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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126693, 2022 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396957

RESUMEN

Researchers interested in a paper's statement or aiming to acquire useful information from scientific papers rely heavily on references. Additionally, calculation accuracy is important for ensuring the technical soundness of scientific papers. However, inaccurate citations and calculations are common in scientific literature. A recently published paper in the Journal of Hazardous Materials reported a study on microplastics in groundwater and surface water from coastal south India (Tamil Nadu state) and the heavy metal adsorption capacities of different polymers. In this study, we identified critical calculation errors and incorrect reference citations.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131571, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293571

RESUMEN

Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) is a systematic tool used for an efficient hydraulic structures design, operation and maintenance. An effort is made to study and compare the Linear Log Regression Graphical Method (LLRGM) and Gumbel's Analytical Method (GAM) to assess the future flood magnitude for any given Return Period (RP). Twenty-four years of annual daily peak flood flow value recorded at Vaigai reservoir gauging station between the year 1995 and 2018 was used in the two methods for detailed analysis. The results indicated that the GAM predicts the maximum possible optimum future flood in comparison with the LLRGM. This conclusion was drawn based on the coefficient of determination R2 obtained as 0.8904, which is nearing 1. Based on the analytical method of Gumbel's, the magnitude of frequency factor K has been introduced based on the size of data and coveted RP. The comparative study will provide boon to regulate the storage water to the posterior areas concerning safety and optimum utilization of water for various uses.


Asunto(s)
Inundaciones , Ríos , Predicción , India , Análisis de Regresión
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150424, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560459

RESUMEN

It is well understood that India is largely exposed to different climate extremes including floods, droughts, heat waves, among others. However, the exposure of co-occurrence of these events is still unknown. The present analysis, first study of its kind, provides the projected changeability of five different compound extremes under three different emission scenarios (SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5). These changes are combined with population projection under SSP2, SSP3, and SSP5 scenarios to examine the total exposure in terms of number of persons exposed during 2021-2060 (T1) and 2061-2100 (T2). Here, the outputs from thirteen GCMs are used under CMIP6 experiment. The findings from the study show that all the compound extremes are expected to increase in future under all the emission scenarios being greater in case of SSP5-8.5. The population exposure is highest (2.51- to 4.96-fold as compared to historical) under SSP3-7.0 scenario (2021-2100 i.e., T1 and T2) in case of coincident heat waves and droughts compound extreme. The total exposure in Central Northeast India is projected to be the highest while Hilly Regions are likely to have the lowest exposure in future. The increase in the exposure is mainly contributed from climate change, population growth and their interaction depending on different kinds of compound extremes. The findings would help in devising sustainable policy strategies to climate mitigation and adaptation.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Inundaciones , Sequías , Predicción , India
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113886, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619594

