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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

RESUMEN

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Tospovirus , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Soja , Incidencia , Urticaceae , Egipto/epidemiología , Malezas , Necrosis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMEN

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Brasil/epidemiología , Incidencia , Modelos Estadísticos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251747, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355878

RESUMEN

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína animal para a alimentação humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir a prevalência de bactérias patogênicas de dois peixes economicamente importantes selecionados do Paquistão, nomeadamente Mahseer (Tor putitora) e carpa prateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Amostras de peixes vivos de incubatórios e amostras de peixes mortos de diferentes mercados da área de estudo foram coletadas aleatoriamente. As amostras de peixes foram analisadas quanto ao isolamento, identificação e prevalência de bactérias. As bactérias isoladas dos peixes do estudo foram identificadas através de testes bioquímicos e cerca de 10 espécies de bactérias patogênicas foram identificadas incluindo as bactérias patogênicas para humanos e peixes, nomeadamente, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. e Salmonella spp. A porcentagem de freqüência de ocorrência bacteriana em carpa prateada e peixes Mahseer mostrou Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21,42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17,85%, Escherichia coli 11,90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9,52%, Citrobacter spp. 9,52%, Serratia spp. 8,33%, Streptococcus iniae 7,14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5,95%, Bacillus spp. 4,76% e Salmonella spp. 3,57%. O estudo revelou que as amostras de peixes de Mahseer e carpa prateada coletadas nos mercados encontraram mais isolados (10 espécies bacterianas) do que as amostras de peixes frescos (03 espécies bacterianas) de incubatórios. A ocorrência de bactérias patogênicas nos peixes do estudo apresentou fator de risco para consumidores de saúde pública.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Carpas , Pakistán , Bacterias , Estanques , Incidencia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248828, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339354

RESUMEN

Abstract Serum toxic metals have been implicated in development of many diseases. This study investigated the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of osteoporosis. Sixty Saudi male adults age matching were assigned into two groups: A healthy control group (n = 30) and osteoporosis patients diagnosed according to T-score (n = 30). Serum calcium, vitamin D, osteocalcin, lead, cadmium were measured. Osteoporotic group showed a highly significant elevation of blood lead and cadmium levels compared to the control group (p <0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with serum osteocalcin level compared with control. There was a significant negative correlation between the cadmium and lead levels (r=-0.465 and p-value = 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.004). Our findings suggested that high cadmium and lead were negative correlated to BMD and increased the risk factor for osteoporosis.


Resumo Os metais tóxicos do soro têm sido implicados no desenvolvimento de muitas doenças. Este estudo investigou a associação entre os níveis sanguíneos de chumbo e cádmio com densidade mineral óssea anormal (DMO) e incidência de osteoporose. Sessenta adultos sauditas do sexo masculino com idades iguais foram divididos em dois grupos: um grupo de controle saudável (n = 30) e pacientes com osteoporose diagnosticados de acordo com o T-score (n = 30). Cálcio sérico, vitamina D, osteocalcina, chumbo, cádmio foram medidos. O grupo osteoporótico apresentou elevação altamente significativa dos níveis de chumbo e cádmio no sangue em comparação ao grupo controle (p < 0,001). A DMO foi negativamente correlacionada com o nível de osteocalcina sérica em comparação com o controle. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis de cádmio e chumbo (r = -0,465 ep = 0,01) e cálcio (p < 0,004). Nossos achados sugeriram que cádmio e chumbo elevados foram correlacionados negativamente à DMO e aumentaram o fator de risco para osteoporose.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Plomo , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Absorciometría de Fotón , Osteocalcina , Incidencia
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338

RESUMEN

Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.


Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , COVID-19 , Pakistán/epidemiología , Incidencia , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 424, 2022 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361211

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The "4 + 7" volume-based procurement is a "large group purchase" led by the Chinese government, with the aim of reducing the price of medicines by trading volume for price. Although the "4 + 7" drugs had passed the national consistency evaluation, the adverse drug reactions need to be further evaluated to ensure the safety of the "4 + 7" drugs with low prices. We aimed to analyze the occurrence characteristics and related influencing factors of adverse reactions of psychiatric drugs under the chinese drug volume-based procurement policy(4 + 7 policy), and provide references for clinical medication. METHODS: 137 cases of adverse drug reactions of four psychotropic drugs reported under the "4 + 7" policy in Wuxi Mental Health Center in 2020 were collected. The gender and age of patients, related "4 + 7" drugs, involving organs / systems, clinical manifestations, distribution of new / serious adverse reactions, clinic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 137 cases of adverse drug reactions, the incidence of adverse drug reactions was the highest in patients aged 61-70 (25.38%). Mainly involved 4 "4 + 7" psychiatric drugs, of which olanzapine tablets caused the most adverse reactions (54, 39.24%). The adverse reactions mainly involved the digestive system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, blood and lymphatic system, among which the digestive system was the most common (61, 44.53%). A total of 8 cases (6.16%) of new and 26 cases of serious adverse reactions were reported, all of which led to the prolongation of disease course. Except for the transient side effects, most of that were improved or cured with no death, disability or teratogenicity after stopping or reducing the dose with symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSION: Since more and more drugs will be included in "4 + 7" for clinic, clinical pharmacists should strengthen the publicity and training of the knowledge of "4 + 7" drugs, strengthen the monitoring of adverse drug reactions, and provide timely feedback to the clinic, in order to achieve early prevention, early identification, timely diagnosis and reasonable intervention of the adverse drug reactions under the context of "4 + 7" policy.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Política Pública
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 232-239, Agosto 2022. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371519

RESUMEN

Introducción. La hipoglucemia neonatal es una complicación de la diabetes mellitus gestacional Son pocos los estudios que avalan la pesquisa sistemática en este grupo poblacional durante las primeras horas de vida. Objetivos. Evaluar la asociación entre tratamiento materno recibido (dieta versus insulina) y el desarrollo de hipoglucemia, e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados. Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo realizado en en las sedes de Buenos AIres y San Justo de un hospital general de tercer nivel entre el 1 de enero de 2017 y el 31 de diciembre de 2018. Se estimó la incidencia de hipoglucemia (≤47 mg/dl) en recién nacidos según el manejo de la diabetes materna y se realizó un análisis multivariable para evaluar factores asociados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 195 pacientes. No se encontró diferencia estadística en la incidencia de hipoglucemia según el tratamiento materno recibido (45,3 % versus 39,7 %; p = 0,45) ni se identificaron factores de riesgo asociados. Modificando el valor de corte a ≤40 mg/dl, tampoco se encontraron diferencias en la incidencia (23,4 % versus 19 %, p = 0,48); no obstante, los pacientes hipoglucémicos presentaron un hematocrito significativamente mayor y una menor prevalencia de lactancia exclusiva al egreso. El análisis multivariable mostró una asociación independiente entre alto peso al nacer con hipoglucemia que requiere corrección. Conclusiones. La incidencia de hipoglucemia neonatal en la población estudiada no presentó diferencia según el tratamiento materno recibido. El estudio realizado fundamenta el control de la glucemia en estos niños en la práctica diaria.


