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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48057

RESUMEN

A Filadélfia fica no estado da Pensilvânia, costa oeste dos Estados Unidos, e é uma das cidades mais populosas do país, com 1,5 milhão de habitantes e muitas (e famosas) universidades e centros de estudo e pesquisa. E é uma das regiões dos Estados Unidos em que foi implementado um imposto sobre bebidas adoçadas como medida para reduzir o consumo e prevenir doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (as DCNTs) associadas ao consumo excessivo destes produtos. Uma pesquisa publicada no fim do ano passado avaliou o impacto do imposto sobre bebidas adoçadas nos empregos – um dos maiores temores que a tributação provoca entre gestores públicos e o setor produtivo. O resultado? Ao longo de seus dois anos e meio de implementação, o número geral de empregos se manteve.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Azucaradas , Impuestos , Control y Fiscalización de Alimentos y Bebidas , Industria de Bebidas Gasificadas
2.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48059

RESUMEN

A biblioteca virtual sobre impostos e comércio ilícito de tabaco, parte do Centro de Conhecimento da Unidade de Pesquisa sobre Economia de Produtos Sujeitos a Impostos Especiais da Universidade de Cape Town, na África do Sul, é uma das principais novidades na área. Ela foi lançada em janeiro e pode ser acessada por meio do link https://untobaccocontrol.org/taxation/e-library/. O propósito da biblioteca é consolidar e classificar toda a literatura disponível sobre o tema. Atualmente, são mais de 1.700 conteúdos provenientes de artigos técnicos e científicos, apresentações e conjunto de dados, entre outros.


Asunto(s)
Bibliotecas Digitales , Tabaquismo , Impuestos
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-02-09.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53252

RESUMEN

Sugar-sweetened beverage excise taxes are an effective evidence-based noncommunicable diseases (NCD) prevention policy. Along with tobacco and alcohol excise taxes, they are a tool to attain the Sustainable Development Goals, and are recommended by the World Health Organization to modify behavioral risk factors associated with obesity and NCDs, as featured in the WHO Global Action Plan. Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been described as a triple win for governments, because they 1) improve population health, 2) generate revenue, and 3) have the potential to reduce long-term associated healthcare costs and productivity losses. Taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implemented in more than 73 countries worldwide. In the Region of the Americas, 21 PAHO/WHO Member States apply national-level excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages and seven jurisdictions apply local sugar-sweetened beverage taxes in the United States of America. While the number of countries applying national excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages in the Region is promising, most of these taxes could be further leveraged to improve their impact on sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and health. This publication provides economic concepts related to the economic rationale for using sugar-sweetened beverage taxes and the costs associated with obesity; key considerations on tax design including tax types, bases, and rates; an overview of potential tax revenue and earmarking; evidence on the extent to which these taxes are expected to impact prices of taxed beverages, the demand for taxed beverages, and substitution to untaxed beverages; and responses to frequent questions about the economic impacts of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.


Asunto(s)
Nutrición, Alimentación y Dieta , Bebidas Azucaradas , Impuestos , Américas , Industria del Azúcar , Economía , Enfermedades no Transmisibles
4.
Waste Manag ; 121: 286-295, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406476

RESUMEN

The redistribution of unsold food products to charities is often considered a promising strategy to reduce food waste at supermarkets while producing social advantages. The Italian law against food waste (so-called "Gadda law") approved in 2016 allows municipalities to reduce the waste tax due by retail stores, proportionally to the certified amount of surplus food they donate. This option may act as an economic incentive for retailers to activate food waste redistribution initiatives, thus supporting diffusion at a larger scale. This study uses a simple economic model to assess the gains and losses of the municipality and the retailers under different scenarios of the application of this tax reduction. The model is tested on a number of Italian municipalities with different features, showing that under the appropriate conditions a decrease in the waste tax for stores activating food redistribution can lead to a win-win economic condition for all the actors involved.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos , Eliminación de Residuos , Ciudades , Italia , Impuestos
5.
Waste Manag ; 122: 1-14, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476957

RESUMEN

The Italian financing system for waste collection and disposal services, still far from a price-based system at the national level, is similar to a real property tax system. Among other concerns, this raises equity issues. The aim of this paper is threefold. First, the structure of the waste tax in its components (i.e., fixed and variable) is analysed at the provincial level. This allows to investigate the magnitude of the two tax components in Italian provinces, while showing the differences among macro-areas in the financing system for waste collection and disposal services. Second, the regressivity (progressivity) of the tax system adopted is investigated, so as to highlight the differences among geographical areas. Third, an alternative base for the waste tax is proposed, in order to avoid regressivity and achieve higher equality. For these purposes, official data referring to 2017 are used and a Geographically Weighted Regression is implemented. The results highlight the importance of an alternative base of the waste tax to design an equal and non-regressive tax, more similar to a Pay-As-You-Throw scheme.


