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1.
Estima (Online) ; 18(1): e1120, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1103092

RESUMEN

Objectives: To correlate the incidence of pressure injury (PI) with the average time of nursing care in an intensive care unit (ICU). Method: Epidemiological, observational, retrospective study, carried out in the ICU of a university hospital. Data were collected by consulting the PI incidence and the average nursing care time from ICU databases between 2010 and 2014. Measures of central tendency and variability, and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: The average incidence of PI between 2010 and 2014 was 10.83% (SD = 2.87) and the average time spent in nursing care for patients admitted to the ICU was 15 hours (SD = 0.94). There was no statistically significant correlation between the incidence of PI and the nursing care time (r = -0.17; p = 0.199), however, the results suggested an overload on the nursing team. Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of implementing and reassessing the effectiveness of preventive care protocols for PI, in addition to warning about the work overload of nursing in assisting critically ill patients.


Asunto(s)
Incidencia , Carga de Trabajo , Úlcera por Presión , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Atención de Enfermería
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1486, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998719

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The state of Ceará (Northeast Brazil) has shown a high incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and most of the cases that were diagnosed during the epidemic originated from the capital Fortaleza. Monitoring the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic is of strategic importance and requires the use of sensitive tools for epidemiological surveillance, including consistent analyses that allow the recognition of areas with a greater propensity for increased severity throughout the cycle of the epidemic. This study aims to classify neighborhoods in the city of Fortaleza according to their propensity for a severe epidemic of COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study within the geographical area of the 119 neighborhoods located in the city of Fortaleza. To define the main transmission networks (infection chains), we assumed that the spatial diffusion of the COVID-19 epidemic was influenced by population mobility. To measure the propensity for a severe epidemic, we calculated the infectivity burden (ItyB), infection burden (IonB), and population epidemic vulnerability index (PEVI). The propensity score for a severe epidemic in the neighborhoods of the city of Fortaleza was estimated by combining the IonB and PEVI. RESULTS: The neighborhoods with the highest propensity for a severe COVID-19 epidemic were Aldeota, Cais do Porto, Centro, Edson Queiroz, Vicente Pinzon, Jose de Alencar, Presidente Kennedy, Papicu, Vila Velha, Antonio Bezerra, and Cambeba. Importantly, we found that the propensity for a COVID-19 epidemic was high in areas with differing socioeconomic profiles. These areas include a very poor neighborhood situated on the western border of the city (Vila Velha), neighborhoods characterized by a large number of subnormal agglomerates in the Cais do Porto region (Vicente Pinzon), and those located in the oldest central area of the city, where despite the wealth, low-income groups have remained (Aldeota and the adjacent Edson Queiroz). CONCLUSION: Although measures against COVID-19 should be applied to the entire municipality of Fortaleza, the classification of neighborhoods generated through this study can help improve the specificity and efficiency of these measures.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Epidemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Pandemias
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1460-1463, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031366

RESUMEN

Mitigating the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), requires individual, community, and state public health actions to prevent person-to-person transmission. Community mitigation measures can help slow the spread of COVID-19; these measures include wearing masks, social distancing, reducing the number and size of large gatherings, pausing operation of businesses where maintaining social distancing is challenging, working from or staying at home, and implementing certain workplace and educational institution controls (1-4). The Arizona Department of Health Services' (ADHS) recommendations for mitigating exposure to SARS-CoV-2 were informed by continual monitoring of patient demographics, SARS-CoV-2 community spread, and the pandemic's impacts on hospitals. To assess the effect of mitigation strategies in Arizona, the numbers of daily COVID-19 cases and 7-day moving averages during January 22-August 7, 2020, relative to implementation of enhanced community mitigation measures, were examined. The average number of daily cases increased approximately 151%, from 808 on June 1, 2020 to 2,026 on June 15, 2020 (after stay-at-home order lifted), necessitating increased preventive measures. On June 17, local officials began implementing and enforcing mask wearing (via county and city mandates),* affecting approximately 85% of the state population. Statewide mitigation measures included limitation of public events; closures of bars, gyms, movie theaters, and water parks; reduced restaurant dine-in capacity; and voluntary resident action to stay at home and wear masks (when and where not mandated). The number of COVID-19 cases in Arizona peaked during June 29-July 2, stabilized during July 3-July 12, and further declined by approximately 75% during July 13-August 7. Widespread implementation and enforcement of sustained community mitigation measures informed by state and local officials' continual data monitoring and collaboration can help prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and decrease the numbers of COVID-19 cases.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Arizona/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e017297, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998607