RESUMEN

The conversion of primary forests to cultivation brings a significant change in soil carbon (C) forms. In the foothills of the Eastern Himalayan Region of India (Manipur), such conversions are prevalent. However, little is known about the response of C forms, particularly in deep soil, to land use conversion in the region. We evaluated changes in soil C forms (total organic, inorganic, and pools) and microbiological properties (up to 1.0 m depth) mediated by C when the 45-year-old forest had been cultivated for 18-25 years. The cultivated land uses were tree-based agroforestry (LAF: legumes, NAF: non-legumes), horticultural fruits (WHF: woody, NHF: non-wood, mainly vegetables), and paddy agriculture system (AUS: upland, ALS: lowlands). Forest conversion significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the total carbon (TC) in the surface soil (0.0-0.15 m) from 4.88 % to 3.04-3.93 % in the tree-based land uses (LAF, NAF, and WHF). TC further declined to 2.05-2.81 % under seasonal crops (NHF, AUS, and ALS). Seasonal crop cultivation also caused a higher decline in microbial biomass carbon, soil enzymes, and carbon pools (active and passive) than the tree-based land use with the soil depth. The vertical distribution of C in the soil profile was inconsistent: organic C (including C pools) decreased, while inorganic C increased. The profile TC stock to a depth of 1.0 m in the forest was 358.8 Mg ha-1, of which 81 % were organic C, and 19 % were inorganic C. In comparison with forest soil, total soil C stocks (organic and inorganic) decreased more (-44.1 to -55.1 %) in seasonal crops than in tree-based (-15.4 to -36.3 %) land uses. The degradation index (DI) also confirmed that seasonal crop cultivation caused a larger decline in surface soil quality (DI: -423 % to -623 %) than tree-based land use (DI: -243 % to -317 %). The topsoil (up to 0.45 m) of seasonal crops was more degraded than that of the subsoil (>0.45 m-1.0 m). Forests converted to seasonal cultivation (upland rice and vegetables) caused higher degradation of soil C forms and overall soil health in the Himalayan foothills of northeastern India. We suggest the promotion of Agroforestry based on legumes (Parkia spp.) and woody fruits (mango/citrus/guava) in the uplands to minimize soil C degradation while ensuring nutritional security in the hill agro-ecosystems of the Indian Himalayas.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Suelo , Agricultura , Carbono/análisis , Ecosistema , Bosques , India
5.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 30-37, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375883

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to find the demographic factors associated with the spread of COVID-19 and to suggest a measure for identifying the effectiveness of government policies in controlling COVID-19. The study hypothesizes that the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 patients depends on the urban population, rural population, number of persons older than 50, population density, and poverty rate. A log-linear model is used to test the stated hypothesis, with the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 patients up to period t as a dependent variable and demographic factors as an independent variable. The policy effectiveness indicator is calculated by taking the difference of the COVID rank of the ith state based on the predicted model and the actual COVID rank of the ith state. Our study finds that the urban population significantly impacts the spread of COVID-19. On the other hand, demographic factors such as rural population, density, and age structure do not impact the spread of COVID-19 significantly. Thus, people residing in urban areas face a significant threat of COVID-19 as compared to people in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gobierno , Humanos , India , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 272-278, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468994

RESUMEN

Data pertaining to risk factor analysis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is confounded by the lack of data from an ethnically diverse population. In addition, there is a lack of data for young adults. This study was conducted to assess risk factors predicting COVID-19 severity and mortality in hospitalized young adults. A retrospective observational study was conducted at two centers from China and India on COVID-19 patients aged 20-50 years. Regression analysis to predict adverse outcomes was performed using parameters including age, sex, country of origin, hospitalization duration, comorbidities, lymphocyte count, and National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) score at admission. A total of 420 patients (172 East Asians and 248 South Asians) were included. The predictive model for intensive care unit (ICU) admission with variables NEWS2 Category II and higher, diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, and low lymphocyte counts had an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.930 with a sensitivity of 0.931 and a specificity of 0.784. The predictive model for mortality with NEWS2 Category III, cancer, and decreasing lymphocyte count had an AUC value of 0.883 with a sensitivity of 0.903 and a specificity of 0.701. A combined predictive model with bronchial asthma and low lymphocyte count, in contrast, had an AUC value of 0.768 with a sensitivity of 0.828 and a specificity of 0.719 for NEWS2 score (5 or above) at presentation. NEWS2 supplemented with comorbidity profile and lymphocyte count could help identify hospitalized young adults at risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/etnología , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/fisiopatología , China , Comorbilidad , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Puntuación de Alerta Temprana , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , India , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Recuento de Linfocitos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126734, 2022 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365234