Introduction. Neonatal hypoglycemia is a complication of gestational diabetes mellitus. Few studies have been conducted to support a systematic screening in the first hours of life of this population group. Objectives. To assess the association between the treatment administered to the mother (diet vs. insulin) and the development of hypoglycemia, and to identify associated risk factors. Population and methods. Observational, analytical, and retrospective study carried out at the Buenos Aires and San Justo maternal centers of a general, tertiary care hospital between 01-01-2017 and 12-31-2018. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia (≤ 47 mg/dL) based on the management of maternal diabetes was estimated and a multivariate analysis was done to assess related factors. Results. A total of 195 patients were included. No statistical difference was found in the incidence of hypoglycemia based on the treatment administered to the mother (45.3% vs. 39.7%; p = 0.45) and no associated risk factors were identified. Once the cutoff point was changed to ≤ 40 mg/dL, no differences were found in the incidence either (23.4% versus 19%, p = 0.48); however, patients with hypoglycemia had a significantly higher hematocrit level and a lower prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding upon discharge. Multivariate analysis showed an independent association between a high birth weight and hypoglycemia, requiring correction. Conclusions. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia in the studied population did not vary based on the treatment received by the mother. This study supports the control of glycemia in these infants in daily practice.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Enfermedades Fetales , Hipoglucemia/etiología , Hipoglucemia/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/etiología , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/epidemiología , Incidencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Madres
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1484, 2022 08 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927638

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have investigated the short-term effects of meteorological factors and air pollution on the incidence of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Several meteorological indicators, such as relative humidity and the diurnal temperature range (DTR), significantly modify the relationship between short-term exposure to temperature and HFMD incidence. However, it remains unclear whether (and how) long-term air pollution levels modify the short-term relationships of HFMD incidence with meteorological factors and air pollution. METHODS: We obtained daily data on meteorological factors, air pollutants, and HFMD counts in children from 21 prefecture-level cities in Sichuan Province in Southwest China from 2015 to 2017. First, we constructed a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) at each prefecture-level site to evaluate the short-term impacts of meteorological variables and air pollutants on HFMD incidence. Then, we assessed the pooled effects of the exposures and incorporated long-term city-specific air pollutant indicators as meta-predictors to examine their potential modification effects by performing multivariate meta-regression models. RESULTS: We found that long-term SO2 and CO concentrations significantly modified the short-term relationships between climatic variables and HFMD incidence. Specifically, high concentrations of CO (P = 0.027) and SO2 (P = 0.039) reduced the risk of HFMD at low temperatures. The relationship between relative humidity and HFMD incidence was weakened at high SO2 concentrations (P = 0.024), especially when the relative humidity was below the median level. When the minimum relative humidity (32%) was compared to the median relative humidity (77%), the risk ratio (RR) was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.51-1.17) in the 90th percentile of SO2 (19.6 µg/m3) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.27-0.64) in the 10th percentile of SO2 (10.6 µg/m3). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that long-term SO2 and CO levels modified the short-term associations between HFMD incidence in children and meteorological variables. These findings may inform health authorities to optimize targeted public health policies including reducing ambient air pollution and reinforcing self-protective actions to weaken the adverse health impacts of environmental factors on HFMD incidence.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Niño , China/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Conceptos Meteorológicos , Dinámicas no Lineales , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo
9.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 849, 2022 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927682

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is an umbrella term referring to a group of biologically and molecularly heterogeneous diseases originating from the breast. Globally, incidences of breast cancer has been increasing dramatically over the past decades. Analyses of multiple clinical "big data" can aid us in clarifying the means of preventing the disease. In addition, predisposing risk factors will be the most important issues if we can confirm their relevance. This study aims to provide an overview of the predisposing factors that contribute to a higher possibility of developing breast cancer and emphasize the signs that we ought to pay more attention to. METHODS: This is a matched nested case-control study. The cohort focused on identifying the eligible risk factors in breast cancer development by data screening (2000-2013) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) under approved protocol. A total of 486,069 females were enrolled from a nationwide sampled database, and 3281 females was elligible as breast cancer cohort, 478,574 females who had never diagnosed with breast cancer from 2000 to 2013 were eligible as non-breast cancer controls, and matched to breast cancer cases according to age using a 1:6 ratio. RESULTS: We analyzed 3281 breast cancer cases and 19,686 non-breast cancer controls after an age-matched procedure. The significant predisposing factors associated with breast cancer development including obesity, hyperlipidemia, thyroid cancer and liver cancer. As for patients under the age of 55, gastric cancer does seem to have an impact on the development of breast cancer; compared with their counterparts over the age of 55, endometrial cancer appears to exhibit an evocative effect. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide matched nested case-control study, we identified obesity, hyperlipidemia, previous cancers of the thyroid, stomach and liver as risk factors associated with breast cancer. However, the retrospective nature and limited case numbers of certain cancers still difficult to provide robust evidence. Further prospective studies are necessitated to corroborate this finding in order to nip the disease in the bud. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the China Medical University Hospital [CMUH104-REC2-115(AR-4)].