RESUMEN

Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may worsen the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019, but any association could be confounded by the cardiometabolic conditions indicating ACE-I/ARB use. We therefore examined the impact of ACE-Is/ARBs on respiratory tract infection outcomes. Methods and Results This cohort study included all adult patients hospitalized with influenza or pneumonia from 2005 to 2018 in Denmark using population-based medical databases. Thirty-day mortality and risk of admission to the intensive care unit in ACE-Is/ARBs users was compared with nonusers and with users of calcium channel blockers. We used propensity scores to handle confounding and computed propensity score-weighted risks, risk differences (RDs), and risk ratios (RRs). Of 568 019 patients hospitalized with influenza or pneumonia, 100 278 were ACE-I/ARB users and 37 961 were users of calcium channel blockers. In propensity score-weighted analyses, ACE-I/ARB users had marginally lower 30-day mortality than users of calcium channel blockers (13.9% versus 14.5%; RD, -0.6%; 95% CI, -1.0 to -0.1; RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and a lower risk of admission to the intensive care unit (8.0% versus 9.6%; RD, -1.6%; 95% CI, -2.0 to -1.2; RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80-0.87). Compared with nonusers, current ACE-I/ARB users had lower mortality (RD, -2.4%; 95% CI, -2.8 to -2.0; RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.83-0.87), but similar risk of admission to the intensive care unit (RD, 0.4%; 95% CI, 0.0-0.7; RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09). Conclusions Among patients with influenza or pneumonia, ACE-I/ARB users had no increased risk of admission to the intensive care unit and slightly reduced mortality after controlling for confounding.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Gripe Humana/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efectos de los fármacos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Neumonía/epidemiología , Puntaje de Propensión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias
6.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(4): 369-371, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027192

RESUMEN

The use of heparin has been shown to decrease the mortality in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical impact of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with fondaparinux versus enoxaparin among 100 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The incidence of pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, major bleeding (MB), clinically relevant non-MB, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and in-hospital mortality was compared between patients on fondaparinux versus enoxaparin therapy. The 2 groups were homogeneous for demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics. In a median follow-up of 28 (IQR: 12-45) days, no statistically significant difference in venous thromboembolism (14.5% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.20), MB and clinically relevant non-MB (3.2% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.76), ARDS (17.7% vs. 15.8%; P = 0.83), and in-hospital mortality (9.7% vs. 10.5%; P = 0.97) has been shown between the enoxaparin group versus the fondaparinux group. Our preliminary results support the hypothesis of a safe and effective use of fondaparinux among patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in internal medicine units.


Asunto(s)
Antitrombinas/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/uso terapéutico , Fondaparinux/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Trombosis de la Vena/etiología , Trombosis de la Vena/prevención & control , Anciano , Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Antitrombinas/efectos adversos , Enoxaparina/efectos adversos , Enoxaparina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores del Factor Xa/efectos adversos , Femenino , Fondaparinux/efectos adversos , Hemorragia/inducido químicamente , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiología , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevención & control , Trombosis de la Vena/epidemiología
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(9): 1082-1088, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051422