RESUMEN

Industrial and textile dyes are the major source of water pollutants in the Coimbatore Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. The highly stable organic dyes from these industries are being discharged untreated into neighboring rivers, lakes, and ponds. Thus, the present study mainly focused on the preparation of bimetallic nanocomposite (Ag-Sn) through Free-facile Teflon autoclave methodology and their subsequent stimulation has given to the photocatalyst by visible light irradiation. This visible light stimulates and irradiates the photocatalysts from steady state to the excited state and might help in absorption of the nanosized dye materials and organic matter. The nanocomposite was characterized using UV, FTIR, Zeta-sizer, XRD and FE-SEM. These parameters exhibited significant lattice structures with an average size of 127.6 nm. Further the nanocomposite treated samples were tested for water quality parameters like TDS, BOD, COD, heavy metals, sedimentation rate and bacterial population. Likewise, the samples irradiated with visible light for photocatalytic activity exhibited a significant intensity of C/C0 at 0.42 and 0.28. The treated water used for green gram seedling assay exhibited significant growth. Scavengers from Ag-Sn bimetallic nanocomposite plays the major role in dye degradation. The results clearly suggest that Ag-Sn bimetallic nanocomposite can be used for wastewater treatment and the subsequent treated water can be utilized for agriculture purposes.


Asunto(s)
Nanocompuestos , Aguas Residuales , Catálisis , India , Luz
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150255, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818776

RESUMEN

Air quality deterioration due to vehicular emissions in smaller Indian cities and rural areas remains unacknowledged, even though the situation is alarmingly similar to megacities. The resulting lack of knowledge on travel behavior and vehicle characteristics impacts accuracy of emission studies in these regions. This study uses a novel approach and appropriate primary and secondary data sets to allocate vehicular activities (vehicle population and vehicle kilometer travelled) and associated emissions at a high spatial resolution for estimation and dispersion analysis of vehicular exhaust and non-exhaust PM2.5 emission in an Indian urban-rural landscape. The study indicates that using approaches that do not allocate vehicles kilometers travelled to areas of their expected travel results in underestimating the percent share of PM2.5 emissions from rural roads and motorways while overestimating overall PM2.5 emissions. Particulate matter resuspension is the dominant form of PM2.5 emissions from the vehicular sector on all road types, constituting an even higher fraction on rural roads. Two-wheelers contribute a high fraction of PM2.5 emissions (exhaust and non-exhaust combined), followed by heavy commercial vehicles and four-wheelers on urban roads. Light commercial vehicles, especially agricultural tractors dominate these emissions on rural roads. PM2.5 hotspots are prevalent in urban areas, but several rural areas also experience heavy particulate matter concentrations. Thus, vehicle movement incorporation results in more accurate emission estimation, especially in an urban-rural landscape.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150323, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818806

RESUMEN

Access to clean drinking water has been acknowledged as a human right and assessing the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality status plays an important role in proving cleaner and safer water for human consumption. This study evaluated the sources and driving factors of the groundwater facies in the five major river basins (viz. Ajay, Mayurakshi, Kopai, Brahmani and Dwarka) of an agroeconomic semi-arid Indian tract through hydrogeochemical and principal component analyses based on 2200 groundwater samples (Ns = 2200) obtained during the pre- and post-monsoon cycles from 1100 wells (Nw = 1100). The results revealed that minerals weathering, ion/reverse ion exchange, mixing and evaporation processes along with anthropogenic inputs are responsible for the deteriorated groundwater quality of the river basins. The study has considered the cokriging approach that uses geostatistical and multivariate statistical techniques to interpolate a dataset. To determine the spatio-seasonal variabilities of the groundwater facies more accurately, the estimation accuracies of different interpolation techniques viz. inverse distance weighting, kriging/cokriging and splines techniques were compared and kriging/cokriging was found to represent the variability more accurately. Shannon's entropy theory was employed to assess the groundwater quality of the river basins as it eliminates the subjective bias and inherent uncertainties of the groundwater systems. Groundwater in ~37.45-38.42% of the total area was moderate to extremely poor for human consumption where 10.40-12.14%, 9.09-12.40%, 21.18-22.35%, 15.20-19.93% and 6.48-8.80% samples from the Ajay (Nw = 175), Brahmani (Nw = 175), Dwarka (Nw = 180), Kopai (Nw = 350) and Mayurakshi (Nw = 220) river basins exhibited unfit to drink water quality. The sensitivity of the water quality model was analyzed to identify the influences of the individual parameters which revealed that the outcome does not depend solely on one parameter. The study recommends adaptation of the treatment techniques to ensure clean drinking water for the residents. Managed aquifer recharge techniques might also improve the groundwater quality in certain areas.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , India , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua
10.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102471, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562631

