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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24000, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545993

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The performance of scoring systems for risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) was not validated well in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the risk scoring systems predict vascular outcomes in stroke patients with AF.Data were obtained from a nationwide multicenter registry for acute stroke with AF from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015. We investigated the predictive power of the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, ATRIA, and Essen stroke scores in stroke patients with AF. The subjects were further stratified into groups according to treatment with or without oral anticoagulants (OACs).A total of 3112 stroke with AF subjects were included. The rate of recurrent ischemic stroke and any stroke were not associated with the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, ATRIA, and Essen stroke risk scores. The risks of death and major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events (MACEs) increased sequentially with the increase of each risk score in OAC group. (the range of C-index 0.544-0.558 for recurrent ischemic stroke; 0.523-0.537 for any stroke; 0.580-0.597 for death; 0.564-0.583 for MACEs). However, in the group treated with OACs, all risk scores were significantly associated with the risk of MACEs. The C-statistics of the 4 scoring systems were 0.544 to 0.558, 0.523 to 0.537, 0.580 to 0.597, 0.564 to 0.583, respectively, for recurrent ischemic stroke, any stroke, death, and MACEs.The performance of the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, ATRIA, and Essen stroke risk scores for the prediction of recurrent stroke was unsatisfactory in stroke patients with AF whereas the performance for the prediction of recurrent stroke was not MACEs or death was good. A new risk stratification scheme that is specific for secondary stroke prevention in the AF population is needed.


Asunto(s)
Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Indicadores de Salud , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Sistema de Registros , República de Corea/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología
3.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(2): 256-263, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390029

RESUMEN

AIMS: Surgical treatment of hip fracture is challenging; the bone is porotic and fixation failure can be catastrophic. Novel implants are available which may yield superior clinical outcomes. This study compared the clinical effectiveness of the novel X-Bolt Hip System (XHS) with the sliding hip screw (SHS) for the treatment of fragility hip fractures. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, superiority, randomized controlled trial. Patients aged 60 years and older with a trochanteric hip fracture were recruited in ten acute UK NHS hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated to fixation of their fracture with XHS or SHS. A total of 1,128 participants were randomized with 564 participants allocated to each group. Participants and outcome assessors were blind to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the EuroQol five-dimension five-level health status (EQ-5D-5L) utility at four months. The minimum clinically important difference in utility was pre-specified at 0.075. Secondary outcomes were EQ-5D-5L utility at 12 months, mortality, residential status, mobility, revision surgery, and radiological measures. RESULTS: Overall, 437 and 443 participants were analyzed in the primary intention-to-treat analysis in XHS and SHS treatment groups respectively. There was a mean difference of 0.029 in adjusted utility index in favour of XHS with no evidence of a difference between treatment groups (95% confidence interval -0.013 to 0.070; p = 0.175). There was no evidence of any differences between treatment groups in any of the secondary outcomes. The pattern and overall risk of adverse events associated with both treatments was similar. CONCLUSION: Any difference in four-month health-related quality of life between the XHS and SHS is small and not clinically important. There was no evidence of a difference in the safety profile of the two treatments; both were associated with lower risks of revision surgery than previously reported. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(2):256-263.


Asunto(s)
Placas Óseas , Tornillos Óseos , Fijación Intramedular de Fracturas/instrumentación , Fracturas de Cadera/cirugía , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Fijación Intramedular de Fracturas/métodos , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111277, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927161