Asunto(s)
Impuestos , Administración de Residuos , Italia
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2031083, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369659

RESUMEN

Importance: Health taxes are policy tools used to reduce harmful consumption of products and raise tax revenue, and they may also be associated with signaling (ie, informational and educational) factors that enhance their impact. Objectives: To examine changes in prices and volume sold of sweetened beverages following the implementation and repeal of the Cook County, Illinois, Sweetened Beverage Tax (SBT) compared with the comparison site of St Louis County and city, Missouri, which did not impose a tax. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used interrupted time series analyses to assess changes in price and volume sold of taxed (based on beverage type and sweetener status) and untaxed beverages in Cook County compared with St Louis following the implementation of the SBT on August 2, 2017, and its repeal effective December 1, 2017. Statistical analysis was performed from January to June 2020. Exposures: Implementation and repeal of the Cook County SBT. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in taxed and untaxed beverage prices and volume sold. Nielsen food store scanner data were obtained for weekly volume and dollar amount sold of nonalcoholic beverage universal product codes (UPCs) for each site in supermarkets and mass merchandise, grocery, drug, convenience, and dollar stores. Results: The analytic samples included 16 510 UPCs for volume and 2141 UPCs (balanced sample) for prices for 122 pretax weeks, 16 tax weeks, and 35 postrepeal weeks. Compared with St Louis, posttax implementation in Cook County resulted in a level increase in taxed beverage prices of 1.13 cents per fluid ounce (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.25 cents per fluid ounce), representing a slight overshifting, followed by a posttax repeal level decrease of -1.19 cents per fluid ounce (95% CI, -1.33 to -1.04 cents per fluid ounce), with no resulting change pretax to posttax repeal. Volume sold of taxed beverages in Cook County compared with St Louis exhibited a posttax implementation level decrease of 25.7% (ß = -0.297; 95% CI, -0.415 to -0.179) and a posttax repeal level increase of 30.5% (ß = 0.266, 95% CI, 0.124 to 0.408), with no net change in volume sold from pretax to 8 months after repeal. Conclusions and Relevance: This study using interrupted time series analysis found no net change in volume sold of taxed beverages following the implementation and repeal of the Cook County SBT, suggesting the tax had no signaling association. Repeals of such taxes may fully reverse their associations with reduced demand and harms associated with sweetened beverage intake.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Bebidas Azucaradas/economía , Impuestos/economía , Implementación de Plan de Salud , Humanos , Illinois , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido
8.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167515

RESUMEN

Past public health crises (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, opioids, cholera, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lead, pollution, venereal disease, even coronavirus (COVID-19) have been met with interventions targeted both at the individual and all of society. While the healthcare community is very aware that the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has its origins in our Western ultraprocessed food diet, society has been slow to initiate any interventions other than public education, which has been ineffective, in part due to food industry interference. This article provides the rationale for such public health interventions, by compiling the evidence that added sugar, and by proxy the ultraprocessed food category, meets the four criteria set by the public health community as necessary and sufficient for regulation-abuse, toxicity, ubiquity, and externalities (How does your consumption affect me?). To their credit, some countries have recently heeded this science and have instituted sugar taxation policies to help ameliorate NCDs within their borders. This article also supplies scientific counters to food industry talking points, and sample intervention strategies, in order to guide both scientists and policy makers in instituting further appropriate public health measures to quell this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/prevención & control , Dieta , Azúcares de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Comida Rápida/efectos adversos , Industria de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Conducta Adictiva/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conducta Alimentaria , Manipulación de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Política Pública , Control Social Formal , Impuestos
11.
Nature ; 586(7828): 201-202, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968243
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1282-e1294, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971051