RESUMEN

Filariasis is a common parasitic infection in India. It is rare to find neglected cases of Filariasis nowadays. We reported the presence of microfilaria species in the follicular fluid of an egg donor undergoing an ovum pick up procedure. She was a 23-year-old egg donor who underwent stimulation using the GnRH antagonist protocol. Antagonist protocol is one of the standard protocols used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation as a part of the IVF/ICSI(in-vitro fertilization / intracytoplasmic sperm injection) procedure where GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix) is used to suppress the endogenous LH surge. Her baseline investigations were normal, with no significant history suggestive of any worm infestations. During the ovum pickup procedure, follicular fluid revealed the presence of worm-like structures suggestive of larvae of some parasites. The follicular fluid was sent to the microbiology department along with the blood sample to confirm the parasite species. The parasite was found to be the larvae of W. Bancroft. The oocytes were of poor quality and were discarded. The patient was treated with Diethylcarbamazine citrate. There are so many reports about scrotal Filariasis, but rare literature quotes ovarian Filariasis.


Asunto(s)
Filariasis/diagnóstico , Líquido Folicular/parasitología , Microfilarias/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades del Ovario/diagnóstico , Wuchereria bancrofti/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Femenino , Filariasis/parasitología , Humanos , India , Microfilarias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Enfermedades del Ovario/parasitología , Wuchereria bancrofti/crecimiento & desarrollo , Adulto Joven
11.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102477, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619383

RESUMEN

Babesia gibsoni, the causative agent of canine piroplasmosis, is a tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite predominantly reported in Asian countries. The present study aimed at genotypic characterization of B. gibsoni isolates prevalent in dogs in Kerala, a southern state of India. Blood samples were collected from 272 dogs in Kerala and B. gibsoni infection was detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular confirmation of B. gibsoni parasites was carried out by 18S rRNA nested-PCR, followed by sequencing. Nested-PCR detected a higher percentage of dogs (40.44%) positive for B. gibsoni infection than microscopy where 15.81% dogs were detected positive for infection. Genetic characterization of B. gibsoni isolates (n = 11) prevalent in dogs in the state of Kerala was carried out by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 855 bp thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) gene fragment. Phylogenetic analysis of the B. gibsoni TRAP (BgTRAP) gene revealed that B. gibsoni isolates from Kerala formed a distinct cluster with the isolates from north India and Bangladesh, away from other East Asian isolates. Nucleotide analysis of the tandem repeats of BgTRAP gene showed considerable genetic variation among Indian isolates that was shared by B. gibsoni isolates of Bangladesh but not by the isolates of East Asian countries. The results of the present study further confirmed that B. gibsoni parasites in a distinct genetic clade are endemic in dogs in India and Bangladesh. However, elaborate studies are required for better understanding of the genetic diversity of B. gibsoni.


Asunto(s)
Babesia/aislamiento & purificación , Babesiosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Variación Genética , Filogenia , Animales , Babesia/genética , Babesiosis/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , India/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Proteínas Protozoarias/análisis , Trombospondinas/análisis
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 407-412, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491572