RESUMEN

In recent years, an elevated concentration of nitrate in groundwater has been a growing problem on a global scale. It directly shows the adverse effects on human health via various intake pathways. Herein, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the nitrate concentration in groundwater and its associated human health risk in various age groups (females, males and children) in the investigated region. For this purposes, thirty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed physico-chemical parameters including nitrate concentration. The results showed that, the concentration of nitrate ranges from 14 to 82 mg/L and about 43.3% of these groundwater samples beyond the safe level of 45 mg/L according to Indian guidelines. The higher nitrate contamination is observed in the vicinity of Sarvepalli and Timmapur villages where groundwater chemistry is majorly influenced by anthropogenic sources. Health risks were assessed through oral/ingestion and dermal contact exposure routes for females, males and children population in the study region. Oral exposure was much higher than dermal contacts. For the non-carcinogenic risk, the HITotal values of groundwater in the investigated region varied from 0.313 to 1.976 (mean of 0.941) for males, 0.370 to 2.336 (mean of 1.112) for females and 0.443 to 2.694 (mean of 1.314) for children. The health risk assessment for nitrate divulged that 60%, 57% and 50% of groundwater samples pose a non-carcinogenic health risk for children, females and males, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Nitratos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Agua Subterránea , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , India , Óxidos de Nitrógeno , Medición de Riesgo
5.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(1): 69-78, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369723

RESUMEN

The HEART score is used to effectively risk stratify undifferentiated chest pain patients in the Emergency Department (ED). It is unclear whether such risk stratification can be applied among ED high utilizers. We aim to determine the efficacy and safety of using the HEART score to predict 30-day short-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in ED high utilizers. We conducted a retrospective, observational study in which ED high utilizers were defined as patients who had four or more ED visits within the past 12 months. ED high utilizers presenting at the study ED with chest pain were enrolled. Patients in which the HEART score was utilized were placed in the HEART group and patients with no HEART scores documented were placed to the usual care group. Hospital admissions and cardiac stress tests performed during the index hospitalizations, and 30-day MACE rates were analyzed and compared between the HEART and usual care groups. From January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019, a total of 8,315 patient visits from ED high utilizers were enrolled. In the HEART group, 49% of ED visits were admitted with 20% receiving stress tests. A 30-day MACE outcome occurred among 1.4% of visits. In the usual care group, 44% of ED visits were admitted, with only 9% receiving index stress tests and a 1.5% of 30-day MACE occurrence (p=0.727). The study showed that similar short-term MACE outcomes occurred between patients using HEART scores and usual care to risk stratify chest pain among ED high utilizers.


Asunto(s)
Angina de Pecho/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Indicadores de Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Adulto , Angina de Pecho/etiología , Angina de Pecho/terapia , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Femenino , Pruebas de Función Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Admisión del Paciente , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
6.
J Surg Res ; 257: 326-332, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889331

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Elderly (65 and older) fall-related injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although frailty predicts poor outcomes in geriatric trauma, literature comparing frailty scoring systems remains limited. Herein, we evaluated which frailty scoring system best predicts falls over time in the elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute surgical patients 65 y and older were enrolled and prospectively observed. Demographics and frailty, assessed using the FRAIL Scale, Trauma Specific Frailty Index (TSFI), and Canadian Frailty Scale (CSHA-CFS), were collected at enrollment and 3 mo intervals following discharge for 1 y. Surveys queried the total number and timing of falls. Changes in frailty over time were assessed by logistic regression and area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled. FRAIL Scale and CSHA-CFS scores did not change over time, but TSFI scores did (P ≤ 0.01). Worsening frailty was observed using TSFI at 6 (P ≤ 0.01) and 12 mo (P ≤ 0.01) relative to baseline. Mortality did not differ based on frailty using any frailty score. Increasing frailty scores and time postdischarge was associated with increased odds of a fall. AUC estimates with 95% CI were 0.72 [0.64, 0.80], 0.81 [0.74, 0.88], and 0.76 [0.68, 0.84] for the FRAIL Scale, TSFI, and CSHA-CFS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of falls postdischarge were associated with increased age, time postdischarge, and frailty in our population. No scale appeared to significantly outperform the other by AUC estimation. Further study on the longitudinal effects of frailty is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Fragilidad , Indicadores de Salud , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(1): 107-122, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112262

