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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 19-30, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182130

RESUMEN

Examining the contribution of fossil fuel CO2 to the total CO2 changes in the atmosphere is of primary concern due to its alarming levels of fossil fuel emissions over the globe, specifically developing countries. Atmospheric radiocarbon represents an important observational constraint and utilized to trace fossil fuel derived CO2 (CO2ff) in the atmosphere. For the first time, we have presented a detailed analysis on the spatial distribution of fossil fuel derived CO2 (CO2ff) over India using radiocarbon (Δ14C) measurements during three-year period. Analysis shows that the Δ14C values are varying between 29.33‰ to -34.06‰ across India in the year 2017, where highest value belongs to a location from Gujarat while lowest value belongs to a location from Chhattisgarh. Based on the Δ14C patterns, spatial distributions of CO2ff mole fractions have been determined over India and the calculated values of CO2ff mole fractions are varying between 4.85 ppm to 26.59 ppm across India. It is also noticed that the highest CO2ff mole fraction is observed as 26.59 ppm from a site in Chhattisgarh. CO2ff mole fraction values from four high altitude sites are found to be varied between 4.85 ppm to 14.87 ppm. Effect of sampling different crop plants from the same growing season and different crop plant organs (grains, leaves, stems) on the Δ14C and CO2ff have been studied. Annual and intra seasonal variations in the Δ14C and CO2ff mole fractions have also been analyzed from a rural location (Dholpur, Rajasthan).


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Combustibles Fósiles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Combustibles Fósiles/análisis , India
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243975, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285629

RESUMEN

Abstract In South and South East Asia three genera of fish species i.e. Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are commonly known as Mahseer with at least 47 species. Among these 23 belongs to genus Tor, 22 to Neolissochilus and one to Naziritor i.e. Naziritor zhobensis. Recently another species added to genus Naziritor is Naziritor chelynoides in India. Among Tor species Tor putitora (Hamilton) is the most widely distributed Mahseer in Pakistan and other countries of the Indian subcontinent. However, based alone on morphological characters some authors identify the Pakistani counterparts as Tor macrolepis (Heckel), (a species presumed to be found exclusively in the Indus River system) distinct from Tor putitora (a species found in Ganga Brahmaputra River system). In order to resolve this taxonomic ambiguity, present study carried out meristic and morphometric measurements of Mahseer collected from a total of 11 water bodies of Pakistan. Ratios between the morphometric characters were calculated and statistically analyzed using t-test and correlation coefficient. Two species identified as Tor putitora and Naziritor zhobensis were the sole Mahseer inhabitants of Indus system in Pakistan. Tor putitora occurred at all surveyed sites while Nazirtor zhobensis had a distribution range from river Zhob to tributaries of river Gomal the right bank tributaries of River Indus. The study corroborates that there are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies in any existing populations of both species. The study further demonstrates that head length, a character frequently used in Mahseer taxonomy, is not a good measure for species identification. Finally the present study establishes that Naziritor zhobensis still exists in the water bodies of Pakistan and that golden Mahseer occurring in Indus riverine system of Pakistan is Tor putitora.