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the most suitable insertion site for neonatal placement of peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) according to the evidence-based ACE Star model. METHODS: This study was carried out according to the evidence-based ACE Star model in 5 steps, including discovery research, evidence summary, guidelines translation, practice integration, and outcome evaluation. Based on the results of Meta-analysis, relevant guidelines, expert recommendations, clinical experience of nurses, and characteristics of neonates, the final recommendation was formed. A total of 87 neonates in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in Hunan Province were integrated into practice of PICC to evaluate the incidence of catheter-related complications and one-attempt success rate of puncture. RESULTS: The results of Meta-analysis showed that the incidence of complications of PICC in neonates via lower limb veins was significantly lower than that of upper limb veins (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.92, P<0.05). The final result of guideline translation was that PICC should be performed first through lower limb veins if the lower limb vein before PICC catheterization was not damaged.The results of integrated practice showed that the incidence of complications of PICC via lower extremity vein was 17.24%. Compared with the left lower limb catheterization, the incidence of complications and the incidence of catheter blockage of the right lower limb catheterization were significantly lower (both P<0.05). Compared with femoral vein catheterization, one-attempt success rate of puncture via the saphenous vein catheterization was higher and the incidence of complications, the incidence of catheter blockage, and the incidence of infection were lower, with significant difference (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Saphenous vein in right lower limb could be the most suitable insertion site for neonatal PICC.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateterismo Periférico , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efectos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/efectos adversos , Vena Femoral , Humanos , Incidencia , Recién Nacido , Extremidad Inferior
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1494-1496, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056949

RESUMEN

CDC works with other federal agencies to identify counties with increasing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence (hotspots) and offers support to state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Understanding whether increasing incidence in hotspot counties is predominantly occurring in specific age groups is important for identifying opportunities to prevent or reduce transmission. The percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results (percent positivity) is an important indicator of community transmission.* CDC analyzed temporal trends in percent positivity by age group in COVID-19 hotspot counties before and after their identification as hotspots. Among 767 hotspot counties identified during June and July 2020, early increases in the percent positivity among persons aged ≤24 years were followed by several weeks of increasing percent positivity in persons aged ≥25 years. Addressing transmission among young adults is an urgent public health priority.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1473-1480, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056955

RESUMEN

Among U.S. men, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death (1). Past studies documented decreasing incidence of prostate cancer overall since 2000 but increasing incidence of distant stage prostate cancer (i.e., signifying spread to parts of the body remote from the primary tumor) starting in 2010 (2,3). Past studies described disparities in prostate cancer survival by stage, age, and race/ethnicity using data covering ≤80% of the U.S. population (4,5). To provide recent data on incidence and survival of prostate cancer in the United States, CDC analyzed data from population-based cancer registries that contribute to U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS).* Among 3.1 million new cases of prostate cancer recorded during 2003-2017, localized, regional, distant, and unknown stage prostate cancer accounted for 77%, 11%, 5%, and 7% of cases, respectively, but the incidence of distant stage prostate cancer significantly increased during 2010-2017. During 2001-2016, 10-year relative survival for localized stage prostate cancer was 100%. Overall, 5-year survival for distant stage prostate cancer improved from 28.7% during 2001-2005 to 32.3% during 2011-2016; for the period 2001-2016, 5-year survival was highest among Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) (42.0%), followed by Hispanics (37.2%), American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) (32.2%), Black men (31.6%), and White men (29.1%). Understanding incidence and survival differences by stage, race/ethnicity, and age can guide public health planning related to screening, treatment, and survivor care. Future research into differences by stage, race/ethnicity, and age could inform interventions aimed at improving disparities in outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/etnología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Análisis de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 722, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008314

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ross River virus (RRV) is responsible for the most common vector-borne disease of humans reported in Australia. The virus circulates in enzootic cycles between multiple species of mosquitoes, wildlife reservoir hosts and humans. Public health concern about RRV is increasing due to rising incidence rates in Australian urban centres, along with increased circulation in Pacific Island countries. Australia experienced its largest recorded outbreak of 9544 cases in 2015, with the majority reported from south east Queensland (SEQ). This study examined potential links between disease patterns and transmission pathways of RRV. METHODS: The spatial and temporal distribution of notified RRV cases, and associated epidemiological features in SEQ, were analysed for the period 2001-2016. This included fine-scale analysis of disease patterns across the suburbs of the capital city of Brisbane, and those of 8 adjacent Local Government Areas, and host spot analyses to identify locations with significantly high incidence. RESULTS: The mean annual incidence rate for the region was 41/100,000 with a consistent seasonal peak in cases between February and May. The highest RRV incidence was in adults aged from 30 to 64 years (mean incidence rate: 59/100,000), and females had higher incidence rates than males (mean incidence rates: 44/100,000 and 34/100,000, respectively). Spatial patterns of disease were heterogeneous between years, and there was a wide distribution of disease across both urban and rural areas of SEQ. Overall, the highest incidence rates were reported from predominantly rural suburbs to the north of Brisbane City, with significant hot spots located in peri-urban suburbs where residential, agricultural and conserved natural land use types intersect. CONCLUSIONS: Although RRV is endemic across all of SEQ, transmission is most concentrated in areas where urban and peri-urban environments intersect. The drivers of RRV transmission across rural-urban landscapes should be prioritised for further investigation, including identification of specific vectors and hosts that mediate human spillover.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Alphavirus/epidemiología , Virus del Río Ross , Adulto , Infecciones por Alphavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Queensland/epidemiología , Salud Rural , Salud Urbana
11.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 291, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008467