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/etiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Obesidad/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Taiwán/epidemiología
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1500, 2022 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932014

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In view of experts' warnings about the potential negative mental health consequences of the sudden nationwide lockdowns implemented in many countries to limit the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, we sought to study the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events related to this unprecedented lockdown in the French general population. METHODS: This longitudinal study among adults (aged =18) consisted of two surveys: the first during the last days of the lockdown and the second a month later. We estimated PTSD incidence with the PCL-5 and ran multiple Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with PTSD. RESULTS: Among the 1736 participants, 30.1% reported at least one traumatic event. PTSD incidence was 17.5% (95% confidence interval CI = 15.7-19.3). It was higher in participants who reported multiple traumatic events, who had high COVID-19-related media use, who had general anxiety disorder (GAD-7) during the lockdown, and who had GAD, depression (PHQ-9), or sleep problems 1 month later. In addition, 43.1% of people with PTSD reported suicidal thoughts. CONCLUSIONS: These results should help clinicians to target people who are at high risk of developing PTSD after a pandemic-related lockdown and could benefit from preventive measures. Collaboration between the media and mental health professionals could be envisioned to inform the population about care resources. Follow-up recommendations should also be disseminated to general practitioners to facilitate PTSD screening and ensure that they are aware of the appropriate management.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Pandemias , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1494, 2022 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932052

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In 2003, Ghana abolished direct out of pockets payments and implemented health financing reforms including the national health insurance scheme in 2004. Treatment of childhood infections is a key component of services covered under this scheme, yet, outcomes on incidence and treatment of these infections after introducing these reforms have not been covered in evaluation studies. This study fills this gap by assessing the impact on the reforms on the two most dominant childhood infections; fever (malaria) and diarrhoea. METHODS: Nigeria was used as the control country with pre-intervention period of 1990 and 2003 and 1993 and 1998 in Ghana. Post-intervention period was 2008 and 2014 in Ghana and 2008 and 2018 in Nigeria. Data was acquired from demographic health surveys in both countries and propensity score matching was calculated based on background socioeconomic covariates. Following matching, difference in difference analysis was conducted to estimate average treatment on the treated effects. All analysis were conducted in STATA (psmatch2, psgraph and pstest) and statistical significance was considered when p-value ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: After matching, it was determined that health reforms significantly increased general medical care for children with diarrhoea (25 percentage points) and fever (40 percentage points). Also for those receiving care specifically in government managed facilities for diarrhoea (14 percentage points) and fever (24 percentage points). CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of health financing reforms in Ghana had positive effects on childhood infections (malaria and diarrhoea).


