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2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20240182, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864335

RESUMEN

In contemporary society, the effective utilization of public resources remains a subject of significant concern. A common issue arises from defectors seeking to obtain an excessive share of these resources for personal gain, potentially leading to resource depletion. To mitigate this tragedy and ensure sustainable development of resources, implementing mechanisms to either reward those who adhere to distribution rules or penalize those who do not, appears advantageous. We introduce two models: a tax-reward model and a tax-punishment model, to address this issue. Our analysis reveals that in the tax-reward model, the evolutionary trajectory of the system is influenced not only by the tax revenue collected but also by the natural growth rate of the resources. Conversely, the tax-punishment model exhibits distinct characteristics when compared with the tax-reward model, notably the potential for bistability. In such scenarios, the selection of initial conditions is critical, as it can determine the system's path. Furthermore, our study identifies instances where the system lacks stable points, exemplified by a limit cycle phenomenon, underscoring the complexity and dynamism inherent in managing public resources using these models.


Asunto(s)
Recompensa , Impuestos , Castigo , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
3.
N Z Med J ; 137(1596): 86-93, 2024 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843552

RESUMEN

Childhood obesity is a critical issue in New Zealand that we can no longer afford to ignore. Currently, one in three children is overweight or obese, putting the health of an entire generation at risk if we continue to delay taking action. This issue highlights a significant matter of equity. Maori and Pacific children and those from socio-economically deprived backgrounds are disproportionately affected, reminding us of the systemic barriers rooted in historical factors that exist within our society. Efforts focussed on changing individual behaviour have achieved limited success in reducing childhood obesity rates. Therefore, it is necessary to shift our focus upstream and address the root causes of this issue. This viewpoint piece underscores the role of the obesogenic environment as the primary driver of childhood obesity, advocating for an upstream approach to enact broader changes in the food environment. Within this framework, this piece puts forward three policy measures that could be essential in addressing the childhood obesity epidemic: implementing a tax on sugary beverages, restricting unhealthy food marketing and ensuring access to healthy food in schools. These policies are backed by substantial evidence of their efficacy, cost-effectiveness and potential to improve health equity, including contextual evidence from successful international models. However, despite ample evidence and support, New Zealand has fallen behind international standards in adopting these measures, partly due to resistance from the food industry and the need for stronger political leadership. Thus, a "call to action" is needed to overcome these challenges, mobilise against the current policy inertia and make addressing childhood obesity a priority.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Infantil , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Obesidad Infantil/prevención & control , Obesidad Infantil/epidemiología , Niño , Política de Salud , Bebidas Azucaradas , Impuestos , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Promoción de la Salud/métodos
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304028, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870150

RESUMEN

SIGNIFICANCE: For decades, tobacco advertisements and promotions have been common in mass media and public places in China. In 2015, China amended the Advertising Law to prohibit the distribution of tobacco advertising, while also initiating waves of tobacco control media campaigns. This study investigates the associations between exposure to anti- and pro-smoking messages, smoking status, and people's smoking-related beliefs and willingness to support tobacco control policies. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed with the 2018 Global Adult Tobacco Survey of 19,376 adults aged ≥15 years in China. Anti- and pro-smoking message exposures were measured as the sum of sources (media or places) where respondents have seen the messages. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships among smoking status, message exposure, and the outcome variables (health harm beliefs, support for increasing tax on cigarettes, support for using part of the increased tax on tobacco control) controlling for smoking status and demographic differences. RESULTS: Overall, 63.3% of the respondents reported being exposed to anti-smoking messages from at least 1 source, while 18.1% were exposed to pro-smoking messages from at least 1 source. Adults who currently, formerly, and never smoked differed in their beliefs about smoking and willingness to support tobacco control policies. Greater reported exposure to anti-smoking messages was positively associated with belief that smoking is harmful, support for increased cigarette tax, and support for using increased tax revenue for tobacco control measures. Meanwhile, greater reported exposure to pro-smoking messages was negatively related to willingness to support cigarette tax increases. CONCLUSIONS: While national and local tobacco control campaigns in China have reached a large proportion of the adult population, there is still room for improvement. China might consider expanding anti-tobacco campaigns, as reported exposure to these messages is associated with increased public awareness of the health hazards of smoking and support for increasing cigarette taxes.