RESUMEN

Objective: Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infected men. The relationship between health status, sex steroids and body composition is poorly known in HIV. The aim was to investigate the association between health status (comorbidities/frailty), body composition, and gonadal function in young-to-middle-aged HIV-infected men. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: HIV-infected men aged <50 years and ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy were enrolled. Serum total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, LH and FSH by immunoassay. Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated by Vermeulen equation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scan. Multimorbidity (MM) and frailty were defined as ≥3 comorbidities and by a 37-item index, respectively. Results: A total of 316 HIV-infected men aged 45.3 ± 5.3 years were enrolled. Body fat parameters were inversely related to cFT and TT, and directly related to E1 and E2/testosterone (TS) ratio. Patients with MM had lower cFT (P < 0.0001) and TT (P = 0.036), and higher E1 (P < 0.0001) and E2/TS ratio (P = 0.002). Frailty was inversely related to cFT (R2 = 0.057, P < 0.0001) and TT (R2 = 0.013, P = 0.043), and directly related to E1 (R2 = 0.171, P < 0.0001), E2 (R2 = 0.041, P = 0.004) and E2/TS ratio (R2 = 0.104, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Lower TT and cFT, higher E1, E2/TS ratio and visceral fat were independently associated to poor health status and frailty, being possible hallmarks of unhealthy conditions in adult HIV-infected men. Overall, MM, frailty and body fat mass are strictly associated to each other and to sex steroids, concurring together to functional male hypogonadism in HIV.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo , Estrona/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/fisiopatología , Hipogonadismo/fisiopatología , Testosterona/sangre , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Composición Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Fragilidad/fisiopatología , Fragilidad/virología , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Estado de Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Multimorbilidad , Estudios Prospectivos
8.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003474, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320852

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Very few studies have explored the patterns of cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics in midlife and late life in relation to risk of dementia. We examined the associations of composite CVH metrics from midlife to late life with risk of incident dementia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cohort study included 1,449 participants from the Finnish Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) study, who were followed from midlife (baseline from1972 to 1987; mean age 50.4 years; 62.1% female) to late life (1998), and then 744 dementia-free survivors were followed further into late life (2005 to 2008). We defined and scored global CVH metrics based on 6 of the 7 components (i.e., smoking, physical activity, and body mass index [BMI] as behavioral CVH metrics; fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure as biological CVH metrics) following the modified American Heart Association (AHA)'s recommendations. Then, the composite global, behavioral, and biological CVH metrics were categorized into poor, intermediate, and ideal levels. Dementia was diagnosed following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards and the Fine and Gray competing risk regression models. During the follow-up examinations, dementia was diagnosed in 61 persons in 1998 and additional 47 persons in 2005 to 2008. The fully adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of dementia was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43, 1.16; p = 0.174) and 0.52 (0.29, 0.93; p = 0.027) for midlife intermediate and ideal levels (versus poor level) of global CVH metrics, respectively; the corresponding figures for late-life global CVH metrics were 0.60 (0.22, 1.69; p = 0.338) and 0.91 (0.34, 2.41; p = 0.850). Compared with poor global CVH metrics in both midlife and late life, the fully adjusted HR of dementia was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.86; p = 0.028) for people with intermediate global CVH metrics in both midlife and late life and 0.14 (0.02, 0.76; p = 0.024) for those with midlife ideal and late-life intermediate global CVH metrics. Having an intermediate or ideal level of behavioral CVH in both midlife and late life (versus poor level in both midlife and late life) was significantly associated with a lower dementia risk (HR range: 0.03 to 0.26; p < 0.05), whereas people with midlife intermediate and late-life ideal biological CVH metrics had a significantly increased risk of dementia (p = 0.031). Major limitations of this study include the lack of data on diet and midlife plasma glucose, high rate of attrition, as well as the limited power for certain subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that having the ideal CVH metrics, and ideal behavioral CVH metrics in particular, from midlife onwards is associated with a reduced risk of dementia as compared with people having poor CVH metrics. Maintaining life-long health behaviors may be crucial to reduce late-life risk of dementia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Demencia/epidemiología , Indicadores de Salud , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Comorbilidad , Demencia/diagnóstico , Femenino , Finlandia/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
9.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53115

