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1.
Gene ; 764: 145101, 2021 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877747

RESUMEN

India is the world's largest milk producing country because of massive contribution made by cattle and buffaloes. In the present investigation, comprehensive comparative profiling of transcriptomic landscape of milk somatic cells of Sahiwal cattle and Murrah buffaloes was carried out. Genes with highest transcript abundance in both species were enriched for biological processes such as lactation, immune response, cellular oxidant detoxification and response to hormones. Analysis of differential expression identified 377 significantly up-regulated and 847 significantly down-regulated genes with fold change >1.5 in Murrah buffaloes as compared to Sahiwal cattle (padj <0.05). Marked enrichment of innate and adaptive immune response related GO terms and higher expression of genes for various host defense peptides such as lysozyme, defensin ß and granzymes were evident in buffaloes. Genes related to ECM-receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and keratinization pathway showed more abundant expression in cattle. Network analysis of the up-regulated genes delineated highly connected genes representing immunity and haematopoietic cell lineage (CBL, CD28, CD247, PECAM1 and ITGA4). For the down-regulated dataset, genes with highest interactions were KRT18, FGFR1, GPR183, ITGB3 and DKK3. Our results lend support to more robust immune mechanisms in buffaloes, possibly explaining lower susceptibility to mammary infections as compared to cattle.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos/inmunología , Bovinos/inmunología , Inmunidad/genética , Transcriptoma/inmunología , Animales , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Búfalos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Linaje de la Célula/genética , Linaje de la Célula/inmunología , Regulación hacia Abajo/inmunología , Femenino , Hematopoyesis/genética , Hematopoyesis/inmunología , India , Lactancia/genética , Lactancia/inmunología , Leche/citología , Leche/inmunología , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulación hacia Arriba/inmunología
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141728, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890797

RESUMEN

Trees significantly impact land-atmosphere feedbacks through evapotranspiration, photosynthesis and isoprene emissions. These processes influence the local microclimate, air quality and can mitigate temperature extremes and sequester carbon dioxide. Despite such importance, currently only 5 out of 15 atmospheric chemistry climate models even partially account for the presence of cropland trees. We first show that the tree cover over intensely farmed regions in Asia, Australia and South America is significantly underestimated (e.g. only 1-3% tree cover over north-India) in the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosol from Nature (MEGAN) and absent in Noah land-surface module of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) Model. By including the actual tree cover (~10%) over the north-west Indo Gangetic Plain in the Noah land-surface module of the WRF-Chem and the MEGAN module, during the rice growing monsoon season in August, we find that the latent heat flux alone increases by 100%-300% while sensible heat flux reduces by 50%-100%, leading to a reduction in daytime boundary layer height by 200-400 m. This greatly improves agreement between the modelled and measured temperature, boundary layer height and surface ozone, which were earlier overestimated and isoprene and its oxidation products which were earlier underestimated. Mitigating peak daytime temperatures and ozone improves rice production by 10 to 20%. Our findings from north west Indo-Gangetic Plain establish that such plantations mitigate heat stress, and have beneficial effects on crop yields while also sequestering carbon. Expanding agroforestry practices to 50% of the cropland area could result in up to 40% yield gain regionally. Implementing such strategies globally could increase crop production and sequester 0.3-30 GtC per year, and therefore future climate mitigation and food security efforts should consider stakeholder participation for increased cropland agroforestry in view of its beneficial effects.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Asia , Atmósfera , Australia , Productos Agrícolas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Ozono/análisis , América del Sur , Temperatura , Árboles
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141830, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182002