Asunto(s)
Fumar , Humanos , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Fumar/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Publicidad , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Anciano , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Impuestos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología
5.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 9(1): 19, 2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840125

RESUMEN

In Namibia, the Value Added Tax (VAT) Amendment Act 2022, which reclassified the supply of sanitary pads as zero-rated, has significant implications for adolescent girls' menstrual health and education. The policy change responds to the need to address period poverty by making essential menstrual products more accessible and affordable. Menstruation is a normal biological process, and access to sanitary products is a human right. Taxing menstrual products reinforces gender inequalities and raises concerns about the basic rights and dignity of women and girls. The VAT-free policy creates a system to reduce the financial burden on girls and women, making it easier for them to manage their periods safely and with dignity. It has the potential to reduce absenteeism from school, ultimately improving educational outcomes for adolescent girls. However, VAT exemptions alone are insufficient to address the broader accessibility issues that impact menstrual hygiene. Evidence-based policies that focus on the availability and affordability of a full range of sanitary products, in conjunction with regulatory mechanisms for price and quality control, are necessary to ensure that menstrual products are safe, affordable, and accessible for all.


Asunto(s)
Productos para la Higiene Menstrual , Menstruación , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Productos para la Higiene Menstrual/provisión & distribución , Productos para la Higiene Menstrual/economía , Productos para la Higiene Menstrual/estadística & datos numéricos , Impuestos , Namibia , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud del Adolescente
6.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303622, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843130

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate the dynamics of tax evasion and revenue leakage in the Somali customs framework, providing insights into the systemic opportunity structures, tax governance deficiencies, and personal incentive structures that facilitate these practices. By applying agency theory and rent-seeking theory, this research seeks to deepen the understanding of the complex relationship between individual motivations and systemic vulnerabilities in exacerbating corruption and tax evasion in a post-conflict governance context. By employing structural equation modeling (SEM) within the ADANCO-SEM analysis framework, this study analyzes primary survey data. This approach allows for a comprehensive examination of the relationships between systemic, governance, and personal factors contributing to corruption and tax evasion. The findings reveal a significant positive relationship between systemic opportunity structures, tax governance deficiencies, and personal incentive structures and the prevalence of tax evasion and corruption. Specifically, systemic opportunity structures were found to significantly influence both tax governance deficiencies and personal incentive structures, highlighting the intertwined nature of these factors in facilitating corrupt practices and tax evasion in Somali customs. This study underscores the urgent need for comprehensive reforms targeting systemic vulnerabilities, enhancing tax governance frameworks, and aligning personal incentives with the public interest. Practical applications include the adoption of advanced technological solutions for improved monitoring and transparency, as well as the development of targeted training programs for customs officials to foster ethical standards and compliance. This research contributes to the existing body of knowledge by providing a unique empirical examination of corruption and tax evasion in the context of Somali customs, a largely underexplored area in the literature. By integrating agency theory and rent-seeking theory, this study offers novel insights into the mechanisms of corruption and tax evasion, highlighting the importance of addressing both systemic and individual factors in combating these issues.


Asunto(s)
Impuestos , Somalia , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303112, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843164

RESUMEN

Empirical data regarding payments to participants in research is limited. This lack of information constrains our understanding of the effectiveness of payments to achieve scientific goals with respect to recruitment, retention, and inclusion. We conducted a content analysis of consent forms and protocols available on clinicaltrials.gov to determine what information researchers provide regarding payment. We extracted data from HIV (n = 101) and NIMH-funded studies (n = 65) listed on clinicaltrials.gov that had publicly posted a consent form. Using a manifest content analysis approach, we then coded the language regarding payment from the consent document and, where available, protocol for purpose and method of the payment. Although not part of our original planned analysis, the tax-related information that emerged from our content analysis of the consent form language provided additional insights into researcher payment practices. Accordingly, we also recorded whether the payment section mentioned social security numbers (or other tax identification number) in connection with payments and whether it made any statements regarding the Internal Revenue Service or the tax status of payments. We found studies commonly offered payment, but did not distinguish between the purposes for which payment may be offered (i.e., compensation, reimbursement, incentive, or appreciation). We also found studies that excluded some participants from receiving payment or treated them differently from other participants in the study. Differential treatment was typically linked to US tax laws and other legal requirements. A number of US studies also discussed the need to collect Social Security numbers and income reporting based on US tax laws. Collectively, these practices disadvantage some participants and may interfere with efforts to conduct more inclusive research.