Resumo No sul e sudeste da Ásia, três gêneros de espécies de peixes, ou seja, Tor, Neolissochilus e Naziritor, são comumente conhecidos como Mahseer com pelo menos 47 espécies. Entre estas, 23 pertencem ao gênero Tor, 22 a Neolissochilus e um a Naziritor, ou seja, Naziritor zhobensis. Recentemente, outra espécie adicionada ao gênero Naziritor é Naziritor chelynoides na Índia. Entre as espécies de Tor, Tor putitora (Hamilton) é o Mahseer mais amplamente distribuído no Paquistão e em outros países do subcontinente indiano. No entanto, com base apenas em caracteres morfológicos, alguns autores identificam as contrapartes paquistanesas como Tor macrolepis (Heckel) (uma espécie que se presume ser encontrada exclusivamente no sistema do rio Indo), distinta de Tor putitora (uma espécie encontrada no sistema do rio Ganga Brahmaputra). A fim de resolver essas ambiguidades taxonômicas, o presente estudo realizou medidas merísticas e morfométricas de Mahseer coletadas em um total de 11 corpos d'água do Paquistão. As razões entre os caracteres morfométricos foram calculadas e analisadas estatisticamente usando o teste t e o coeficiente de correlação. Duas espécies identificadas como Tor putitora e Naziritor zhobensis foram os únicos habitantes Mahseer do sistema fluvial Indo no Paquistão. Tor putitora ocorreu em todos os locais pesquisados, enquanto Nazirtor zhobensis tinha uma faixa de distribuição do rio Zhob aos afluentes do rio Gomal, afluentes da margem direita do rio Indo. O estudo corrobora que não há sinapomorfias morfológicas inequívocas em nenhuma das populações existentes de ambas as espécies. O estudo demonstra ainda que o comprimento da cabeça, um caractere frequentemente usado na taxonomia de Mahseer, não é boa medida para identificação das espécies. Finalmente, o presente estudo estabelece que Naziritor zhobensis ainda existe nos corpos d'água do Paquistão e que o Mahseer dourado ocorrendo no sistema fluvial Indo do Paquistão é Tor putitora.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Cyprinidae , Pakistán , India
3.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136824, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241111

RESUMEN

Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as an indicator of environmental disturbance. Their sensitivities to pollutants can be reflected by changes in assemblage, which can provide useful information about ecosystem health. This study aimed to investigate the impact of organic and inorganic pollutants on the benthic ecology of the Chennai coast, with a focus on the 2017 oil spill caused by the collision of two ships. Sediment samples collected from five distinct zones along the coast were analysed for pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb) and total organic carbon (TOC). The maximum concentrations of Cr (137 µg/g), Cd (6.93 µg/g) and Pb (34.2 µg/g), as well as TPH (84.3 µg/g) and PAHs (227 ng/g), were observed. A total of 47 species of foraminifera were identified in this study, of which 12 were morphologically abnormal. In the low-impact zone, the species diversity index (H') was higher. TPH and PAH concentrations were positively associated with abnormal species. Pollution-resistant foraminifera species include Ammonia tepida, Elphidium discoidale, and Quinqueloculina lamarckiana, while opportunistic foraminifera include Pararotalia curryi, Nonionella stella, Rosalina globularis, and Spirillina vivipara. PAHs and heavy metals were adversely correlated with foraminiferal abundance, while TPH was positively correlated. To assess the response of the benthic ecosystem to hydrocarbon pollution, indices such as the Foraminiferal Index of Environmental Impact (FIEI), Exponential (H'bc) index and the Foraminiferal Abnormality Index (FAI) were used as environmental health proxies. FIEI, exp(H'bc) and FAI values show the impact of hydrocarbon pollution to an extent along the northern Chennai coast.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Foraminíferos , Metales Pesados , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Foraminíferos/fisiología , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ecosistema , Cadmio/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , India , Metales Pesados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115788, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223844