RESUMEN

This systematic review presents the potential toxicity of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), and copper (Cu) in raw cow milk, focusing on their contamination sources and on the assessment of the related human health risk. Multiple keywords such as "raw cow milk, heavy metals, and human health" were used to search in related databases. A total of 60 original articles published since 2010 reporting the levels of these metals in raw cow's milk across the world were reviewed. Data showed that the highest levels of Ni (833 mg/L), Pb (60 mg/L), Cu (36 mg/L) were noticed in raw cow milk collected in area consists of granites and granite gneisses in India, while the highest level of Cd (12 mg/L) was reported in barite mining area in India. Fe values in raw cow milk samples were above the WHO maximum limit (0.37 mg/L) with highest values (37.02 mg/L) recorded in India. The highest Al level was (22.50 mg/L) reported for raw cow's milk collected close to food producing plants region in Turkey. The Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) values of Hg were below 1 suggesting that milk consumers are not at a non-carcinogenic risk except in Faisalabad province (Pakistan) where THQ values = 7.7. For the other heavy metals, the THQ values were >1 for Pb (10 regions out of 70), for Cd (6 regions out of 59), for Ni (3 out of 29), and for Cu (3 out of 54). Exposure to heavy metals is positively associated with diseases developments. Moreover, data actualization and continuous monitoring are necessary and recommended to evaluate heavy metals effects in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Leche , Animales , Bovinos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , India , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Leche/química , Pakistán , Medición de Riesgo , Turquia
4.
Food Chem ; 334: 127553, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688177

RESUMEN

Rice is one of the most important cereals for human nutrition and is a basic staple food for half of the global population. The assessment of rice geographical origins in terms of its authenticity is of great interest to protect consumers from misleading information and fraud. In the present study, a head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) strategy for characterising volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles to distinguish rice samples from China, India and Vietnam is described. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model exhibited a good discrimination (R2 = 0.98182, Q2 = 0.9722, and Accuracy = 1.0) for rice samples from China, India and Vietnam. Moreover, Data-Driven Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (DD-SIMCA) and K-nearest neighbors shown good specificity 100% and accuracy 100% in identifying the origin of samples. The present study established VOC fingerprinting as a highly efficient approach to identify the geographical origin of rice.


Asunto(s)
Oryza/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , China , Análisis Discriminante , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , India , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Oryza/metabolismo , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Vietnam , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación
5.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 13(4): 216-226, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-193461

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Academia is experiencing massive reforms globally amid lockdown in COVID-19 outbreak. This study is aimed to apprehend the enabling and impeding factors of these reforms, with a focus on optometry education. It brings together how the Indian optometry educational system has responded to COVID-19 disruptions with findings of the 2020 survey, in light of similar survey done in 2018. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was designed to find changes in optometry training and adaptations of Indian optometry educators amid COVID 19 lockdown. In the last week of April 2020, on the observation that the majority of optometry institutions have switched their teaching-learning activities on e-learning mode, an online survey was conducted using a validated questionnaire containing a mix of open and close-ended questions. RESULTS: Seventy-three out of 78 optometry educators (93.58%) have switched to e-learning mode in a very short time span with good confidence. Most teaching-learning and assessment activities are carried out using multi-device supporting video conferencing tools, dedicated educational portals and social media apps. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic is proving to be a constructive disruptor, giving an opportunity for restructuring the present conventional, classroom based educational system. The quick transitions to online mode assisted in keeping continuity of optometry education programs, effectively fitting in the purpose of completion of the current academic year. The rapid transition to online education has not only benefited optometry students but also has created a momentum of continued education for practicing optometrist in the country