Asunto(s)
Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Malaria , Niño , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/terapia , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/terapia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 283, 2022 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), one kind of tick-borne acute infectious disease, is caused by a novel bunyavirus. The relationship between meteorological factors and infectious diseases is a hot topic of current research. Liaoning Province has reported a high incidence of SFTS in recent years. However, the epidemiological characteristics of SFTS and its relationship with meteorological factors in the province remain largely unexplored. METHODS: Data on reported SFTS cases were collected from 2011 to 2019. Epidemiological characteristics of SFTS were analyzed. Spearman's correlation test and generalized linear models (GLM) were used to identify the relationship between meteorological factors and the number of SFTS cases. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2019, the incidence showed an overall upward trend in Liaoning Province, with the highest incidence in 2019 (0.35/100,000). The incidence was slightly higher in males (55.9%, 438/783), and there were more SFTS patients in the 60-69 age group (31.29%, 245/783). Dalian City and Dandong City had the largest number of cases of SFTS (87.99%, 689/783). The median duration from the date of illness onset to the date of diagnosis was 8 days [interquartile range (IQR): 4-13 days]. Spearman correlation analysis and GLM showed that the number of SFTS cases was positively correlated with monthly average rainfall (rs = 0.750, P < 0.001; ß = 0.285, P < 0.001), monthly average relative humidity (rs = 0.683, P < 0.001; ß = 0.096, P < 0.001), monthly average temperature (rs = 0.822, P < 0.001; ß = 0.154, P < 0.001), and monthly average ground temperature (rs = 0.810, P < 0.001; ß = 0.134, P < 0.001), while negatively correlated with monthly average air pressure (rs = -0.728, P < 0.001; ß = -0.145, P < 0.001), and monthly average wind speed (rs = -0.272, P < 0.05; ß = -1.048, P < 0.001). By comparing both correlation coefficients and regression coefficients between the number of SFTS cases (dependent variable) and meteorological factors (independent variables), no significant differences were observed when considering immediate cases and cases with lags of 1 to 5 weeks for dependent variables. Based on the forward and backward stepwise GLM regression, the monthly average air pressure, monthly average temperature, monthly average wind speed, and time sequence were selected as relevant influences on the number of SFTS cases. CONCLUSION: The annual incidence of SFTS increased year on year in Liaoning Province. Incidence of SFTS was affected by several meteorological factors, including monthly average air pressure, monthly average temperature, and monthly average wind speed.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Trombocitopenia Febril Grave , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Conceptos Meteorológicos , Temperatura
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e052725, 2022 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940839

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the level of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN) in Vietnam and to assess the trend and recommend the future direction of prevention research efforts. DESIGN: We searched scientific literature, databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINHAL and Google Scholar; grey literature and reference lists for primary research published, nation database websites between 1 January 2000 and 30 September 2020. We adapted the modified Newcastle Ottawa Scale for assessing the quality of the study, as recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. RESULTS: In total, 83 studies met our inclusion criteria, representing data of approximately 239 034 population of more than 15 years of age in Vietnam. The findings show that prevalence rates varied widely across studies, from 1.0% to 29.0% for T2DM and 2.0% to 47.0% for HTN. For the total study period, pooled prevalence of T2DM and HTN in Vietnam for all studies was 6.0% (95% CI: 4.0% to 7.0%) and 25% (95% CI: 19% to 31%), respectively. Prevalence rate of both T2DM and HTN was higher among the male population compared with female counterpart. CONCLUSION: There is evidence of a rising trend of HTN and T2DM prevalence in Vietnam. Future research should focus on the major drivers, incidence and prognosis of T2DM and HTN. Policy approaches should base upon the trends of T2DM and HTN in Vietnam over the last 20 years and pay more attention on the effective interventions to combat T2DM and HTN. In our study, we included both English and Vietnamese language articles and seems that majority of the articles came from Vietnamese language. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020182959.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensión , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Incidencia , Masculino , Prevalencia , Vietnam/epidemiología
14.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 71(2): 93-101, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940863