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Concomitant bipolar radiofrequency ablation and valve replacement in the elderly remains controversial. In the current study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of concomitant valve replacement and bipolar radiofrequency ablation with valve replacement alone in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients aged ≥70 years who underwent valve replacement with or without bipolar radiofrequency ablation in a single-centre between January 2006 and March 2015. The early postoperative results and long-term clinical outcomes were compared after propensity score matching. RESULTS: A total of 34 pairs of patients (73.94 ± 2.64 years old; 34 in the AF with ablation group and 34 in the AF without ablation group) were enrolled in the propensity score matching analysis. There were no significant differences between the two matched groups in terms of surgical mortality (5.88% vs. 2.94%, P = 0.555) and major postoperative morbidity. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly better overall survival in the AF with ablation group compared to the AF without ablation group (P = 0.009). Cumulative incidence curves showed a lower incidence of cardiovascular death in the AF with ablation group (P = 0.025, Gray's test). Patients in the AF with ablation group had a reduced incidence of stroke compared to patients in the AF with ablation group (P = 0.009, Gray's test). The freedom from AF after 5 years was 58.0% in the AF with ablation group and 3.0% in the AF without ablation group. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of bipolar radiofrequency ablation is a safe and feasible procedure, even in patients aged ≥70 years, with a better long-term survival and a reduced incidence of stroke compared to valve replacement alone. These findings suggest that bipolar radiofrequency ablation should always be considered as a concomitant procedure for elderly patients with AF who require cardiac surgery. However, a large-scale, prospective, multi-centre, randomized study should be performed in the future to fully validate our findings.


Asunto(s)
Ablación por Catéter , Enfermedades de las Válvulas Cardíacas/cirugía , Anciano , Fibrilación Atrial/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ablación por Catéter/métodos , Catéteres , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Periodo Posoperatorio , Puntaje de Propensión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 720, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004004

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children living with sputum smear-positive adult tuberculosis (TB) patients are vulnerable to acquire tubercular infection. Contact tracing is an important strategy to control tubercular infection in the community. This study was done to find out prevalence of tuberculosis and tubercular infection in children living with sputum smear-positive adult patients receiving DOTS at recruitment and to find out incidence of tubercular infection and disease in these children on follow up. METHOD: Children (< 15 years) living in contact with adults on DOTS were grouped as < 6 years and 6-14 years. They were further sub grouped as being - uninfected, infected, diseased and on prophylaxis and were followed at 3, 6 and 9 months. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray were done. RESULTS: At recruitment 152 children were enrolled and 21.1% (n = 32) had TB. On follow up, 4.3% (n = 5), 5.8% (n = 6) and 11.6% (n = 11) children developed TB after 3, 6 and 9 months respectively.9 children did not come for the last follow up so the overall prevalence of TB disease at 9 months was 37.7% (n = 54). Out of the 128 children with TST reading 23.4% (n = 30) child contacts were found to be infected already at recruitment. The incidence of TST conversion was 20.7% (n = 18), 26.9% (n = 18) and 16.3% (n = 7) respectively. The overall prevalence of tubercular infection in the children, who were in contact with TB patients for 9 months was 74.5% (n = 73). CONCLUSION: About half the children were either suffering from TB or tubercular infection on recruitment. During 9 months follow up 22 unaffected children developed disease and 43acquired infection.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Esputo/microbiología , Prueba de Tuberculina , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1816044, 2020 12 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012269