PROPÓSITO: La Academia está experimentando reformas masivas a nivel mundial en medio del bloqueo del brote del COVID-19. Este estudio tiene como objetivo aprehender los factores favorables y desfavorables de estas reformas, con un enfoque en la educación de la optometría. Reúne cómo el sistema educativo de optometría de la India ha respondido a los trastornos del COVID-19 con los resultados de la encuesta de 2020, a la luz de una encuesta similar realizada en 2018. METODOLOGÍA: Una encuesta transversal fue diseñada para encontrar cambios en la formación de optometría y adaptaciones de los educadores de optometría de la India en medio del cierre del COVID 19. En la última semana de abril de 2020, a partir de la observación de que la mayoría de las instituciones de optometría han cambiado sus actividades de enseñanza-aprendizaje en el modo de aprendizaje electrónico, se realizó una encuesta en línea utilizando un cuestionario validado que contenía una mezcla de preguntas abiertas y cerradas. RESULTADOS: Setenta y tres de 78 educadores de optometría (93,58%) han cambiado a la modalidad de aprendizaje electrónico en un período de tiempo muy corto con buena confianza. La mayoría de las actividades de enseñanza-aprendizaje y evaluación se llevan a cabo utilizando herramientas de videoconferencia de apoyo multidispositivo, portales educativos dedicados y aplicaciones de redes sociales. CONCLUSIÓN: La pandemia del COVID-19 está demostrando ser un disruptor constructivo, que ofrece la oportunidad de reestructurar el actual sistema educativo convencional basado en el aula. Las rápidas transiciones al modo online ayudaron a mantener la continuidad de los programas educativos de optometría, encajando eficazmente en el propósito de completar el año académico actual. La rápida transición a la educación en línea no sólo ha beneficiado a los estudiantes de optometría, sino que también ha creado un impulso de educación continua para los optometristas en ejercicio en el país


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neumonía Viral , Pandemias , Optometría/educación , Educación a Distancia , Acceso a Internet , Comunicación por Videocoferencia , Estudios Transversales , India
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 747, 2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150454

RESUMEN

The inception of bioluminescence by Harvey (1952) has led to a Nobel Prize to Osamu Shimomura (Chemistry, 2008) in biological research. Consequently, in recent years, bioluminescence-based assays to monitor toxic pollutants as a real-time marker, to study various diseases and their propagation in plants and animals, are developed in many countries. The emission ability of bioluminescence is improved by gene modification, and also, search for novel bioluminescent systems is underway. Over 100 species of organisms belonging to different taxa are known to be luminous in India. However, the diversity and distribution of luminous organisms and their applications are studied scarcely in the Indian scenario. In this context, the present review provides an overview of the current understanding of various bioluminescent organisms, functions, and applications. A detailed checklist of known bioluminescent organisms from India's marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems is detailed. This review infers that Indian scientists are needed to extend their research on various aspects of luminescent organisms such as biodiversity, genomics, and chemical mechanisms for conservation, ecological, and biomedical applications.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos , India , Luciferasas , Luminiscencia , Mediciones Luminiscentes
7.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(4): 293-301, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154281

RESUMEN

Objectives: The study was designed to explore epidemiological characteristics, determinants of COVID-19 infection development and mortality of patients presenting with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) to a tertiary care health facility of Bihar. Methods: This was an observational record-based study, longitudinal in design. Data of 281 SARI patients who have attended All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India during 25th April 2020, till 12th July 2020 (16 weeks) were used for the study. Results: Out of 281 study participants, 95 (33.8%) were detected to have COVID-19 and 42 (14.9%) died. Among COVID-positive study subject's death rate was 28.4%. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis; increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.02 [1.00-1.03]), gender (males) (AOR = 2.51 [1.27-4.96]), presenting symptom (cough) (AOR = 2.88 [1.46-5.70]), co-morbidity (hypothyroidism) (AOR = 4.59 [1.45-14.56]) and delay between symptom onset and admission (>2 days) (AOR = 2.46 [1.19-5.07]) were significant predictors of COVID-19 infection among study participants adjusted with other co-morbidities (diabetes and hypertension). Similarly, place of residence (outside Patna district) (AOR = 2.38 [1.03-5.50]), co-morbidity (diabetes) (AOR = 3.08 [1.12-8.50]), intensive care unit (ICU) requirement at admission (yes) (AOR = 9.47 [3.98-22.52]) and COVID status (positive) (AOR = 6.33 [2.68-14.96]) were significant predictors of death among the study participants whereas place of residence (outside Patna district) (AOR = 4.04 [1.33-12.28]) and ICU requirement at admission (yes) (AOR = 7.22 [2.54-20.52]) were attributes affecting death of COVID-positive study participants. Conclusion: Risk of COVID-19 infection among the study participants was high. Age, gender and co-morbidities increased the risk of infection. COVID-19 infection negatively impacted the treatment outcome of the study participants. Age, co-morbidity and ICU requirement were the other attributes affecting mortality.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Factores de Edad , Betacoronavirus , Comorbilidad , Cuidados Críticos , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , Características de la Residencia , Factores Sexuales
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 14-19, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187030