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim is to characterize in more detail the group of HIV-positive persons in the Czech Republic diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in 2000-2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data sources were mainly the national online TB register (RTBC), which is part of the information system of the Public Health Service, and the national electronic register of HIV-positive persons (RHIV) maintained by the National Reference Laboratory for HIV/AIDS of the National Institute of Public Health. RESULTS: Of 3,763 TB cases reported to the RHIV since 1985 and 16,212 TB cases reported to the RTBC since 2000, 91 occurred in 88 HIV-positive persons (69 males and 22 females) between 2000 and 2020. Sixty-five (74%) of the 88 HIV-positive persons were foreign born. Twenty-six per cent of TB cases were screened for HIV. The mean age of patients with TB/HIV coinfection was 35 years. The largest number of coinfected persons (35 cases) were from the capital city of Prague. Pulmonary TB was detected in 84 cases. Ninety-two per cent of the TB cases were bacteriologically confirmed, and 10 cases were multidrug-resistant TB. At the time of TB diagnosis, the median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 91.5 cells per mm3 of blood. TB was the most common reason for HIV testing in the analysed cohort (23 cases). The most common mode of HIV transmission was sexual intercourse (heterosexual in 39 cases and homosexual in 13 cases). Treatment success at 12-month follow-up was only recorded in 32% of cases of culture-positive pulmonary TB in HIV-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: TB/HIV co-infection remains a serious health concern, especially in the foreign-born residents of the Czech Republic. Of foreign-born persons with TB, 42% were tested for HIV over the 21-year study period, with their percentage increasing over the years. Almost 6% of them tested HIV positive. The most relevant finding is that treatment success was only recorded for less than one third of HIV-positive persons with culture-positive pulmonary TB and that every fourth patient with TB/HIV died before or during TB treatment.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Tuberculosis , Adulto , Coinfección/epidemiología , República Checa/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/epidemiología
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 681, 2022 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941563

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: RSV-incidence estimates obtained from routinely-collected healthcare data (e.g., MarketScan) are commonly adjusted for under-reporting using test positivity reported in national Surveillance Systems (NREVSS). However, NREVSS lacks detail on patient-level characteristics and the validity of applying a single positivity estimate across diverse patient groups is uncertain. We aimed to describe testing practices and test positivity across subgroups of private health insurance enrollees in the US and illustrate the possible magnitude of misclassification when using NREVSS to correct for RSV under ascertainment. METHODS: Using billing records, we determined distributions of RSV-test claims and test positivity among a national sample of private insurance enrollees. Tests were considered positive if they coincided with an RSV-diagnosis. We illustrated the influence of positivity variation across sub-populations when accounting for untested acute respiratory infections. RESULTS: Most tests were for children (age 0-4: 65.8%) and outpatient encounters (78.3%). Test positivity varied across age (0-4: 19.8%, 5-17: 1.8%, adults: 0.7%), regions (7.6-16.1%), settings (inpatient 4.7%, outpatient 14.2%), and test indication (5.0-35.9%). When compared to age, setting or indication-specific positivity, bias due to using NREVSS positivity to correct for untested ARIs ranged from - 76% to 3556%. CONCLUSIONS: RSV-test positivity depends on the characteristics of patients for whom those tests were ordered. NREVSS-based correction for RSV-under-ascertainment underestimates the true incidence among children and overestimate rates among adults. Demographic-specific detail on testing practice and positivity can improve the accuracy of RSV-incidence estimates.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Vigilancia de la Población , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Incertidumbre , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 926641, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937262

RESUMEN

Background: Meteorological factors can affect the emergence of scrub typhus for a period lasting days to weeks after their occurrence. Furthermore, the relationship between meteorological factors and scrub typhus is complicated because of lagged and non-linear patterns. Investigating the lagged correlation patterns between meteorological variables and scrub typhus may promote an understanding of this association and be beneficial for preventing disease outbreaks. Methods: We extracted data on scrub typhus cases in rural areas of Panzhihua in Southwest China every week from 2008 to 2017 from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to study the temporal lagged correlation between weekly meteorological factors and weekly scrub typhus. Results: There were obvious lagged associations between some weather factors (rainfall, relative humidity, and air temperature) and scrub typhus with the same overall effect trend, an inverse-U shape; moreover, different meteorological factors had different significant delayed contributions compared with reference values in many cases. In addition, at the same lag time, the relative risk increased with the increase of exposure level for all weather variables when presenting a positive association. Conclusions: The results found that different meteorological factors have different patterns and magnitudes for the lagged correlation between weather factors and scrub typhus. The lag shape and association for meteorological information is applicable for developing an early warning system for scrub typhus.