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Presentar una metodología para la formulación simultánea de metas cuantitativas que reflejen tanto la mejoría del promedio nacional de un indicador del tercer Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS3) como la reducción de su desigualdad geográfica. Métodos. Se definió un algoritmo en cinco pasos: a) cálculo del cambio porcentual anual promedio (CPAP) nacional para un indicador del ODS3; b) definición normativa de estratos geográficos a partir de la distribución subnacional del indicador en un año base; c) aplicación de un criterio de progresividad proporcional del CPAP para proyectar el indicador estrato-específico al año meta; d) establecimiento de la meta nacional como el promedio ponderado del indicador en las unidades territoriales subnacionales al año meta; y e) formulación de metas de reducción de desigualdad mediante el cálculo de las brechas absoluta y relativa entre los estratos extremos al año meta. Resultados. Se aplicó el algoritmo al indicador ODS 3.1.1 (razón de mortalidad materna, RMM), desagregado por los 22 departamentos de Guatemala para el año base 2014 (RMM = 113 por 100 000 nacidos vivos). Sosteniendo la intensidad promedio de CPAP observada entre 2009 y 2014 (−4,3%) y focalizando sus acciones con progresividad territorial, el país reduciría al 2030 su RMM a 53 por 100 000 nacidos vivos y sus brechas absoluta y relativa en 72% y 48%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La metodología propuesta permite formular simultáneamente metas de reducción de las desigualdades geográficas en salud y hacer explícita la primacía del principio de equidad expresado en el compromiso de no dejar a nadie atrás que identifica a los ODS, cuya urgencia cobra renovada relevancia en el escenario pospandémico actual.


[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. Present methodology for the concurrent development of quantitative targets that reflect improvement in the national average of an indicator for Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3), as well as a reduction in geographic inequality. Methods. A five-step algorithm was developed: a) calculate the national average annual percentage change (AAPC) for an SDG3 indicator; b) standardize the definition of geographic strata based on subnational distribution of the indicator in a base year; c) apply a criterion for proportional progress in the AAPC in order to project the stratum-specific indicator to the target year; d) set the national target as the weighted average of the indicator in the subnational territorial units for the target year; and e) develop inequality reduction targets by calculating absolute and relative gaps between the top and bottom strata for the target year. Results. The algorithm was applied to SDG indicator 3.1.1 (maternal mortality ratio, MMR), disaggregated by Guatemala’s 22 departments for base year 2014 (MMR = 113/100,000 live births). By sustaining the average AAPC rate attained from 2009 to 2014 (-4.3%) and targeting its actions to territorial progress, the country would reduce its MMR to 53/100,000 by 2030 and its absolute and relative gaps by 72% and 48%, respectively. Conclusions. The proposed methodology makes it possible to concurrently develop targets for the reduction of geographic inequalities in health and improvements in the national average, with explicit reference to the primacy of the principle of equity expressed in the SDGs’ commitment to leaving no one behind, whose urgency is newly important in the current post-pandemic scenario.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Apresentar uma metodologia para a formulação simultânea de metas quantitativas que reflitam tanto a melhoria da média nacional de um indicador do terceiro Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS3) quanto a redução das desigualdades geográfica nesse indicador. Métodos. Estabelecemos um algoritmo em cinco etapas: (a) cálculo da variação percentual anual média (VPAM) em um país para um indicador do ODS3, (b) definição normativa de estratos geográficos a partir da distribuição subnacional do indicador em um ano base, (c) aplicação de um critério de progressividade proporcional da VPAM para projetar o indicador específico do estrato para o ano base, (d) estabelecimento da meta nacional como a média ponderada do indicador nas unidades territoriais subnacionais para o ano alvo e (e) estabelecimento de metas para a redução das desigualdades calculando a disparidade absoluta e relativa entre os estratos extremos para o ano alvo. Resultados. Aplicamos o algoritmo ao indicador ODS 3.1.1 (razão de mortalidade materna, RMM), desagregado pelos 22 departamentos da Guatemala para o ano base de 2014 (RMM = 113 por 100.000 nascidos vivos). Se mantiver a intensidade média da VPAM observada entre 2009 e 2014 (-4,3%) e concentrar as suas ações com progressividade territorial, o país reduzirá, até 2030, a sua RMM para 53 por 100.000 e sua disparidade absoluta e relativa em 72% e 48%, respectivamente. Conclusões. A metodologia proposta permite formular simultaneamente metas para a redução das desigualdades geográficas em saúde e explicitar a primazia do princípio da equidade expresso no compromisso de não deixar ninguém para trás consagrado nos ODS, cuja urgência assume uma relevância renovada no atual cenário pós-pandêmico.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Equidad en Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Mortalidad Materna , Guatemala , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Desarrollo Sostenible , Equidad en Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Mortalidad Materna , Desarrollo Sostenible , Equidad en Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Mortalidad Materna
10.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 83-96, jul.-dez. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1125733