RESUMEN

Background: Seroprevalence studies for COVID-19 evaluate the extent of undetected transmission in a defined community, with special significance among health care workers (HCW) owing to their greater exposure and potential to transmit. Methods: A total of 1122 HCW (approximately 25% of the employees) of a large tertiary care hospital in India were recruited for this cross-sectional study. COVID PCR-positive HCW were excluded. Based on their risk-assessment, participants were grouped into three categories. A questionnaire was administered and they were tested for SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies using the chemiluminescence. Results: The overall seroprevalence among workers was 11.94%, which included 19.85% in COVID units, 11.09% in non-COVID units, and 8% in administrative workers (p=0.007). Antibody prevalence was highest in the department of gastroenterology (11.94%), followed by oncology (10.53%), pathology (10.26%), emergency medicine (7.84%) and critical care medicine (7%). Housekeeping staff, food and beverage staff, lab assistants and technicians had higher seroprevalence rate than doctors and nurses (p < 0.0001). HCW with a history of BCG vaccination in childhood and those who received an adequate prophylactic dose of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) had a lower seroprevalence as compared to those who did not (7.31% vs. 16.8% and 1.30% vs. 11.25% respectively). Conclusion: BCG vaccination, HCQ prophylaxis, and the job profile influence the seroprevalence rate in HCW. Seroprevalence rate and follow-up evaluation of its durability may help hospitals to triage their staff at risk, rationalize their placement, prioritize the use of PPE, thereby potentially reducing the risk.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Personal de Salud , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Centros de Atención Terciaria
10.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 24-27, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187032

RESUMEN

Background: Dengue fever is the most common viral communicable disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. Worldwide about 3.9 billion people are at the risk of this infection. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done in patients of dengue fever admitted in a service hospital in the coastal area of southern India from 01 Jan 2018 to 31 Dec 2018. Results: 751 patients of confirmed dengue patients were admitted with 555 (73.9%) males and 196 (26.1%) females. The mean age was 30.6 (SD± 10.48) years, mean day of admission after the onset of illness was 3.4 days (SD±2.76). The most common presentation was fever (99.33%) followed by myalgia (77.62%), headache (67.24%), vomiting (35.41%), nausea (26.76%) and fatigue (9.05%). Bleeding diathesis was evident in 97patients (12.91%). 306 (40.75%) patients presented with warning signs. The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.73 (SD± 2.75) days. Four patients died due to severe dengue (mortality rate-0.53%). Conclusion: Intense monitoring, early detection, and management of complications can prevent mortality in dengue.


Asunto(s)
Dengue , Animales , Niño , Demografía , Dengue/complicaciones , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 33-36, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187034