RESUMEN

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford University-Astra Zeneca) has demonstrated nearly 70% efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in trials and some real-world studies. The vaccine was the first to be approved in India in early January 2021 and is manufactured by the Serum Institute of India. Favorable short-term safety data of the vaccine in India in a real-world setting has been recently demonstrated. Here, we report secondary objective (COVID-19 occurrence) measures of the same ongoing prospective observational study in prioritized recipients of the vaccine. The findings are based on participants who could complete at least 2 months of follow-up (n = 1500; female/male: 472/1028; mean age: 38.8 years). Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in 27/65 participants (41%) who received a single dose and 271/1435 (19%) who received both doses. Specifically, among doctors, 18/27 (66.7%) one dose recipients and 131/377 (34.7%) fully vaccinated developed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The majority of the cases were mild in all groups, and most were breakthrough infections. The occurrence of "severe" COVID-19 was 7.7 times lower (0.4%) in fully vaccinated participants compared to partially vaccinated (3.1%). Four deaths were observed in the study. One of the four deaths was due to sepsis, two due to unspecified cardiac events, and one due to unspecified post-COVID-19 complications. The results of this preliminary analysis necessitate vigorous research on the performance of vaccines against variants, optimal timing of vaccination, and also optimal timings of effectiveness studies to guide future vaccination policy.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización Secundaria/estadística & datos numéricos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Vacunación
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 303-309, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491594

RESUMEN

Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n = 10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n = 7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Formas Bacterianas Atípicas/aislamiento & purificación , COVID-19/patología , Infecciones por Chlamydophila/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Enfermedad de los Legionarios/epidemiología , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Humanos , India , Legionella pneumophila/aislamiento & purificación , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e051491, 2021 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740930

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of contacts of patients with COVID-19 case in terms of time, place and person, to calculate the secondary attack rate (SAR) and factors associated with COVID-19 infection among contacts. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Contacts of cases identified by the health department from 14 March 2020to 30 May 2020, in 9 of 38 administrative districts of Tamil Nadu. Significant proportion of cases attended a religious congregation. OUTCOME MEASURE: Attack rate among the contacts and factors associated with COVID-19 positivity. RESULTS: We listed 15 702 contacts of 931 primary cases. Of the contacts, 89% (n: 14 002) were tested for COVID-19. The overall SAR was 4% (599/14 002), with higher among the household contacts (13%) than the community contacts (1%). SAR among the contacts of primary cases with congregation exposure were 5 times higher than the contacts of non-congregation primary cases (10% vs 2%). Being a household contact of a primary case with congregation exposure had a fourfold increased risk of getting COVID-19 (relative risk (RR): 16.4; 95% CI: 13 to 20) than contact of primary case without congregation exposure. Among the symptomatic primary cases, household contacts of congregation primaries had higher RR than household contacts of other cases ((RR: 25.3; 95% CI: 10.2 to 63) vs (RR: 14.6; 95% CI: 5.7 to 37.7)). Among asymptomatic primary case, RR was increased among household contacts (RR: 16.5; 95% CI: 13.2 to 20.7) of congregation primaries compared with others. CONCLUSION: Our study showed an increase in disease transmission among household contacts than community contacts. Also, symptomatic primary cases and primary cases with exposure to the congregation had more secondary cases than others.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Incidencia , India/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(11): 773-782, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737470

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess whether improvements in social norms related to iron and folic acid consumption are associated with increased iron and folic acid consumption. Methods: In a cluster randomized trial in Odisha, India, we implemented an intervention to improve descriptive norms (people's perceptions about how many other people take iron and folic acid), injunctive norms (social pressures people feel to take iron and folic acid) and collective norms (actual levels of iron and folic acid consumption). We assessed changes in these norms and self-reported iron and folic acid consumption in control and intervention arms after 6 months (September 2019-February 2020). We collected data from control (n = 2048) and intervention (n = 2060) arms at baseline and follow-up (n = 1966 and n = 1987, respectively). Findings: At follow-up, mean scores in self-reported iron and folic acid consumption in the control arm had decreased from 0.39 to 0.31 (21% decrease; not significant). In the intervention arm, mean scores increased from 0.39 to 1.62 (315% increase; P < 0.001). The difference between the two arms was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Each of the three norms also improved at significantly higher rates in the intervention than in the control arm (P < 0.001 for each norm). Changes in descriptive and collective norms (but not injunctive norms) were associated with changes in self-reported iron and folic acid consumption (P < 0.001 for both norms). Conclusion: Our results show that social norms can be improved and that these improvements are associated with positive behavioural changes. A social norms-based approach may help promote iron and folic acid consumption in India.