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Antidesma acidum Retz, a perennial herb is known for its anti-diabetic potential among the traditional health care providers of the tribal communities of Manipur, India. Scientific validation of the ancient knowledge on traditional use of this plant with the help of modern tools and techniques can promote further research and its use in health care. AIM OF THE STUDY: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disorder and linked with hyperglycemia occurring from insufficiency in insulin secretion, action, or both. The aim of this study was to scientifically validate the traditional myth behind the uses of this plant material against diabetes. More specifically, it was aimed to determine the effect of methanolic extract of A. acidum leaves and/or any of its bioactive phytochemical(s), in enhancing insulin sensitization and subsequently stimulating the insulin signaling cascade of glucose metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol was used for extraction from the leaf powder of A. acidum followed by bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation of most active component. Biological evaluation was performed to determine the glucose uptake ability against insulin resistance in skeletal muscle (L6) cells. To understand the detailed mechanism of actions of the purified compound, several molecular biology and structural biology experiments such as Western blot, siRNA transfection assay and molecular docking study were performed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Bioactivity guided isolation of pure compound and spectral data analysis led us to identify the active component as Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (KOR) for the first time from the leaf of A. acidum. Over expression of NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was observed following KOR treatment. SIRT1 plays an important role in the metabolic pathway and over expression of SIRT implies that it involves in insulin signaling directly or indirectly. Molecular docking and simulation study showed the strong involvement between KOR and SIRT1.Treatment with KOR resulted in significant over expression of SIRT1followed by upregulation of insulin-dependent p-IRS, AKT and AMPK signaling molecules, and stimulation of the GLUT4 translocation, which ultimately enhanced the glucose uptake in sodium palmitate-treated insulin resistant L6 myotubes. Further, the effect of KOR on IRS1, AKT and AMPK phosphorylation, GLUT4 translocation, and glucose uptake was attenuated in SIRT1-knockdown myotubes. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results of this study suggest that Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside is the active component presents in the leaf of A. acidum which increases glucose consumption by inducing SIRT1 activation and consequently improves insulin sensitization. These results may find future applications in drug discovery research against T2DM.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sirtuina 1 , Humanos , Sirtuina 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quempferoles/farmacología , Quempferoles/uso terapéutico , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , India , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Insulina/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 4/metabolismo
5.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136880, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257401

RESUMEN

Groundwater which is an essential source of freshwater for various domestic, agricultural, industrial applications is facing a severe deterioration in quality due to demographic pressure and intense industrial activities. Present study appraises the influence of human induced activities on groundwater quality of Agra-Firozabad industrial belts of Western Uttar Pradesh, Yamuna basin, India. The maximum concentrations of metals and anions found during pre and post monsoon are as follows: Lead 0.302; 0.086, calcium 672; 1260, magnesium 215; 16.8, cadmium 0.0; 0.066, chromium 0.016; 0.005, manganese 0.340; 0.076, nickel 0.044; 0.028, sulfate 514; 286, nitrate 66.7; 3.56 and fluoride 1.17; 2.02 mg/L respectively. Based on results of Water Quality Index, groundwater samples were classified under 'Poor water' category in 34.2% and 52.63% during pre and post-monsoon period, respectively. Accordingly, higher concentrations of bicarbonate and sulfate might have attributed to excess hardness, instrumental in making it unsuitable for industrial usage. However, values of Percent Sodium, Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Magnesium Hazard and Permeability Index signified that groundwater from majority of locations was fit for agricultural use. Health risk assessment studies revealed that children consuming polluted water were affected more as compared to adults. Timely action and strict compliance of regulation is recommended towards groundwater management for defined usage to avert severe health effects and to meet sustainable development goals.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Humanos , Niño , Adulto , Ríos , Magnesio/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Sulfatos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Sodio , India
6.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116453, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274305

RESUMEN

Heavy metals contamination in sediment poses serious threats to bacterial communities that play critical roles in sediment biogeochemical processes. However, the physicochemical factors and the major heavy metals fractions that affect sediment bacterial communities are still unclear. Here, we performed heatmap and redundancy analyses to examine the effects of physico-chemical characteristics and heavy metals fractions on the sediment bacterial community from rivers in the UK (River Tyne and Ouseburn) and India (River Ganga and Yamuna). The results revealed that physicochemical characteristics and heavy metals fractions altered the diversity, richness, and structures of the bacterial community. Moreover, the fractions of Co, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu played significant roles in shaping the bacterial community structure, and physicochemical variables, particularly NH4+-N and NO2--N, also influenced the bacterial diversity and structure. Firmicutes showed strong associations with both physicochemical factors and heavy metals fractions. Chloroflexi and Actinobacteriota can be used as biomarkers for Zn contamination. Overall, our study identified the significance of sediment chemical characteristics and heavy metals fractions in determining the bacterial community structure as well as bioremediation and environmental management of metals contaminated sites.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Ríos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metales Pesados/análisis , India , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , China
7.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116646, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335699