Asunto(s)
Tifus por Ácaros , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Conceptos Meteorológicos , Dinámicas no Lineales , Tifus por Ácaros/epidemiología
18.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15211, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938583

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence and incidence of constipation in Korean children and adolescent based on health insurance claims data. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service - National Sample Cohort from 2002 to 2013. Patients age less than 19 years old were selected, and the prevalence and incidence of constipation were estimated. RESULTS: The standardized incidence rate was 10.8 per 1,000 persons in 2004 to 14.3 per 1,000 persons in 2012. The standardized prevalence increased from 12.2 per persons in 2002 to 26.4 per persons in 2013. Females had a higher incidence rate and prevalence rate than males during the study period. The overall recurrence rates were 13.2%. The recurrence rates were 12.9% in males and 13.5% in females. The overall average constipation duration was 229 days. The duration was 222 days in males and 236 days in females. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to conduct a population-based study of all children in Korea with constipation. These data reveal the increasing burden and impact of constipation on children and could enable effective public and clinical health strategies to be planned.


Asunto(s)
Estreñimiento , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estreñimiento/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
19.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 28(4): 1194-1216, 2022 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938662

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the most common leukodystrophies and is focused on diagnosis, clinical features, and emerging therapeutic options. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past decade, the recognition of leukodystrophies has exponentially increased, and now this class includes more than 30 distinct disorders. Classically recognized as progressive and fatal disorders affecting young children, it is now understood that leukodystrophies are associated with an increasing spectrum of neurologic trajectories and can affect all ages. Next-generation sequencing and newborn screening allow the opportunity for the recognition of presymptomatic and atypical cases. These new testing opportunities, in combination with growing numbers of natural history studies and clinical consensus guidelines, have helped improve diagnosis and clinical care. Additionally, a more granular understanding of disease outcomes informs clinical trial design and has led to several recent therapeutic advances. This review summarizes the current understanding of the clinical manifestations of disease and treatment options for the most common leukodystrophies. SUMMARY: As early testing becomes more readily available through next-generation sequencing and newborn screening, neurologists will better understand the true incidence of the leukodystrophies and be able to diagnose children within the therapeutic window. As targeted therapies are developed, it becomes increasingly imperative that this broad spectrum of disorders is recognized and diagnosed. This work summarizes key advances in the leukodystrophy field.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desmielinizantes , Trastornos del Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Recién Nacido , Neurólogos
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 861629, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910920

RESUMEN

Objective: Investigating the trends of child diarrhea-related mortality (DRM) is crucial to tracking and monitoring the progress of its prevention and control efforts worldwide. This study explores the spatial patterns of diarrhea-related mortality in children under five for monitoring and designing effective intervention programs. Methods: The data used in this study was obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) public dataset that contained data from 195 countries from the year 2000 to 2017. This dataset contained 13,541,989 DRM cases. The worldwide spatial pattern of DRM was analyzed at the country level utilizing geographic information system (GIS) software. Moran's I, Getis-Ord Gi, Mean center, and Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE) techniques were used to conduct the spatial analysis. Results: The spatial pattern of DRM was clustered all across the world during the study period from 2000 to 2017. The results revealed that Asian and African countries had the highest incidence of DRM worldwide. The findings from the spatial modeling also revealed that the focal point of death from diarrhea was mainly in Asian countries until 2010, and this focus shifted to Africa in 2011. Conclusion: DRM is common among children who live in Asia and Africa. These concentrations may also be due to differences in knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding diarrhea. Through GIS analysis, the study was able to map the distribution of DRM in temporal and spatial dimensions and identify the hotspots of DRM across the globe.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Asia , Niño , Diarrea/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Análisis Espacial
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