RESUMEN

Este estudo descritivo exploratório investigou a prevalência de Prática de Atividades Prazerosas (PAP), bem-estar Subjetivo (BES), Depressão e Solidão em 59 idosos provenientes de grupos de convivência. Foram aplicados: Questionário Sociodemográfico, Escal a de Atividades Instrumentais da Vida Diária de Pfeffer, Escala de Afetos Negativos e Positivos, Escala de Satisfação com a Vida, Escala de Depressão Geriátrica - versão reduzida, Escala Brasileira de Solidão e OPPES-BR. Os idosos da amostra eram majoritar iamente mulheres, jovens idosos, viúvos, escolarizados, com bom estado funcional e que avaliavam sua saúde de forma positiva. A amostra apresentou médias altas para PAP e BES e médias baixas para solidão e depressão. Grupos de convivência favorecem a saúde mental de idosos e contribuem para o envelhecimento bem-sucedido, uma vez que esses espaços fornecem oportunidades de suporte social, engajamento em atividades prazerosas e experiência de sentimentos positivos.


This descriptive and exploratory study investigated the prevalence of Involvement in Pleasant Events, Subjective Well-Being, Depression, and Loneliness in 59 elderly from social groups without apparent cognitive impairment. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Pfeffer Index, the Negative and Positive Affect Scale, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale - reduced version, the Brazilian Loneliness Scale, and OPPES-BR were applied. The elderly were mostly women, young, widowed, educated, with a good functional state, and with a positive health evaluation. Participants showed high levels of Involvement in Pleasant Events and Subjective Well Being, and low levels of loneliness and depression. Social groups provide opportunities for social support, engagement in pleasant events, positive emotions and may contribute to the elderly's mental health and successful aging.


Este estudio exploratorio descriptivo investigó la prevalencia de la práctica de actividad placentera (PAP), el bienestar subjetivo (BES), la depresión y la soledad en 59 personas mayores proveniente de grupos sociales. Se aplicaron el Cuestionario sociodemográfico, la Escala de actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria de Pfeffer, la Escala de afectos negativos y positivos, la Escala de satisfacción con la vida, la Escala de depresión geriátrica - versión reducida, la Escala de soledad brasileña y OPPES-BR. Los ancianos de la muestra eran en su mayoría mujeres, ancianos más jóvenes, viudos, escolarizados, con buen estado funcional y que evaluaron positivamente su salud. En general, los ancianos tenían altas tasas de PAP y BES y bajas tasas de soledad y depresión. Los grupos sociales favorecen la salud mental de las personas mayores y contribuyen al envejecimiento exitoso, ya que estos espacios traen oportunidades de apoyo social, participación en actividades placenteras y experiencia de sentimientos positivos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Satisfacción Personal , Apoyo Social , Evaluación en Salud , Envejecimiento , Indicadores de Salud , Viudez , Afecto , Depresión , Disfunción Cognitiva , Promoción de la Salud , Actividades Recreativas , Soledad
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): 399-404, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146064