Asunto(s)
Impuestos , Humanos , Impuestos/economía , Estados Unidos , Formularios de Consentimiento , Investigación Biomédica/economía
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4934, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858369

RESUMEN

Sugar sweetened beverage consumption has been suggested as a risk factor for childhood asthma symptoms. We examined whether the UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL), announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018, was associated with changes in National Health Service hospital admission rates for asthma in children, 22 months post-implementation of SDIL. We conducted interrupted time series analyses (2012-2020) to measure changes in monthly incidence rates of hospital admissions. Sub-analysis was by age-group (5-9,10-14,15-18 years) and neighbourhood deprivation quintiles. Changes were relative to counterfactual scenarios where the SDIL wasn't announced, or implemented. Overall, incidence rates reduced by 20.9% (95%CI: 29.6-12.2). Reductions were similar across age-groups and deprivation quintiles. These findings give support to the idea that implementation of a UK tax intended to reduce childhood obesity may have contributed to a significant unexpected and additional public health benefit in the form of reduced hospital admissions for childhood asthma.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Bebidas Gaseosas , Hospitalización , Humanos , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/etiología , Niño , Adolescente , Preescolar , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas Gaseosas/economía , Bebidas Gaseosas/efectos adversos , Bebidas Gaseosas/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Femenino , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Impuestos/economía , Incidencia , Obesidad Infantil/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Bebidas Azucaradas/efectos adversos , Bebidas Azucaradas/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas Azucaradas/economía
9.
J Environ Manage ; 364: 121440, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875986

RESUMEN

Amid the urgent global imperatives concerning climate change and resource preservation, our research delves into the critical domains of waste management and environmental sustainability within the European Union (EU), collecting data from 1990 to 2022. The Method of Moments Quantile Regression (MMQR) results reveal a resounding commitment among EU member states to diminish their reliance on incineration, which is evident through adopting green technologies and environmentally conscious taxation policies, aligning with the European Union's sustainability objectives. However, this transition presents the intricate task of harmonizing industrial emissions management with efficient waste disposal. Tailoring waste management strategies to accommodate diverse consumption patterns and unique circumstances within individual member states becomes imperative. Cointegrating regressions highlighted the long-run relationship among the selected variables, while Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) and Panel-Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE) estimates roughly confirmed MMQR results. ML analyses, conducted through two ensemble methods (Gradient Boosting, GB, and Extreme Gradient Boosting, XGBoost) shed light on the relative importance of the predictors: in particular, environmental taxation, consumption-based emissions, and production-based emissions greatly contribute to determining the variation of combustible renewables and waste. This study recommends that EU countries establish monitoring mechanisms to advance waste management and environmental sustainability through green technology adoption, enhance environmental taxation policies, and accelerate the renewable energy transition.


Asunto(s)
Unión Europea , Incineración , Impuestos , Administración de Residuos , Administración de Residuos/métodos , Carbono/análisis , Cambio Climático
10.
Nature ; 630(8017): 533, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862681
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1358730, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841673

RESUMEN

Introduction: The synergy of green taxation, public health expenditures, and life expectancy emerges as a compelling narrative in the intricate symphony of environmental responsibility and public well-being. Therefore, this study examine the impact of green taxation on life expectancy and the moderating role of public health expenditure on the said nexus, particularly in the context of China, an emerging economy. Methods: Statistical data is collected from the National Bureau of Statistics of China to empirically examine the proposed relationships. The dataset contains provincial data across years. Results: Using fixed-effect and system GMM regression models alongwith control variables, the results found a positive and statistically significant influence of green taxation on life expectancy. Moreover, public health expenditures have a positive and statistically significant partial moderating impact on the direct relationship. Discussion: These findings suggest that the higher cost of pollution encourages individuals and businesses to shift to less environmentally harmful alternatives, subsequently improving public health. Moreover, government investment in the health sector increases the availability and accessibility of health facilities; thus, the positive impact of green taxation on public health gets more pronounced. The findings significantly contribute to the fields of environmental and health economics and provide a new avenue of research for the academic community and policymakers.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud , Esperanza de Vida , Impuestos , China , Humanos , Impuestos/estadística & datos numéricos , Impuestos/economía , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/economía
12.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301985, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861489