RESUMEN

Introduction: India has the highest number of TB (27%) and MDR/RR-TB (24%) cases among the notified TB patients. Xpert MTB/ RIF assay is a fully automated cartridge-based real-time PCR to detect MTB and resistance to rifampicin within two hours using three specific primers and five unique molecular probes to target the rpoB gene. This study was done to detect RR-TB cases and frequency of missing probes, which target mutations in rpoB gene, in the different groups of study population in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Methods: All, pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens, were processed for AFB microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF assay to diagnose TB and RR-TB. Results: Xpert detected MTBC in 721 patients. Using AFB microscopy, only 284 samples were positive. Of these MTB positive patients, 671 had pulmonary TB and 50 were EPTB cases. Resistance to RIF was detected in 31 (4.29%) cases of which resistance in presumptive tuberculosis group and presumptive drug resistant tuberculosis was 1.51% and 9.30% respectively. Twentyeight (4.17%) PTB cases and three (6%) EP-TB cases were resistant to RIF. The frequency of probe E was highest (77.41%) and mutation combination of probes C and D and E and D was 3.22%. Conclusion: Drug resistance in the MTBC is mainly conferred through point mutations in specific gene targets in the bacterial genome. Molecular assays like Genexpert gives rapid diagnosis and Rifampicin resistance. This study helps to provide baseline data of mutations with in the 81 bp of rpoB gene and stresses the need to further evaluate the mutation patterns in this part of the country.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , India , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampin/farmacología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/tratamiento farmacológico
12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 42-45, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187036

RESUMEN

Background: Nearly one third of all major congenital anomalies are due to congenital heart disease (CHD). Globally the prevalence of CHD in adults varies from 0.66 to 40.0 per 1000 study population. In India the prevalence of CHD is 1.09 to 543 per 1000 study population. CHD is a major global health burden because of increased mortality and morbidity associated with it. Early diagnosis and management can be helpful in improving survival rates, quality of life and prognosis in patients suffering from CHD. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the echocardiographic profile of CHD in Western Rajasthan, India in population above 12 years of age. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at department of Cardiology and Pediatrics of Dr. S. N. Medical College and attached group of hospitals in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. The presence of CHD among all patients above 12 years of age who underwent transthoracic echocardiography over a period of around 4 years from July 2014 to April 2018 was analyzed. Results: A total of 256 patients above 12 years of age were identified as having CHD out of the 33,228 patients who underwent echocardiography during the study period, thus giving a prevalence of 7.7 per 1000 study population. Amongst the total diagnosed CHD cases, 137 (53.52%) patients were male with male to female ratio of 1.15:1. CHDs were diagnosed more commonly between 13 to 24 years of age (54.69%). The commonest type of CHD in the present study was atrial septal defect (27.34%) whereas the most common cyanotic CHD was tetralogy of Fallot (10.94%). Conclusion: Prevalence of CHD in study cohort of age more than 12 years in Western Rajasthan, India was 7.7 per 1000 study population. Profile of CHDs in the present study was similar to that in published literature. We propose to do larger and targeted studies in this age group because many CHDs will become inoperable or even if operated will leave some or other cardiac dysfunction beyond adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Cardiopatías Congénitas , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Cardiopatías Congénitas/diagnóstico por imagen , Cardiopatías Congénitas/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
13.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 57-61, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187038

RESUMEN

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain penile erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual activity. The prevalence increases with age. Basic and clinical research is identifying the neurovascular and humoral control of the mechanisms. The initial evaluation should differentiate erectile dysfunction from premature ejaculation and loss of libido. Myocardial insufficiency, hypogonadism and peripheral neuropathy should be looked for. Initial laboratory investigations should be restricted to identifying previously undetected medical illness that may directly contribute to erectile dysfunction. Discussing the available options with the couple is an important aspect. If erectile dysfunction is secondary to other treatable disorders these should be treated simultaneously. When other diseases that require intervention are ruled out and if there are no contraindications, therapy may be initiated with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In selected cases, psychosexual therapy may be beneficial. If phosphodiesterase inhibitors are contraindicated, vacuum constriction devices may be tried. Further options include intracavernosal injection, intraurethral instillation, penile revascularization and prosthesis. The availability of effective and well-tolerated oral medications has dramatically changed the clinical approach to erectile dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy is the preferred cost-effective first-line therapy in the vast majority of patients. A stepped-care approach is followed in the primary care and family practice settings. Appropriate urological, endocrine and psychiatric referrals, and shared decision-making with the couple will enable effective treatment of men with erectile dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Eréctil , Disfunción Eréctil/diagnóstico , Disfunción Eréctil/epidemiología , Disfunción Eréctil/terapia , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa , Prevalencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 61-65, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187039