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has wreaked havoc globally with particular concerns for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where models suggest that the majority of the population will become infected. Conventional wisdom suggests that the continent will bear a higher burden of COVID-19 for the same reasons it suffers from other infectious diseases: ecology, socio-economic conditions, lack of water and sanitation infrastructure, and weak health systems. However, so far SSA has reported lower incidence and fatalities compared to the predictions of standard models and the experience of other regions of the world. There are three leading explanations, each with different implications for the final epidemic burden: (1) low case detection, (2) differences in epidemiology (e.g. low R 0 ), and (3) policy interventions. The low number of cases have led some SSA governments to relaxing these policy interventions. Will this result in a resurgence of cases? To understand how to interpret the lower-than-expected COVID-19 case data in Madagascar, we use a simple age-structured model to explore each of these explanations and predict the epidemic impact associated with them. We show that the incidence of COVID-19 cases as of July 2020 can be explained by any combination of the late introduction of first imported cases, early implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), and low case detection rates. We then re-evaluate these findings in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic in Madagascar through August 2020. This analysis reinforces that Madagascar, along with other countries in SSA, remains at risk of a growing health crisis. If NPIs remain enforced, up to 50,000 lives may be saved. Even with NPIs, without vaccines and new therapies, COVID-19 could infect up to 30% of the population, making it the largest public health threat in Madagascar for the coming year, hence the importance of clinical trials and continually improving access to healthcare.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Madagascar/epidemiología , Pandemias
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1247-1251, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis, caused by the Human Papilloma Virus, has a significant economic impact worldwide and there are no epidemiological data of this disease in Brasil. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of laryngeal papillomatosis of some otorhinolaryngology centers in São Paulo State (Brasil). METHODS: A questionnaire containing data on the number of new and follow-up cases diagnosed with laryngeal papillomatosis was sent to the Otorhinolaryngology services (n=35) of São Paulo State (Brasil). RESULTS: A total of 20 otorhinolaryngology centers answered the questionnaire. Of these, the five largest regional health centers were selected as follows: Campinas (42 cities - 4,536,657 inhabitants), Sao Jose do Rio Preto (102 cities - 1,602,845 inhabitants), Ribeirão Preto (26 cities - 1,483,715 inhabitants), Bauru (68 cities - 1,770,427 inhabitants), and Sorocaba (47 cities - 2,478,208 inhabitants). The incidence and prevalence of each regional health centers were, respectively: Campinas (5.51;7.27), Sorocaba (2.02;6.86), São José do Rio Preto (1.87;7.49), Ribeirão Preto (11.46;22.92), and Bauru (3.95;7.91). CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence of the laryngeal papillomatosis of the five largest regional health centers of the interior of São Paulo State (Brasil) varied between 1.87 to 11.46 and 6.86 to 22.92 per 1,000,000 inhabitants, respectively for a total population of 11,871,852 inhabitants.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Laríngeas , Papiloma , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Incidencia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiología , Papiloma/epidemiología , Prevalencia
15.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 193-195, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020329

RESUMEN

Since the 1st case officially confirmed on the last March 2020, Indonesia recorded more than 1000 new cases daily. The national trend shows no sign of decrease as 19 September 2020 the report sets a new mark of 4000 new cases in a day. The concept of controlling disease transmission relies on contacts suppression; and on the longer end, relies on vaccinations. As 27 September 2020, no vaccine is approved for use in the general population. Until then, countries should implement early, widespread, and strict disease mitigation strategies. While much remains to be learned on COVID-19, global evidence assert at least three strategies at the population level contributes to flatten the curve: mobility restriction, testing and isolation and rigorous contact-tracing.Indonesia is not on entire absences of actions, but the epidemic calls for more. The central government called for social distancing two weeks after the first case confirmed and regulation on the large scale social distancing (Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar/ PSBB) that restrict non-essential population mobility is enacted by April 2020. Recent evidence outlines test, tracing and isolation are effective in suppressing COVID-19 transmission. Minimizing testing and tracing delay, less than four days with coverage of 80% close contacts could prevent and reduce onwards transmission.That we need to more is indisputable. The vaccine is not a magic bullet; it is a long-term control measure and should be a complete series of careful and precise examinations. Indonesia will also likely require high coverage of vaccination to achieve herd immunity. At present, if there is no significant improvement in the coverage of preventive measures in the population and disease surveillance system, our hospital will be overwhelmed, and case fatality will be devastating.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Indonesia/epidemiología
16.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 214-226, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020333