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, smoking tobacco causes 7 million deaths annually, and this toll is expected to increase, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. In Latin America, smoking is a leading risk factor for death and disability, contributes to poverty, and imposes an economic burden on health systems. Despite being one of the most effective measures to reduce smoking, tobacco taxation is underused and cigarettes are more affordable in Latin America than in other regions. Our aim was to estimate the tobacco-attributable burden on mortality, disease incidence, quality of life lost, and medical costs in 12 Latin American countries, and the expected health and economic effects of increasing tobacco taxes. METHODS: In this modelling study, we developed a Markov probabilistic microsimulation economic model of the natural history, medical costs, and quality-of-life losses associated with the most common tobacco-related diseases in 12 countries in Latin America. Data inputs were obtained through a literature review, vital statistics, and hospital databases from each country: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. The main outcomes of the model are life-years, quality-adjusted life-years, disease events, hospitalisations, disease incidence, disease cost, and healthy years of life lost. We estimated direct medical costs for each tobacco-related disease included in the model using a common costing methodology for each country. The disease burden was estimated as the difference in disease events, deaths, and associated costs between the results predicted by the model for current smoking prevalence and a hypothetical cohort of people in each country who had never smoked. The model estimates the health and financial effects of a price increase of cigarettes through taxes, in terms of disease and health-care costs averted, and increased tax revenues. FINDINGS: In the 12 Latin American countries analysed, we estimated that smoking is responsible for approximately 345 000 (12%) of the total 2 860 921 adult deaths, 2·21 million disease events, 8·77 million healthy years of life lost, and $26·9 billion in direct medical costs annually. Health-care costs attributable to smoking were estimated to represent 6·9% of the health budgets of these countries, equivalent to 0·6% of their gross domestic product. Tax revenues from cigarette sales cover 36·0% of the estimated health expenditures caused by smoking. We estimated that a 50% increase in cigarette price through taxation would avert more than 300 000 deaths, 1·3 million disease events, gain 9 million healthy life-years, and save $26·7 billion in health-care costs in the next 10 years, with a total economic benefit of $43·7 billion. INTERPRETATION: Smoking represents a substantial health and economic burden in these 12 countries of Latin America. Tobacco tax increases could successfully avert deaths and disability, reduce health-care spending, and increase tax revenues, resulting in large net economic benefits. FUNDING: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/economía , Fumar/epidemiología , Impuestos/economía , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Cadenas de Markov , Modelos Económicos , Impuestos/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111074, 2020 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906068

RESUMEN

This paper analyses two strategies to reduce the use of pesticides in grain production. We study Norwegian farmers' willingness to voluntarily forego income by reducing pesticide use as well as their responses to a doubling of the pesticide price (through increased pesticide taxes). We use mixed methods including an experiment, a survey and focus group discussions. The experiment shows that most farmers are willing to sacrifice some income to reduce environmental risks by using less pesticide. According to the survey, they are, at the same time, relatively insensitive to a 100% price increase on herbicides and fungicides. While the response to the price increase probably would have been stronger if differentiated between chemicals, our research indicates potential benefits from supporting voluntary action. Value orientations and agronomic conditions influence the stated responses in both circumstances. Respondents emphasizing environmental values are more willing to voluntarily reduce pesticide use and show a greater response to the economic incentive than farmers emphasizing economic outcome and issues such as clean fields. A hypothesized willingness to reduce pesticide use voluntarily to strengthen the reputation of the sector was, however, rejected. Farmers appear to have few alternatives to pesticides, but increased knowledge about the alternatives that do exist, seems able to promote some change. Our findings suggest that the extension service should put greater emphasis on these options, even if they may have negative effects on income.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Agricultura , Animales , Agricultores , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Noruega , Impuestos
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012415, 2020 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914461