RESUMEN

The transition of the Earth's climate from one zone to another is one of the major causes behind biodiversity loss, rural-urban migration, and increasing food crises. The rising rate of arid-humid zone transition due to climate change has been substantially visible in the last few decades. However, the precise quantification of the climate change-induced rainfall variation on the climate zone transition still remained a challenge. To solve the issue, the Representative Grid Location-Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (RGL-MARS) downscaling algorithm was coupled with the Koppen climate classification scheme to project future changes in various climate zones for the study area. It was observed that the performance of the model was better for the humid clusters compared to the arid clusters. It was noticed that, by the end of the 21st century, the arid region would increase marginally and the humid region would rise by 24.28-36.09% for the western province of India. In contrast, the area of the semi-arid and semi-humid regions would decline for the study area. It was observed that there would be an extensive conversion of semi-humid to humid zone in the peripheral region of the Arabian sea due to the strengthening of land-sea thermal contrast caused by climate change. Similarly, semi-arid to arid zone conversion would also increase due to the inflow of dry air from the Arabian region. The current research would be helpful for the researchers and policymakers to take appropriate measures to reduce the rate of climate zone transition, thereby developing the socioeconomic status of the rural and urban populations.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , India
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159516, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270356

RESUMEN

Eleven potentially toxic metal(loid)s (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), proven source markers of mineral based coal-fired industrial emissions and vehicular exhausts, were analysed using the four steps sequential extraction method to evaluate metal(loid)s concentration, in total and fractions of bioavailable and non-bioavailable for fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate modes. A total of 26-day-wise samples with three replications (total number of samples = 78) were collected in January-December 2019 for each PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban-residential site in India. In both the coarse and fine particulate modes, Pb and Cr have respectively shown the highest and lowest total concentrations of the measured metal(loid)s, indicating the presence of coal-fired power plants and heavy vehicular activities near to study area. In addition, Mn has shown highest bioavailable fraction for both coarse and fine particulate modes. More than 50 % of metal(loid)s concentration, in total to a bioavailable fraction (BAF) were observed in case of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, and Pb of PM2.5. Mn and Zn have shown similar behaviour in the case of coarse particulate mode. Source apportionment of metal(loid)s bioavailable fractions using positive matrix factorization (PMF 5.0) has found three significant sources: crustal and natural dust (30.04 and 39 %), road traffic (49.57 and 20 %), and industrial emission (20.39 and 41 %) for coarse and fine particulate mode, respectively. Cancer risk through the inhalation pathway was high in total concentration but lower in BAF concentration in both age groups (children and adults).


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Metales Pesados , Neoplasias , Niño , Adulto , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Disponibilidad Biológica , Cadmio/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Polvo/análisis , Fraccionamiento Químico , Carbón Mineral/análisis , India , Medición de Riesgo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158634, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089025

RESUMEN

The diversification or decoupling of production chains from China to alternative Asian countries such as India or Indonesia would impact the spatial distribution of anthropogenic emissions, with corresponding economic impacts due to mortality associated with particulate matter exposure. We evaluated these changes using the Community Earth System Model, the Integrated Exposure-Response (IER) model and Willingness To Pay (WTP) method. Significant effects on PM2.5 related mortality and economic cost for these deaths were seen in many East, Southeast and South Asian countries, particularly those immediately downwind of these three countries. Transferring all of export-related manufacturing to Indonesia resulted in significant mortality decreases in China and South Korea by 78k (5 per 100k) and 1k (2 per 100k) respectively, while Indonesia's mortality significantly increased (73.7k; 29 per 100k), as well as India, Pakistan and Nepal. When production was transferred to India, mortality rates in East Asia show similar changes to the Indonesian scenario, while mortalities in India increased dramatically (87.9k; 6 per 100k), and mortalities in many neighbors of India were also severely increased. Nevertheless, the economic costs for PM2.5 related mortality were much smaller than national GDP changes in China (0.9 % of GDP vs. 18.3 % of GDP), India (2.7 % of GDP vs. 84.3 % of GDP) or Indonesia (9.4 % of GDP vs. 337 % of GDP) due to shifting all of export-related production lines from China to India or Indonesia. Morally, part of the benefits of economic activity should be used to compensate the neighboring communities where mortality increases occur.