RESUMEN

Introducción. La detección temprana del deterioro clínico en pacientes internados posibilita mejorar la calidad de atención médica. Las escalas Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) predicen este deterioro dentro de las primeras 24 h de aplicadas. Estudios previos avalan estas herramientas.Objetivo. Evaluar la utilidad de la escala B-PEWS(Brighton PEWS) para predecir el deterioro clínico en niños internados, en un hospital pediátrico de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.Población y métodos. Diseño de corte transversal. Incluyó todas las historias clínicas de pacientes de 1 mes a 18 años hospitalizados en áreas de hospitalización indiferenciada, desde el 1 de marzo al 31 de agosto de 2018. Variable de predicción: valor de B-PEWS (≤ 3 y ≥ 4 puntos). Variable de resultado: deterioro clínico dentro de las 24 horas. Análisis de variables categóricas mediante prueba de chi2 y cálculo de valores de clivaje. Como medida de asociación, se usó riesgo relativo. Se realizó análisis de curva ROCy análisis de punto óptimo mediante índice de Youden, tomando la escala de manera continua.Resultados. Se analizaron 518 historias clínicas. Cuarenta pacientes presentaron deterioro clínico; 37 con B-PEWS ≥ 4, y 3 con B-PEWS ≤ 3 (RR 56,36; IC 95 %: 17,76-178,89; p < 0,01). Sensibilidad: el 92,5 %; especificidad: el 88,3 %; valor predictivo positivo: el 39,8 %; negativo: el 99,3 %; razón de verosimilitud positiva: 7,91; razón de verosimilitud negativa: 0,08. AUC: 0,94 (IC 95 %: 0,89-0,98).Conclusión. La escala B-PEWS demostró ser útil para predecir el deterioro clínico en niños hospitalizados


Introduction. The early detection of clinical deterioration in hospitalized patients helps to improve the quality of care. The pediatric early warning score (PEWS) system predicts such deterioration in the first 24 hours of administration. Prior studies support the use of these tools.Objective. To assess the usefulness of the Brighton PEWS (B-PEWS) for the prediction of clinical deterioration among hospitalized children at a children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.Population and methods. Cross-sectional study. The medical records of all patients aged 1 month to 18 years admitted to any hospitalization ward between March 1st and August 31st, 2018 were included. Predictive outcome measure: B-PEWS score (≤ 3 and ≥ 4 points). Outcome variable: clinical deterioration in the first 24 hours. Categorical outcome measures were analyzed with the χ² test and screening values were estimated. The relative risk was used as a measure of association. A ROC curve analysis and an optimal cut-point analysis according to the Youden index were done considering the score in a continuous manner.Results. A total of 518 medical records were reviewed. Forty patients had clinical deterioration; the B-PEWS score was ≥ 4 in 37 patients and ≤ 3 in 3 (relative risk: 56.36; 95 % confidence interval: 17.76-178.89; p < 0.01). Sensitivity: 92.5 %; specificity: 88.3 %; positive predictive value: 39.8 %; negative predictive value: 99.3 %; positive likelihood ratio: 7.91; negative likelihood ratio: 0.08. AUC:0.94 (95 % confidence interval: 0.89-0.98).Conclusion. The B-PEWS demonstrated to be useful to predict clinical deterioration in hospitalized children.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Deterioro Clínico , Puntuación de Alerta Temprana , Niño Hospitalizado , Estudios Transversales , Indicadores de Salud
12.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 970-982, out.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145573

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a utilização dos Sistemas de Informação em Saúde para a construção da sala de situação na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa realizada por meio de busca de artigos na íntegra, nas bases de dados BDENF, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, PubMed e Cochrane. Foram analisados sete artigos, os quais foram apresentados em três categorias. Os sistemas de informação apoiam a sala de situação na coleta, no processamento e na divulgação de resultados, na análise e na comparação de indicadores, no planejamento, na gestão e na avaliação em saúde. Por fim, percebeu-se que os sistemas de informação contribuem para a construção da sala de situação subsidiando a atuação da gestão local na formação de indicadores de saúde e na implementação de ações.