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: autoimmune patients can be more susceptible to infection. Proper knowledge, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 are essential for these patients during pandemic. This study aimed to know their knowledge, perception, and practices regarding COVID-19. METHODS: cross sectional study using online survey was conducted from April to May 2020. Patients with autoimmune disease were asked about demographic characteristics, diagnosis, history of treatment, knowledge, perception, and practice regarding COVID-19. RESULTS: there were 685 respondents. Most of them were female and had systemic lupus erythematosus with median age of 37 years old. Almost all respondents had good knowledge regarding transmission of COVID-19 and did proper prevention practices. Adequacy of information and steroid or mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid (MMF/MPA) use were related to perception of the effect of pandemic to their own health. Visiting private clinic and receiving hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or sulfasalazine were related to perception that autoimmune conditions would make them more prone to COVID-19. Work from home was related to perception that when contracting COVID-19, the symptoms would be more severe. Living in Sumatra region and getting hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or MMF/MPA were related to perception that autoimmune medications could reduce risk of getting COVID-19. Adequate information, university education, private clinic visit, and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate use were related to perception that COVID-19 pandemic would cause difficulties in getting medications. CONCLUSION: almost all respondents had good knowledge and practices regarding COVID-19. Adequacy of information, autoimmune treatment, work from home, educational background, area of living, and health care facilities contributed to perception regarding COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias , Percepción , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Indonesia/epidemiología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias , Adulto Joven
17.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 246-254, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is an emerging respiratory disease that is now a pandemic. Indonesia is experiencing a rapid surge of cases but the local data are scarce. METHODS: this is an analysis using data from the ongoing recapitulation of Epidemiological Surveillance (ES) by the Provincial Health Office of Jakarta from March 2nd to April 27th 2020. We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics of all confirmed cases in association with death. RESULTS: of the 4,052 patients, 381 (9.4%) patients were deceased. Multivariable analysis showed that death was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.05, per year increase; p<0.001), dyspnea (OR 4.83; 95% CI 3.20, 7.29; p<0.001), pneumonia (OR 2.46; 95%CI 1.56, 3.88; p<0.001), and pre-existing hypertension (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.24, 2.78; p=0.003). Death was highest in the week of April 6th 2020 and declined in the subsequent weeks, after a large-scale social restriction commenced. CONCLUSION: older age, dyspnea, pneumonia, and pre-existing hypertension were associated with death. Mortality was high, but may be reduced by lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Niño , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias , Adulto Joven
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 735, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028283

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has occurred close on the heels of a global resurgence of measles. In 2019, an unprecedented epidemic of measles affected Samoa, requiring a state of emergency to be declared. Measles causes an immune amnesia which can persist for over 2 years after acute infection and increases the risk of a range of other infections. METHODS: We modelled the potential impact of measles-induced immune amnesia on a COVID-19 epidemic in Samoa using data on measles incidence in 2018-2019, population data and a hypothetical COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: The young population structure and contact matrix in Samoa results in the most transmission occurring in young people < 20 years old. The highest rate of death is the 60+ years old, but a smaller peak in death may occur in younger people, with more than 15% of total deaths in the age group under 20 years old. Measles induced immune amnesia could increase the total number of cases by 8% and deaths by more than 2%. CONCLUSIONS: Samoa, which had large measles epidemics in 2019-2020 should focus on rapidly achieving high rates of measles vaccination and enhanced surveillance for COVID-19, as the impact may be more severe due to measles-induced immune paresis. This applies to other severely measles-affected countries in the Pacific, Europe and elsewhere.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Sarampión/inmunología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Samoa/epidemiología , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
19.
Salvador; s.n; 10 out. 2020. 19 p. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.(Boletim Epidemiológico COVID-19 Bahia, 200).
Monografía en Portugués | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1122669