Asunto(s)
Hierro , Normas Sociales , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , India
16.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04060, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737860

RESUMEN

Background: Home visits by community health workers are promoted to improve the coverage and uptake of evidence-based newborn services and behaviours. However, evidence on the effectiveness of these home visits delivered through government systems at scale is limited, as is evidence from the post-neonatal period. From 2013 to 2017, the Government of India piloted an intervention called Home Based Newborn Care Plus with the goal of reducing pneumonia- and diarrhoea-related morbidity and malnutrition. Village-based Accredited Social Health Activists were incentivised to make quarterly home visits to infants between three and 12 months of age. After the pilot, the intervention was adapted and scaled up nationally (with an additional visit at 15 months of age) as a new programme called Home Based Care for Young Child. Methods: The study used a quasi-experimental, difference-in-differences method to assess the quantitative impact on key outcome indicators by comparing changes over time in treatment districts with matched control districts. This was supplemented by a quantitative health worker survey and qualitative data collected at worker and community level. Results: The intervention led to a significant increase in the number of home visits, and their content became more aligned with Home Based Newborn Care Plus protocols. However, absolute levels of coverage remained low. The intervention had no detectable effect on the key outcomes of feeding practices, handwashing, iron and folic acid and oral rehydration solution supplementation, growth monitoring, and immunisation. Conclusions: Given the scale up of Home-Based Care for Young Child, there is a need to identify appropriate and comprehensive support for Accredited Social Health Activists to attain high coverage and quality and deliver impact. This will require reconsidering current design elements (such as incentives) and solving the underlying demand side and system level challenges (such as workload and supply chains) constraining Accredited Social Health Activists.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Desnutrición , Niño , Visita Domiciliaria , Humanos , India , Lactante , Salud del Lactante , Recién Nacido
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769722

RESUMEN

COVID-19 remains a matter of global public health concern. Previous research suggested the association between local environmental factors and viral transmission. We present a multivariate observational analysis of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the state of Odisha, India, hinting at a seasonal activity. We aim to investigate the demographic characteristics of COVID-19 in the Indian state of Odisha for two specific timelines in 2020 and 2021. For a comparative outlook, we chose similar datasets from the state of New York, USA. Further, we present a critical analysis pertaining to the effects of environmental factors and the emergence of variants on SARS-CoV-2 transmission and persistence. We assessed the datasets for confirmed cases, death, age, and gender for 29 February 2020 to 31 May 2020, and 1 March 2021 to 31 May 2021. We determined the case fatalities, crude death rates, sex ratio, and incidence rates for both states along with monthly average temperature analysis. A yearlong epi-curve analysis was conducted to depict the coronavirus infection spread pattern in the respective states. The Indian state of Odisha reported a massive 436,455 confirmed cases and 875 deaths during the 2021 timeline as compared to a mere 2223 cases and 7 deaths during the 2020 timeline. We further discuss the demographic and temperature association of SARS-CoV-2 transmission during early 2020 and additionally comment on the variant-associated massive rise in cases during 2021. Along with the rapid rise of variants, the high population density and population behavior seem to be leading causes for the 2021 pandemic, whereas factors such as age group, gender, and average local temperature were prominent during the 2020 spread. A seasonal occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is also observed from the yearlong epidemiological plot. The recent second wave of COVID-19 is a lesson that emphasizes the significance of continuous epidemiological surveillance to predict the relative risk of viral transmission for a specific region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Análisis de Datos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Pandemias
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1210, 2021 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749723