Asunto(s)
Material Particulado , Indonesia , China , India , Pakistán
10.
Ambio ; 52(1): 242-252, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997988

RESUMEN

Coal combustion is the largest source of power in India at the moment. This combustion also emits trace amounts of hazardous substances such as mercury. Mercury is a global pollutant with the potential for long-range transport and ability to persist in the environment, bioaccumulate and cause toxicity. Controlling emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) is recognized by the Minamata Convention on Mercury as an important step in curbing the harmful effects of mercury to the environment and humans. India has been identified as one of the top emitters of mercury to the atmosphere, and coal combustion contributes to more than half of these emissions. Here, we discuss the current state of regulations on mercury emissions from CFPPs in India, the current information on mercury from CFPP stacks, and the possible way forward. Present data suggest that mercury specific emission control technologies are not required to comply with the regulatory requirements. As such, any reduction in mercury emissions will rely on co-benefits obtained from technologies to control emissions of other pollutants such as flue gas desulphurization, or methods to increase the efficiencies of CFPP such as coal washing. Additional reductions may be made from a business-as-usual scenario if the energy mix of India changes to renewable non-fossil fuel-based energy at an accelerated pace. Quantitative studies assessing the role of such climate change policies on mercury emissions reduction are recommended.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Mercurio , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Centrales Eléctricas , Carbón Mineral/análisis , India
11.
Int J Cancer ; 152(2): 249-258, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852007

RESUMEN

We are reporting (a) updated incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women who did not have colposcopic or histopathological disease at baseline and (b) disease outcomes among women treated for CIN and their follow-up HPV status; in a cohort of women living with HIV (WHIV). The median overall follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR 2.8-4.3). The incidence of any CIN and that of CIN 2 or worse disease was 16.7 and 7.0 per 1000 person-years of observation (PYO), respectively. Compared with women who were HPV negative at baseline, women who cleared HPV infection had 23.95 times increased risk of incident CIN 2 or worse lesions (95% CI 2.40-661.07). Women with persistent HPV infection had 138.18 times increased risk of CIN 2 or worse lesions (95% CI 20.30-3300.22). Complete disease regression was observed in 65.6% of the HPV positive women with high-grade CIN and were treated with thermal ablation but HPV persistence was seen in 44.8% of those with high-grade disease. Among those who did not have any disease at baseline and were also HPV negative, about 87% (95% CI 83.79-89.48) women remained HPV negative during consecutive HPV test/s with the median interval of 3.5 years. Long-term surveillance of WHIV treated for any CIN is necessary for the prevention of cervical cancer among them. Our study provides an early indication that the currently recommended screening interval of 3 to 5 years among WHIV may be extended to at least 5 years among HPV negative women. Increasing the screening interval can be cost saving and improve scalability among WHIV to support WHO's cervical cancer elimination initiative.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/efectos adversos , Papillomaviridae , Estudios de Cohortes , India/epidemiología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1868): 20210437, 2023 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440558