RESUMEN

India, being home to one -sixth of the world's population has a huge burden of suffering from life limiting diseases. It is estimated that in India the total no. of people who need palliative care (PC)is likely to be 5.4 million people a year. Though PC was introduced nearly 30 years ago, it is still in its infancy with less than 1% of patients having access to PC. India ranks at the bottom of the Quality Of Death Index in overall score. Obstacles are too many and not only include factors like population density, poverty, geographical density, restrictive policies regarding opioid prescription, workforce development at base level but also limited national PC policy and lack of institutional interest in palliative care. However there has been a steady progress in the past few years through community owned PC services. South Indian state of Kerala which has 3% of Indian population, stands out in terms of achieving coverage of palliative care. On the national level recent years saw several palpable changes including the creation of a National Programme for Palliative care and also the Parliament amended India's cumbersome Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS) thus overcoming many of the legal barriers to opioid access. Initially WHO and now the IAPC has taken over the responsibility of spreading the message of palliative care in India, but we still have a long way to go. Education of the professionals and sensitization of the public through awareness campaigns are vitals for improving access to PC in India. Process of implementing PC plan into action requires strong Advocacy, political support and integration across all levels of care.


Asunto(s)
Cuidado Terminal , Humanos , India , Cuidados Paliativos
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(10): 1128-1135, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175707

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: At the end of the second week of June 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 responsible for COVID-19 infected above 7.5 million people and killed over 400,000 worldwide. Estimation of case fatality rate (CFR) and determining the associated factors are critical for developing targeted interventions. METHODOLOGY: The state-level adjusted case fatality rate (aCFR) was estimated by dividing the cumulative number of deaths on a given day by the cumulative number confirmed cases 8 days before, which is the average time-lag between diagnosis and death. We conducted fractional regression analysis to determine the predictors of aCFR. RESULTS: As of 13 June 2020, India reported 225 COVID-19 cases per million population (95% CI:224-226); 6.48 deaths per million population (95% CI:6.34-6.61) and an aCFR of 3.88% (95% CI:3.81-3.97) with wide variation between states. High proportion of urban population and population above 60 years were significantly associated with increased aCFR (p=0.08, p=0.05), whereas, high literacy rate and high proportion of women were associated with reduced aCFR (p<0.001, p=0.03). The higher number of cases per million population (p=0.001), prevalence of diabetes and hypertension (p=0.012), cardiovascular diseases (p=0.05), and any cancer (p<0.001) were significantly associated with increased aCFR. The performance of state health systems and proportion of public health expenditure were not associated with aCFR. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-demographic factors and burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were found to be the predictors of aCFR. Focused strategies that would ensure early identification, testing and effective targeting of non-literate, elderly, urban population and people with comorbidities are critical to control the pandemic and fatalities.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Betacoronavirus , Comorbilidad , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239303, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175878

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection provides essential information for deciding disease prevention and mitigation measures. We estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies in District Srinagar. METHODS: 2906 persons >18 years of age selected from hospital visitors across District Srinagar participated in the study. We tested samples for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-based serologic test. RESULTS: Age- and gender-standardized seroprevalence was 3.6% (95% CI 2.9% to 4.3%). Age 30-69 years, a recent history of symptoms of an influenza-like-illness, and a history of being placed under quarantine were significantly related to higher odds of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies. The estimated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections during the two weeks preceding the study, adjusted for test performance, was 32602 with an estimated (median) infection-to-known-case ratio of 46 (95% CI 36 to 57). CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies is low in the District. A large proportion of the population is still susceptible to the infection. A sizeable number of infections remain undetected, and a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 are not tested.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , ARN Viral/genética , ARN Viral/metabolismo
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 763, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196930