RESUMEN

Policymakers are increasingly focusing on structural adjustment and efficiency to cope with the pressures that the economic downturn has placed on local finances. Accordingly, the Chinese government should shift from using standard passive investments to high-quality active investments for its social guarantees, such as education. Based on panel data of 274 cities from 2010 to 2019, this study conducted the first examination of the impact of tax structure and government debt on the relative power of the local education supply (LES) in China. The study found that, first, in general, increases in the tax structure-represented by the proportion of personal income tax to budgetary revenue strengthen the relative power of LES, which is more sensitive in the southern region with a more developed market economy system. And the impact of government debt-represented by the urban investment debt ratio on the relative power of LES is initially negative and then positive. Second, the study revealed that the tax structure can stimulate the relative power of LES through the intermediary channel of an increase in the urban consumption rate; however, the mechanism of promoting the relative power of LES by encouraging localities to attract more floating populations is not obvious. Third, excessive investment in local governance adjusts the positive effect of local debt on the relative power of LES. Therefore, the government should pay attention to the promotion of personal income tax status, standardize their debt risk management, improve the efficiency of governance, and emphasize the pull of urban consumption, so as to enhance the ability to support livelihood and fully mobilize initiatives for local education development.


Asunto(s)
Impuestos , Impuestos/economía , Humanos , China , Educación/economía , Renta , Gobierno Local , Ciudades , Gobierno
13.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305249, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861562

RESUMEN

This paper aims to explore the impact of China's value-added tax (VAT) credit refunds policy on the enterprises' labor demand through a paradigm combining ex-ante analysis and ex-post test. By introducing the VAT credit refunds into the production-decision model of the enterprise, calibrating the parameters and conducting the dynamic effects tests using the data of Chinese A-share listed enterprises, this paper finds that the labor employment of the pilot enterprises exhibits a V-shaped fluctuation trend. In the initial implementation of the policy, due to the existence of layoff costs, iso-cost line of the enterprise bends, which results in that the enterprise with a capital-labor substitution elasticity greater than 1 will not reduce labor hiring, as it has already deployed labor force before the implementation of the policy. When the enterprise enter the next production cycle where the labor force can be freely allocated, the labor employment of the enterprise with a capital-labor elasticity of substitution greater than 1 will decline compared to that without the policy. In the long run, as output increases, the labor demand will recover. The results of ex-post test are consistent with that of the ex-ante analysis. Additionally, heterogeneity test reveals that the greater the elasticity of capital-labor substitution of the sub-industry is, the more severe the degree of the V-shaped fluctuation is. Following the implementation of the policy, the continuous increase in enterprise output and capital stock verifies the relevant transmission mechanism. This study provides a more detailed perspective for comprehensively understanding the impact of VAT credit refunds policy on employment.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Impuestos , China , Impuestos/economía , Empleo/economía , Humanos , Modelos Económicos
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(25): 37136-37162, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761261

RESUMEN

The study aims to gauge the impact of economic policy uncertainty, ICT, and environmental tax on environmental sustainability, which is measured by carbon emission and ecological footprint in a panel of 22 nations from 1997 to 2021. The present study has implemented the advanced panel data estimation techniques, including continuously updated fully modified (CUP-FM) and continuously updated bias-corrected (CUP-BC), dynamic seemingly unrelated regressions (DSUR), and nonlinear autoregressive distributed lagged (NARDL) in documenting the elasticities of target variables. Moreover, the directional causality has been tested through the D-H causality test. Study findings documented a positive and statistically significant linkage between EPU and environmental degradation. That is, EPU amplifies the emission of CO2 and ecological instability. The effects of ET and ICT are positively associated with environmental sustainability; that is, ET and ICT control the emission of CO2 and bring ecological improvement. This study contributes to the existing body of literature by conducting a thorough analysis of the relationship between various factors and their impact on environmental degradation. The study emphasizes the significance of every factor in influencing environmental outcomes. It provides policy suggestions to reduce CO2 emissions and promote ecological sustainability. The findings add valuable insights to the ongoing conversation about how to tackle environmental challenges in our constantly evolving world.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental , Impuestos , Incertidumbre , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Sostenible
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 351: 116953, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759385