RESUMEN

Helping behaviour is thought to play a major role in the evolution of group-living animals. Yet, it is unclear to what extent human males and human females use the same strategies to secure support. Accordingly, we investigate help-seeking over a 5-year period in relation to gender using data from virtually all adults in two Tamil villages (N = 782). Simulations of network dynamics (i.e. stochastic actor-oriented models) calibrated to these data broadly indicate that women are more inclined than men to create and maintain supportive bonds via multiple mechanisms of cooperation (e.g. reciprocity, kin bias, friend bias, generalized exchange). However, gender-related differences in the simulated dynamics of help-seeking are modest, vary based on structural position (e.g. out-degree), and do not appear to translate to divergence in the observed structure of respondents' egocentric networks. Findings ultimately suggest that men and women in the two villages are similarly social but channel their sociality differently. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cooperation among women: evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives'.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Ayuda , Red Social , Masculino , Adulto , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , India , Factores Sexuales
13.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225388, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1366211

RESUMEN

Genetic and environmental factors are essential in occlusal variations and malocclusion and have been of considerable interest to orthodontists. Studies on twin pairs are one of the most effective methods for investigating genetically determined occlusal variables. Many studies have focused on distances between first molars or between canines but malocclusions can also occur in other regions of the dental arch. Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of the dental arch between pairs of Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) twins from Southern India. Methods: A random sample of 51 twin pairs (12­18years old) participated in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was recorded by facial appearance. The occlusion of the first permanent molars was recorded according to Angle's classification. Study models were prepared to assess dental arch characteristics (i.e., arch form, arch perimeter, arch length; intercanine, intermolar width, and teeth size discrepancy). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The student's t-test (two-tailed, independent) and Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of studied parameters. Results: Angle's Class I molar relation was more commonly observed followed by the Class II molar relationship among twins. The measured dental arch dimensions did not show a statistically significant difference among twin pairs. The ovoid arch form was commonly observed among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. There was a similarity among MZ and DZ twins in the anterior and overall Bolton's ratio. Conclusion: There were similar occurrences of measured parameters among twins, which showed genetic predominance in the expression of measured dental arch traits


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Gemelos Dicigóticos , Gemelos Monocigóticos , Arco Dental/anatomía & histología , India
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18700, 2022 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333399

RESUMEN

Pollinator conservation is a global priority. Efforts are taken to restore pollinators by improving flower resources, a crucial driver of pollinator diversity and population growth. It helped gardening and landscaping supply chains, which introduced lists of bee-friendly plants and bee hotels, yet, desirable results seem distant. One shortcoming of the present schemes is that they lack a cohesive planning for nesting opportunities and nesting provisions for wild solitary bees, the crucial pollinators of crop and wild plants. We tested whether the world's popular ornamental plant, rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.)-a hitherto unlisted bee-friendly plant-can aid in conserving leafcutter bees, which require fresh leaves for constructing nest cells. We surveyed 2360 rose plants in 136 sites in rural and urban places and lowlands and highlands of south (8°N-12°N) and northeastern India (26°N-27°N) for the characteristic notches the bees leave on foraged leaves. We reared brood constructed with rose and non-rose leaves to examine the brood success rate. About a quarter of all the roses surveyed had the notches of leafcutter bees on the leaves. However, the proportion of cut roses varied considerably among sites. Bees used roses much higher in urban areas and lowlands than in rural areas and highlands. The selection of plants was negatively associated with pesticide application. The brood success rate was 100% for the brood that was constructed by the leaves of rose and non-rose plants. Rose flowers do not support bees, but rose leaves indeed do. We recommend rose plants in leafcutter bee conservation and restoration schemes, particularly in urban environment.