RESUMEN

O boletim descreve de forma detalhada a situação da COVID-19 no Estado da Bahia desde o inicio da pandemia. Contempla informações relacionadas ao registro de casos notificados da COVID-19, taxa de crescimento, distribuição de casos confirmados nos Núcleos Regionais Saúde, casos confirmados segundo raça/cor, ocupação de leitos de UTI, perfil dos casos de Síndrome Multissistêmica Pediátrica, número de curados, número de óbitos. Até 10/10/2020 no Estado da Bahia, o coeficiente de incidência foi de 2.184,92/100.000 habitantes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Betacoronavirus , Incidencia , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/diagnóstico , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos
20.
Goiânia; s.n; out. 09, 2020. ilus, tab, mapas, graf.(Boletim Epidemiológico Covid-19, 27).
Monografía en Portugués | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1122129

RESUMEN

Através do Boletim Epidemiológico Covid 19 n° 27, a Secretaria Estadual de Saúde do Estado de Goiás, Brasil, tem o objetivo de informar a situação epidemiológica no período de 02 de fevereiro à 03 de outubro do ano de 2020, considerando que desde os primeiros registros na China em dezembro de 2019 até o dia 03 de outubro foram confirmados 34.804.348 casos de COVID-19 no mundo. Deste total, 1.030.738 evoluíram a óbito. Quando comparados o número de casos e óbitos confirmados desta semana epidemiológica (SE 40) com a semana anterior, houve aumento de 6,3% nos casos e 4,0%nos óbitos. No Brasil, neste mesmo intervalo de tempo, o aumento foi 4,4% e 3,7% no número de casos e óbitos, respectivamente. No país o primeiro caso foi confirmado no dia 26 de fevereiro e até 03 de setembro foram registrados 4.927.235 casos confirmados com 146.675 óbitos. O registro dos primeiros casos suspeitos em Goiás foi a partir de 04 de fevereiro e até 03 de outubro foram notificados à Vigilância Epidemiológica 630.054 casos de COVID-19. Nesta última semana epidemiológica (SE 40) houve a confirmação de 13.468 casos novos, representando um aumento nos casos de COVID-19 de 6,6%, superior ao aumento observado no Brasil 4,4%. No Estado, 215.996(34,3%) foram confirmados sendo 208.780(96,7%) por critério laboratorial, 4.920(2,3%) pelo critério clínico-epidemiológico, 660(0,3%) por critério clínico-imagem e 1.144(0,5%) pelo critério clínico, 160.855(25,5%) foram descartados e 225.955(35,9%) continuam como suspeitos


Through the Epidemiological Bulletin Covid 19 n° 27, the State Department of Health of the State of Goiás, Brazil, aims to inform the epidemiological situation in the period from February 2 to October 3 of the year 2020, considering that from the first records in China in December 2019 to October 3, 34,804,348 cases of COVID-19 worldwide were confirmed. Of this total, 1,030,738 died. When comparing the number of confirmed cases and deaths of this epidemiological week (SE 40) with the previous week, there was an increase of 6.3% in cases and 4.0% in deaths. In Brazil, in this same time interval, the increase was 4.4% and 3.7% in the number of cases and deaths, respectively. In the country the first case was confirmed on February 26 and until September 3, 4,927,235 confirmed cases were recorded with 146,675 deaths. The record of the first suspected cases in Goiás was from February 4 and until October 3 were notified to the Epidemiological Surveillance 630,054 cases of COVID-19. In this last epidemiological week (SE 40) there was the confirmation of 13,468 new cases, representing an increase in cases of COVID-19 of 6.6%, higher than the increase observed in Brazil 4.4%. In the State, 215,996 (34.3%) were confirmed being 208,780 (96.7%) by laboratory criterion, 4,920 (2.3%) by clinical and epidemiological criteria, 660 (0.3%) by clinical-imaging criterion and 1,144 (0.5%) by clinical criterion, 160,855 (25.5%) were discarded and 225,955 (35.9%) continue as suspects


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Incidencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Monitoreo Epidemiológico
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