RESUMEN

Economic determinants are important for population health, but actionable evidence of how policies can utilise these pathways remains scarce. This study employs a microsimulation framework to evaluate the effects of taxation and social security policies on population mental health. The UK economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic provides an informative context involving an economic shock accompanied by one of the strongest discretionary fiscal responses amongst OECD countries. The analytical setup involves a dynamic, stochastic, discrete-time microsimulation model (SimPaths) projecting changes in psychological distress given predicted economic outcomes from a static tax-benefit microsimulation model (UKMOD) based on different policy scenarios. We contrast projections of psychological distress for the working-age population from 2017 to 2025 given the observed policy environment against a counterfactual scenario where pre-crisis policies remained in place. Levels of psychological distress and potential cases of common mental disorders (CMDs) were assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The UK policy response to the economic crisis is estimated to have prevented a substantial fall (over 12 percentage points, %pt) in the employment rate in 2020 and 2021. In 2020, projected psychological distress increased substantially (CMD prevalence increase >10%pt) under both the observed and the counterfactual policy scenarios. Through economic pathways, the policy response is estimated to have prevented a further 3.4%pt [95%UI 2.8%pt, 4.0%pt] increase in the prevalence of CMDs, approximately 1.2 million cases. Beyond 2021, as employment levels rapidly recovered, psychological distress returned to the pre-pandemic trend. Sustained preventative effects on poverty are estimated, with projected levels 2.1%pt [95%UI 1.8%pt, 2.5%pt] lower in 2025 than in the absence of the observed policy response. The study shows that policies protecting employment during an economic crisis are effective in preventing short-term mental health losses and have lasting effects on poverty levels. This preventative effect has substantial public health benefits.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Recesión Económica , Distrés Psicológico , Seguridad Social , Impuestos , Humanos , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/economía , COVID-19/prevención & control , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Recesión Económica/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad Social/economía , Seguridad Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Impuestos/economía , Impuestos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política Pública , Simulación por Computador , Empleo/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias
16.
Math Biosci ; 373: 109220, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38797471

RESUMEN

Ecological balance and stable economic development are crucial for the fishery. This study proposes a predator-prey system for marine communities, where the growth of predators follows the Allee effect and takes into account the rapid fluctuations in resource prices caused by supply and demand. The system predicts the existence of catastrophic equilibrium, which may lead to the extinction of prey, consequently leading to the extinction of predators, but fishing efforts remain high. Marine protected areas are established near fishing areas to avoid such situations. Fish migrate rapidly between these two areas and are only harvested in the nonprotected areas. A three-dimensional simplified model is derived by applying variable aggregation to describe the variation of global variables on a slow time scale. To seek conditions to avoid species extinction and maintain sustainable fishing activities, the existence of positive equilibrium points and their local stability are explored based on the simplified model. Moreover, the long-term impact of establishing marine protected areas and levying taxes based on unit catch on fishery dynamics is studied, and the optimal tax policy is obtained by applying Pontryagin's maximum principle. The theoretical analysis and numerical examples of this study demonstrate the comprehensive effectiveness of increasing the proportion of marine protected areas and controlling taxes on the sustainable development of fishery.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces , Animales , Explotaciones Pesqueras/economía , Explotaciones Pesqueras/estadística & datos numéricos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Conducta Predatoria , Modelos Biológicos , Impuestos , Dinámica Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Public Health ; 232: 61-67, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744097

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We explored the early impact of changes to the UK alcohol tax system, implemented in August 2023, on the strength and price of alcoholic products available for sale on the website of the largest supermarket in England. STUDY DESIGN: Our comparative descriptive study using longitudinal brand-level data was not preregistered and should be considered exploratory. METHODS: Data were collected weekly (May to October 2023) using automated web scraping tools. Outcomes were product strength (% alcohol by volume [ABV]) and price (per 10 mL of pure alcohol and per litre of product). We undertook paired t-tests, two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, and quantile regression to compare outcomes before and after the tax changes. Beer, cider, spirits, and ready-to-drinks (RTDs) were analysed separately. RESULTS: There was a reduction in the mean strength of beer, driven by manufacturers reformulating a small number of weaker beers, moving them into a lower tax band (<3.5%ABV). The mean price per 10 mL of alcohol and per litre of product was significantly higher after the new tax system for beer, cider, and spirits and significantly lower for RTDs. Increases in the price of beer tended to occur across the entire distribution, whereas increases in the price of cider occurred among more expensive products. CONCLUSIONS: Changes to product strength tended to occur among weaker products near the new lowest tax band, suggesting tax bands may be a potential stimulus for change. Reformulation of stronger products would have better public health potential. Longer term monitoring, including data on purchasing/consumption, is required.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , Comercio , Impuestos , Impuestos/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas Alcohólicas/economía , Humanos , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido , Cerveza/economía , Cerveza/estadística & datos numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Supermercados , Estudios Longitudinales
18.
Diabetes Care ; 47(7): 1220-1226, 2024 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753006