Asunto(s)
Flores , Polinización , Abejas , Animales , Plantas , India
15.
Lancet ; 400(10363): 1581, 2022 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335967

Asunto(s)
Etnicidad , Humanos , India
16.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(5&6): 546-553, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348601

RESUMEN

Background & objectives: High mortality has been observed in the cancer population affected with COVID-19 during this pandemic. We undertook this study to determine the characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19 and assessed the factors predicting outcome. Methods: Patients of all age groups with a proven history of malignancy and a recent diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on nasal/nasopharyngeal reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR tests were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were compared between survivors and non-survivors groups, with respect to observed mortality. Results: Between May 11 and August 10, 2020, 134 patients were included from the three centres and observed mortality was 17.1 per cent. The median age was 53 yr (interquartile range 39-61 yr) and thirty four patients (25%) were asymptomatic. Solid tumours accounted for 69.1 per cent and breast cancer was the most common tumour type (20%). One hundred and five patients (70.5%) had received chemotherapy within the past four weeks and 25 patients (19.3%) had neutropenia at presentation. On multivariate analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 7.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-54.00); P=0.033], haemoglobin [OR 6.28 (95% CI 1.07-37.04); P=0.042] neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [OR 12.02 (95% CI 2.08-69.51); P=0.005] and baseline serum albumin [OR 18.52 (95% CI 2.80-122.27); P=0.002], were associated with higher mortality. Recent chemotherapy, haematological tumours type and baseline neutropenia did not affect the outcome. Interpretation & conclusions: Higher mortality in moderate and severe infections was associated with baseline organ dysfunction and elderly age. Significant proportion of patients were asymptomatic and might remain undetected.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Neutropenia , Humanos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , India/epidemiología , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neutropenia/complicaciones
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 71, 2022 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331684

RESUMEN

Forests absorb atmospheric carbon and hence play a vital role in carbon sequestration and climate regulation. Recent research emphasizes developing technology and methods to understand the carbon sequestration potential in various forest ecosystems. Forest stand height estimation is one of the crucial parameters in allometry that estimates forest biomass. An attempt is made in this study to map forest stand height in tropical and sub-tropical forests in India using recently launched spaceborne LiDAR platforms Ice Cloud and Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) and Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI). A geostatistical kriging approach is used to interpolate the forest stand height, and the generated stand height surface is validated using ground truth samples. The results showed that GEDI data performed better with an RMSE of 3.99 m and 2.62 m in tropical forests than the ICESat-2 data, which showed an RMSE of 5.71 m and 5.08 m, respectively. A similar pattern was observed in sub-tropical forests where GEDI modelled stand height outperformed ICESat-2 modelled stand height. This analysis demonstrates the potential of existing spaceborne LiDAR platforms in interpolating forest stand height at different forest types. Also, the research emphasizes the necessity of a high density of LiDAR footprints spread in both across- and along-track directions for accurate interpolation of forest stand height.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Bosques , Biomasa , Carbono/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , India , Árboles , Clima Tropical
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(Suppl 1): 166, 2022 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414960

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health care services express social and structural inequalities, especially for Dalits and women, due to the indignity and discrimination experienced in health care facilities. Jagrutha Mahila Sanghatane (JMS), a grass-roots organization led by neo-literate Dalit women in rural Karnataka in India, adopted a human rights-based social accountability (SA) approach to address discrimination and dignity in accessing maternal health services. This approach integrated community-based evidence with multi-pronged and multi-level accountability processes with their goal of socio-political empowerment. METHODS: The methodological approach is qualitative and uses document analysis, including thematic and content analysis, in-depth group discussions with the campaign leaders, participant observation and interviews with the community health workers. RESULTS: JMS embedded the practice and processes of SA in the politics of empowerment which was central to addressing the structural issues of discrimination and social exclusion faced by Dalit women. The human rights perspective and the pathway of conscientize-organize-struggle provided by the Dalit liberation leader, Dr B. R. Ambedkar, facilitated the organization to conceptualize SA as a process of claiming dignity and justice for Dalit women. Integrating the evidence generation and its deployment into the community campaign cycles, Dalit women could use the accountability process for intensifying mobilization and empowerment. The cumulative impact of the community enquiry relentlessly pursued through the framework of a campaign brought changes in several aspects of primary health care and specific dimensions of maternal health care. Community ownership of the SA process, participation and empowerment were integral to the generation, synthesis and deploying of evidence. Deploying evidence in multiple forms, both horizontally with the communities and vertically with the authorities deepened communities' mobilization and intensified Dalit women's negotiating power with the authorities. The iterative and persistent process of SA provides insights into re-articulating SA beyond the usual recognition of outputs such as report cards into the politics of meaning-making by the mobilized community of the marginalized. The community-based organization posited the SA itself as the process of resistance to structural injustice and as an avenue or their empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: For marginalized communities, the SA process has the potential to be a tool for their empowerment in addressing structural power inequities. For such a repositioning of SA, it is critical to focus not only on the technicality of generating evidence but also on the framework driving such a process, the mode of evidence generation and deployment, and integration into the organizational strategy. Such a process can be equally empowering, efficient in addressing the systemic challenges of increasing marginalized community's access to health care services, and valuable in sustaining those changes. The analysis of the strategies of JMS offers significant insights for researchers and practitioners working on SA and maternal health to re-articulate SA from the point of politics of empowerment of the marginalized communities.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , India , Responsabilidad Social , Salud Materna , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 3): e20201428, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417599