RESUMEN

A cyclone temporarily disrupts copepod community structure of an estuary, and during the community rebuilding process, omnivorous copepods dominate. This hypothesis was tested after cyclone Fani affected the Ganges River estuary of India on 5 May 2019. Copepod assemblages and environmental parameters were collected before (25 February 2019), after (24 August 2019) and immediately after (daily between 8 and 14 May 2019) cyclone Fani from three sites of the estuary. Immediately after cyclone Fani, spatial heterogeneity of the estuarine environment was washed away, salinity and temperature levels of the estuary increased, pH level declined, while the total dissolve solids remained constant at high levels of concentration. Copepod diversity and abundance were drastically reduced by cyclone Fani with the exception of the omnivorous Bestiolina similis, which tolerated a wide variability of the environment and dominated the community. Led by small and medium-sized copepods, within days, the community recovered from its initial disruption. Immediately after cyclone Fani, medium-sized omnivorous copepod Acartiella tortaniformis became the second most abundant species replacing the small-sized herbivorous Paracalanus parvus. Changes in species composition and abundance hierarchy observed immediately after cyclone Fani lasted for a few months. The intensity of cyclones is increasing in the Indian Sundarban; therefore, following a cyclone, more severe and prolong disruptions of the copepod community are likely. Institutionalized monitoring of the cyclone-mediated ecological changes of the Ganges River estuary is therefore strongly recommended.


Asunto(s)
Copépodos , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , India , Ríos , Salinidad
18.
Science ; 370(6517): 691-697, 2020 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154136

RESUMEN

Although most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in low-resource countries, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in such contexts. Data from the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh provide a detailed view into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission pathways and mortality in a high-incidence setting. Reported cases and deaths have been concentrated in younger cohorts than would be expected from observations in higher-income countries, even after accounting for demographic differences across settings. Among 575,071 individuals exposed to 84,965 confirmed cases, infection probabilities ranged from 4.7 to 10.7% for low-risk and high-risk contact types, respectively. Same-age contacts were associated with the greatest infection risk. Case fatality ratios spanned 0.05% at ages of 5 to 17 years to 16.6% at ages of 85 years or more. Primary data from low-resource countries are urgently needed to guide control measures.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Preescolar , Trazado de Contacto , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
19.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 119: 108128, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138923

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and its containment strategies have presented unique challenges to India's healthcare infrastructure. While a national lockdown initially resulted in the closure of all licensed liquor shops, it also made healthcare facilities dedicated to the treatment of substance use disorders challenging to access. Addiction treatment services have been functioning at limited capacity with a lack of consensus on operating procedures. In this article, we present actual case scenarios where lockdown affected substance use and the treatment process, and discuss the policy implications and considerations for both.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/rehabilitación , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Centros de Tratamiento de Abuso de Sustancias/organización & administración , Adulto , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111637, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181924

RESUMEN

This study reports on the ingestion of microplastics by the alien fish Pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes; Serrasalmidae) that escaped Vembanad lake, the largest brackish water lake in the south-west coast of India, from the aquaculture systems during flooding. Microplastics separated from the gut of 32 out of the 123 fishes (26%) examined were identified using Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR), and Raman Spectroscopy. In total, 69 microplastic particles, represented by fibers, foam and fragments were recovered from the fish, with sizes ranging from 0.89 to 4.85 mm. The ATR-FTIR spectral analyses revealed the presence of polymers polyethylene and Nylon 6. The occurrence of PP, Nylon 6, PET and PBT were confirmed using Raman spectroscopy. The presence of MPs in the gut content of alien fish P. brachypomus could be a reflection of the increasing microplastics pollution in the estuaries and backwaters along the south-west coast of India.


Asunto(s)
Characiformes , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Peces , India , Especies Introducidas , Lagos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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