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide and are considered to be a major public health issue of the 21st century. Introducing taxation of the fat content in foods is considered a potentially powerful policy tool to reduce consumption of foods high in fat or saturated fat, or both. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of taxation of the fat content in food on consumption of total fat and saturated fat, energy intake, overweight, obesity, and other adverse health outcomes in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, and 15 other databases and trial registers on 12 September 2019. We handsearched the reference lists of all records of included studies, searched websites of international organizations and institutions (14 October 2019), and contacted review advisory group members to identify planned, ongoing, or unpublished studies (26 February 2020). SELECTION CRITERIA: In line with Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) criteria, we included the following study types: randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (nRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series studies. We included studies that evaluated the effects of taxes on the fat content in foods. Such a tax could be expressed as sales, excise, or special value added tax (VAT) on the final product or an intermediary product. Eligible interventions were taxation at any level, with no restriction on the duration or the implementation level (i.e. local, regional, national, or multinational). Eligible study populations were children (zero to 17 years) and adults (18 years or older) from any country and setting. We excluded studies that focused on specific subgroups only (e.g. people receiving pharmaceutical intervention; people undergoing a surgical intervention; ill people who are overweight or obese as a side effect, such as those with thyroiditis and depression; and people with chronic illness). Primary outcomes were total fat consumption, consumption of saturated fat, energy intake through fat, energy intake through saturated fat, total energy intake, and incidence/prevalence of overweight or obesity. We did not exclude studies based on country, setting, comparison, or population. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods for all phases of the review. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the criteria of Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool and the EPOC Group's guidance. Results of the review are summarized narratively and the certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. These steps were done by two review authors, independently. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 23,281 records from searching electronic databases and 1173 records from other sources, leading to a total of 24,454 records. Two studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Both included studies investigated the effect the Danish tax on saturated fat contained in selected food items between 2011 and 2012. Both studies used an interrupted time series design. Neither included study had a parallel control group from another geographic area. The included studies investigated an unbalanced panel of approximately 2000 households in Denmark and the sales data from a specific Danish supermarket chain (1293 stores). Therefore, the included studies did not address individual participants, and no restriction regarding age, sex, and socioeconomic characteristics were defined. We judged the overall risk of bias of the two included studies as unclear. For the outcome total consumption of fat, a reduction of 41.8 grams per week per person in a household (P < 0.001) was estimated. For the consumption of saturated fat, one study reported a reduction of 4.2% from minced beef sales, a reduction of 5.8% from cream sales, and an increase of 0.5% to sour cream sales (no measures of statistical precision were reported for these estimates). These estimates are based on a restricted number of food types and derived from sales data; they do not measure individual intake. Moreover, these estimates do not account for other relevant sources of fat intake (e.g. packaged or processed food) or other food outlets (e.g. restaurants or cafeterias); hence, we judged the evidence on the effect of taxation on total fat consumption or saturated fat consumption to be very uncertain. We did not identify evidence on the effect of the intervention on energy intake or the incidence or prevalence of overweight or obesity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Given the very low quality of the evidence currently available, we are unable to reliably establish whether a tax on total fat or saturated fat is effective or ineffective in reducing consumption of total fat or saturated fat. There is currently no evidence on the effect of a tax on total fat or saturated fat on total energy intake or energy intake through saturated fat or total fat, or preventing the incidence or reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity.


Asunto(s)
Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Obesidad/prevención & control , Impuestos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Dinamarca , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Sobrepeso/prevención & control
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238683, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936815

RESUMEN

We report and interpret preferences of a sample of the Dutch adult population for different strategies to end the so-called 'intelligent lockdown' which their government had put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a discrete choice experiment, we invited participants to make a series of choices between policy scenarios aimed at relaxing the lockdown, which were specified not in terms of their nature (e.g. whether or not to allow schools to re-open) but in terms of their effects along seven dimensions. These included health-related effects, but also impacts on the economy, education, and personal income. From the observed choices, we were able to infer the implicit trade-offs made by the Dutch between these policy effects. For example, we find that the average citizen, in order to avoid one fatality directly or indirectly related to COVID-19, is willing to accept a lasting lag in the educational performance of 18 children, or a lasting (>3 years) and substantial (>15%) reduction in net income of 77 households. We explore heterogeneity across individuals in terms of these trade-offs by means of latent class analysis. Our results suggest that most citizens are willing to trade-off health-related and other effects of the lockdown, implying a consequentialist ethical perspective. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that the elderly, known to be at relatively high risk of being affected by the virus, are relatively reluctant to sacrifice economic pain and educational disadvantages for the younger generation, to avoid fatalities. We also identify a so-called taboo trade-off aversion amongst a substantial share of our sample, being an aversion to accept morally problematic policies that simultaneously imply higher fatality numbers and lower taxes. We explain various ways in which our results can be of value to policy makers in the context of the COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Política de Salud , Modelos Econométricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Valor de la Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Altruismo , Conducta de Elección , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Costo de Enfermedad , Investigación Empírica , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/economía , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Valores Sociales , Impuestos , Adulto Joven
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(36): 45121-45132, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776215

RESUMEN

This study attempts to investigate the environment cleanness between the total factor productivity, natural resources and green taxation on Malaysia's clean environment. Using the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis, this study employs the bootstrap quantile estimates based on the annual data series covering the period of 1970-2018 to analyse the quantile effect factors affecting environment cleanness in Malaysia. The empirical estimates of this study reject the EKC hypothesis throughout the quantile levels, while the green taxation shows a negative sign which indicated government fiscal policies are reducing carbon emission in the upper quantiles. There is also homogeneity slope equality effect between total factor of productivity and green taxation on carbon emissions in the middle and upper quantile levels, while natural resources are indication heterogeneity effect on all quantile levels. From the policy point of view, if Malaysia wants to get environment cleanness, there is a need for comprehensive policies of total factor of productivity with environment innovation-friendly and technological improvement in all major economic sectors of the country.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Malasia , Recursos Naturales , Impuestos
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