RESUMEN

Based on an extensive analysis of public databases, we provide an overview of the global scientific output and describe the dynamics of the profound changes in the scientific enterprise during the last decades. The analysis included the scientific production of 53 countries over the 1996-2018 period. During this period, the production of articles per year has tripled. There was a strong correlation between the growth of the global gross domestic product and the increase in the number of articles (R2 = 0.973, P<0.001). Six countries showed a robust increment of their scientific production and are currently among the top 20 in the ranking of world scientific production (China, India, South Korea, Brazil, Turkey, and Iran). The mean annual growth rate was about 12.7% for these six countries. The share of the global scientific production of these countries increased from 7% in 1996 to 27.8% in 2018. Conversely, the participation of the 10 most traditional countries has dropped from 73% to 45% during the same period. In conclusion, we believe that our findings may contribute to further studies aiming to evaluate the impact and changes of the scientific endeavor over the next years in light of the forthcoming new world framework.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Brasil , China , Bases de Datos Factuales , India
20.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 72, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382156

RESUMEN

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in India, and little is known about the perception of patients and providers about a package of collaborative quality improvement (C-QIP) strategies consisting of provider-focused electronic health records-decision support system (EHR-DSS), non-physician health workers (NPHW), and patient-facing text messages to enhance the CVD care. Objective: To explore the barriers and enablers of the C-QIP strategy from the perspective of providers, health administrators, patients, and care givers in India. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR) to understand the challenges and facilitators of implementing C-QIP strategy to enhance CVD care in the Indian context. A diverse sample of 38 physicians, 14 non-physician health workers (nurses, pharmacists), 4 health administrators, and 16 patients and their caregivers participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, anonymised, and coded using MAXQDA software. We used the framework method and CFIR domains to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Barriers perceived from providers' and health administrators' perspectives in providing quality CVD care were high patient volume, physician burnout, lack of robust communication or referral system, paucity of electronic health records, lack of patient counsellors, polypharmacy, poor patient adherence to medications, and lack of financial incentives. Low health literacy, high cost of treatment, misinformation bias, and difficulty in maintaining lifestyle changes were barriers from patients' perspectives. The CFIR identified key enablers for the implementation of C-QIP such as standardized treatment protocol, reduced medication errors, improved physician-patient relationships, and enhanced patient self-care through trained and supported NPHW. Barriers included: heterogenous healthcare settings, diverse patient groups and comorbidities, associated costs of care and interoperability, confidentiality, and data privacy issues around the use of EHR-DSS. Conclusion: Strategies to enhance CVD care must be low-cost, culturally acceptable, and integrated into existing care pathways.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Humanos , Prevención Secundaria , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Atención Primaria de Salud , India/epidemiología
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