be calculated to generate its low-dimensional representation as well. IL-MVU is further combined with the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT), which develops a hybrid feature extraction method (named as IL-MD). IL-MVU is applied to extract the nonlinear features of the specific subband signals, which are reconstructed by DTCWT and have the obvious event-related synchronization/event-related desynchronization phenomenon. The average energy features of α and ß waves are calculated simultaneously. The two types of features are fused and are evaluated by a linear discriminant analysis classifier. Based on the two public datasets with 12 subjects, extensive experiments were conducted. The average recognition accuracies of 10-fold cross-validation are 92.50% on Dataset 3b and 88.13% on Dataset 2b, and they gain at least 1.43% and 3.45% improvement, respectively, compared to existing methods. The experimental results show that IL-MD can extract more accurate features with relatively lower consumption cost, and it also has better feature visualization and self-adaptive characteristics to subjects. The t-test results and Kappa values suggest the proposed feature extraction method reaches statistical significance and has high consistency in classification.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Electroencefalografía , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Humanos , Imaginación , Análisis de Ondículas
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(13)2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252557

RESUMEN

Various convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approaches have been recently proposed to improve the performance of motor imagery based-brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, the classification accuracy of CNNs is compromised when target data are distorted. Specifically for motor imagery electroencephalogram (EEG), the measured signals, even from the same person, are not consistent and can be significantly distorted. To overcome these limitations, we propose to apply a capsule network (CapsNet) for learning various properties of EEG signals, thereby achieving better and more robust performance than previous CNN methods. The proposed CapsNet-based framework classifies the two-class motor imagery, namely right-hand and left-hand movements. The motor imagery EEG signals are first transformed into 2D images using the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) algorithm and then used for training and testing the capsule network. The performance of the proposed framework was evaluated on the BCI competition IV 2b dataset. The proposed framework outperformed state-of-the-art CNN-based methods and various conventional machine learning approaches. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for classification of motor imagery EEG signals.


Asunto(s)
Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Mano/diagnóstico por imagen , Movimiento/fisiología , Algoritmos , Análisis de Fourier , Mano/fisiología , Humanos , Imaginación/fisiología , Aprendizaje Automático
18.
Health Mark Q ; 36(3): 169-185, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180277

RESUMEN

This research examines the influence of visual metaphors in direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs. Results indicate that consumers' propensity to imagine enhances their objective comprehension of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertisements that contain fused visual metaphors (vs. juxtaposed visual metaphors). Additionally, when DTC pharmaceutical advertisements feature visual metaphors with low comparability, consumers primed with imagination-focused visualization rather than memory-focused visualization inducements experience greater information-seeking intentions regarding drug health risks for ads using fused rather than juxtaposed visual metaphors. These results suggest notable DTCA insights for advertising and policymaking.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad Directa al Consumidor/tendencias , Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Imaginación , Metáfora , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Masculino
19.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 8068357, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214255

RESUMEN

Background: Due to the redundant information contained in multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, the classification accuracy of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems may deteriorate to a large extent. Channel selection methods can help to remove task-independent electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and hence improve the performance of BCI systems. However, in different frequency bands, brain areas associated with motor imagery are not exactly the same, which will result in the inability of traditional channel selection methods to extract effective EEG features. New Method: To address the above problem, this paper proposes a novel method based on common spatial pattern- (CSP-) rank channel selection for multifrequency band EEG (CSP-R-MF). It combines the multiband signal decomposition filtering and the CSP-rank channel selection methods to select significant channels, and then linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to calculate the classification accuracy. Results: The results showed that our proposed CSP-R-MF method could significantly improve the average classification accuracy compared with the CSP-rank channel selection method.


Asunto(s)
Interfaces Cerebro-Computador , Encéfalo/fisiología , Electroencefalografía , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Humanos , Imaginación/fisiología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
20.
Brain Cogn ; 135: 103564, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207542

RESUMEN

In deception tasks the parietal P3 amplitude of the event-related potential indicates either recognition of salient stimuli (larger P3 following salient information) or mental effort (smaller P3 following demanding information). This meta-analysis (k = 77) investigated population effect sizes (δ) for conceptual and methodological a-priori moderators (study design, pre-task scenario, context of deception tasks, and P3 quantification). Within-subject designs show evidence of the underlying cognitive processes, between-subject designs allow for comparisons of cognitive processes in culprits vs. innocents. Committed vs. imagined mock crime scenarios yield larger δ. Deception tasks with a legal context result in almost twice as large δ than deception tasks with social-evaluative and social-biographical contexts. Peak-to-peak P3 quantification resulted in larger δ than other quantifications. Counter-measure techniques in 3-stimulus protocols reduce the discriminability of concealed vs. truthful P3 amplitudes. Depending on stimulus knowledge, deception tasks provide evidence for the salience hypothesis and the mental effort hypothesis, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Decepción , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Derecho Penal , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Humanos , Imaginación
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