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Prediabetes, which is a condition characterized by higher-than-normal blood glucose levels that are under the threshold for diabetes, impacts over one-third of U.S. adults. Excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a proposed policy intervention to lower population consumption of SSBs and generate revenue to support health-related programs, thus potentially delaying or preventing the development of diabetes in individuals with prediabetes. We leveraged data from Kaiser Permanente in California to examine the impact of SSB taxes in California on individual-level mean HbA1c levels and rates of incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared two outcomes, mean HbA1c levels and rates of incident diabetes, among a matched cohort of adults with prediabetes who lived and did not live in SSB excise tax cities, using outcomes collected in the 6 years prior and 4 years following SSB tax implementation. We used multivariable linear mixed effects models to analyze longitudinal mean HbA1c and discrete-time survival models for incident diabetes. RESULTS: We included 68,658 adults in the analysis. In adjusted models, longitudinal mean HbA1c was 0.007% (95% CI 0.002, 0.011) higher in the tax cities compared with control individuals; while the estimated difference was statistically significant, it was not clinically significant (HbA1c <0.5%). There was no significant difference in the risk of incident diabetes between individuals living in tax and control cities. CONCLUSIONS: We found no clinically significant association between SSB taxes and either longitudinal mean HbA1c or incident diabetes among adults with prediabetes in the 4 years following SSB tax implementation.


Asunto(s)
Hemoglobina Glucada , Estado Prediabético , Bebidas Azucaradas , Impuestos , Humanos , Estado Prediabético/epidemiología , Estado Prediabético/economía , Hemoglobina Glucada/metabolismo , Bebidas Azucaradas/economía , Bebidas Azucaradas/efectos adversos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , California/epidemiología , Anciano , Estudios Longitudinales
19.
Health Policy ; 144: 105076, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692186

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Economic evaluations of public health interventions like sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes face difficulties similar to those previously identified in other public health areas. This stems from challenges in accurately attributing effects, capturing outcomes and costs beyond health, and integrating equity effects. This review examines how these challenges were addressed in economic evaluations of SSB taxes. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of SSB taxes focused on addressing obesity in adults, published up to February 2021. The methodological challenges examined include measuring effects, valuing outcomes, assessing costs, and incorporating equity. RESULTS: Fourteen economic evaluations of SSB taxes were identified. Across these evaluations, estimating SSB tax effects was uncertain due to a reliance on indirect evidence that was less robust than evidence from randomised controlled trials. Health outcomes, like quality-adjusted life years, along with a healthcare system perspective for costs, dominated the evaluations of SSB taxes, with a limited focus on broader non-health consequences. Equity analyses were common but employed significantly different approaches and exhibited varying degrees of quality. CONCLUSION: Addressing the methodological challenges remains an issue for economic evaluations of public health interventions like SSB taxes, suggesting the need for increased attention on those issues in future studies. Dedicated methodological guidelines, in particular addressing the measurement of effect and incorporation of equity impacts, are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Obesidad , Bebidas Azucaradas , Impuestos , Impuestos/economía , Humanos , Bebidas Azucaradas/economía , Obesidad/economía , Salud Pública/economía , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299730, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787851

RESUMEN

Reducing urban carbon emissions is an important path for ecological civilization construction, which can be achieved through the adjustment of urban land use tax. Using provincial Panel data from 2011 to 2021, based on the analysis of urban carbon emission efficiency values using a non radial SBM model, the Tobit random effects panel model is used to explore the institutional impact of urban land use tax. The study found that urban land use tax has a significant positive promoting effect on carbon emission efficiency and shows certain regional differences. The eastern region is higher in overall efficiency and technical efficiency than the central and western regions, but the central region has the highest overall scale efficiency. At the same time, factors such as population urbanization, industrial structure, and energy-saving technology level will also have a certain impact on this effect. Based on the institutional effect of improving carbon emission efficiency, the article proposes corresponding countermeasures and suggestions from aspects such as tax rate levels, tax system adjustments, tax incentives, and differentiated regional arrangements.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Impuestos , Urbanización , China , Carbono/análisis , Ciudades , Humanos
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