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary Health Centers (PHCs) are crucial in providing primary and secondary level healthcare services in rural India. Despite immense efforts and huge funding, a very small proportion of deliveries are carried out at PHCs. The present study aims to explore the availability of facilities at PHCs and its association with likelihood of delivering the child at PHC. METHODS: We extracted PHC level health infrastructure data from Health Management and Information system (HMIS) and created 'Facility Index' using exploratory factor analysis. We merged the 'Facility Index' with data of the 4th National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) to explore the relationship between availability of facilities and healthcare-seeking behavior. Bivariate analysis and multilevel logistic regressions were employed to analyze the association between Facility Index and the likelihood of delivering the child at PHC. RESULTS: Availability of facilities (Facility Index) was found to be positively associated with utilization of PHC for childbirth but up to only a certain level of Facility Index. Women living in districts with 'good' Facility index were having 2.45 (OR = 2.45; 95% CI: 2.12-2.84) times higher odds of delivering the child at PHC compared to women living in districts with 'very poor' Facility Index; however, the odds ratio decreased to 2.11 (95% CI: 1.83-2.43) for 'Very Good' Facility Index. The regression line and predicted probabilities also exhibited similar results. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings, we conclude that improvement in availability and quality of facilities might help in improving healthcare utilization from PHCs up to a certain level.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Población Rural , Niño , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud
20.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(11): 11-12, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781607

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the total profile of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients in India as type 1 diabetes is not common in India. The present study has been undertaken therefore, in search of mortality pattern of the type 1 diabetics attending the diabetic clinic run by the Calcutta Diabetes and Endocrine Foundation at Kolkata which has a special diabetes care program for the type 1 diabetics. OBJECTIVES: • To obtain the mortality rate of type 1 diabetes in India and to compare it with overall Indian mortality. • To identify the role of different complications of diabetes responsible for the death and thereby, getting a mortality pattern in type 1 diabetes. • To take necessary action for prevention of the complication(s), mainly responsible for the death Study Design and settings: Longitudinal Observational Study: A number of 264 type 1 diabetics attending our clinic were considered for the study. The patients registered in the clinic since April 1996 and had at least one or more follow up visits per year have been included in the study. Follow-up up to 31st March, 2019 have been determined as selection criteria. Out of 264, 212 patients satisfied the criteria and therefore have been included in the study. METHODS OF STUDY: Age, sex, height, weight, educational qualifications, profession, annual family income and number of family members of each patient was recorded in the first visit. Age and year of detection of diabetes was also recorded. Fasting and Post Prandial plasma glucose level, insulin type and dose, daily dietary habit, presence of diabetic complications, i.e. Retinopathy Neuropathy, Nephropathy, Coronary Artery Disease. Life Style and diabetic education status were assessed during first visit and also in successive visits. An average value for each of the above parameters was calculated for every patient and recorded to explain their individual status. Mortality data was collected from the patients expired during this period. RESULTS: 22 (10.38%) out of 212 patients were expired during the study period. 8 (36.36%) of them were males and 14 (63.64%) were females. The age of the expired patients at death varied from 5 to 73 years. 3 ( 13,64% ) patients died within 20 years of age,14 (63.64%) between 21-40 years, 2 ( 9.09% ) between 41 - 60 years and 3 ( 13.63% ) were above 60 years. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) was the cause of death for maximum number of patients (45.45%) followed by Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA, 18.18%),!3.63% died of Coronary Artery Disease, 9.09% of infections (pneumonia, encephalitis). Accidental and psycho-social reasons were present in 13.63%. CONCLUSION: In this observational study, the total number of death observed was 22 out of 212 type 1 diabetic patients in this 22 years' period.CKD is the leading cause of death in this cohort, followed by DKA, Infection, and Coronary Artery Disease. Infection and DKA was found in the poor socio economic group. Some patients died of accident and other psycho social problem in the family. A regular communication with the patients made a lot of positive influence in our patients.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones de la Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Cetoacidosis Diabética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
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