The aim of this study was to analyze the use of Health Information Systems in the construction of the situation room in Primary Health Care. This is an integrative review performed by searching full articles in the BDENF, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, PubMed and Cochrane databases. Seven articles were analyzed and presented in three categories. Information systems support the situation room in the collection, processing and dissemination of results, in the analysis and comparison of indicators, and in the health planning, management and evaluation. In the end, we realized that information systems contribute to the construction of the situation room, supporting local management actions in the establishment of health indicators and the implementation of actions.


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el uso de los Sistemas de Información de Salud en la construcción de la sala de situación en Atención Primaria de Salud. Esta es una revisión integradora realizada mediante la búsqueda de artículos completos en las bases de datos BDENF, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, PubMed y Cochrane. Siete artículos fueron analizados y presentados en tres categorías. Los sistemas de información apoyan la sala de situación en la recolección, lo procesamiento y la difusión de resultados, en la análisis y la comparación de indicadores, y en la planificación, gestión y evaluación de la salud. Finalmente, se dio cuenta de que los sistemas de información contribuyen a la construcción de la sala de situación, apoyando las acciones de gestión local en lo establecimiento de indicadores de salud y la implementación de acciones.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación en Salud , Diagnóstico de la Situación de Salud , Gestión en Salud , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Control Social Formal , Sistema Único de Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Personal de Salud , Gestión de la Información en Salud
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e042750, 2020 11 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177146

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic is a global threat. This elicits questions on the level of preparedness and capacity of health systems to respond to emergencies relative to other parts of the world. METHODS: This cross-sectional study uses publicly available core health data for 53 African countries to determine risk factors for cumulative COVID-19 deaths and cases per million in all countries in the continent. Descriptive statistics were determined for the indicators, and a negative binomial regression was used for modelling the risk factors. RESULTS: In sub-Saharan Africa, an increase in the number of nursing and midwifery personnel decreased the risk of COVID-19 deaths (p=0.0178), while a unit increase in universal healthcare (UHC) index of service coverage and prevalence of insufficient physical activity among adults increased the risk of COVID-19 deaths (p=0.0432 and p=0.0127). An increase in the proportion of infants initiating breast feeding reduced the number of cases per million (p<0.0001), while an increase in higher healthy life expectancy at birth increased the number of cases per million (p=0.0340). CONCLUSION: Despite its limited resources, Africa's preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic can be improved by identifying and addressing specific gaps in the funding of health services delivery. These gaps impact negatively on service delivery in Africa, which requires more nursing personnel and increased UHC coverage to mitigate the effects of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Indicadores de Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Esperanza de Vida , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Atención de Salud Universal , África/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Partería , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/provisión & distribución , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e043560, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148769

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the COVID-19 case-fatality rate (CFR) globally. DESIGN: Publicly available register-based ecological study. SETTING: Two hundred and nine countries/territories in the world. PARTICIPANTS: Aggregated data including 10 445 656 confirmed COVID-19 cases. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 CFR and crude cause-specific death rate were calculated using country-level data from the Our World in Data website. RESULTS: The average of country/territory-specific COVID-19 CFR is about 2%-3% worldwide and higher than previously reported at 0.7%-1.3%. A doubling in size of a population is associated with a 0.48% (95% CI 0.25% to 0.70%) increase in COVID-19 CFR, and a doubling in the proportion of female smokers is associated with a 0.55% (95% CI 0.09% to 1.02%) increase in COVID-19 CFR. The open testing policies are associated with a 2.23% (95% CI 0.21% to 4.25%) decrease in CFR. The strictness of anti-COVID-19 measures was not statistically significantly associated with CFR overall, but the higher Stringency Index was associated with higher CFR in higher-income countries with active testing policies (regression coefficient beta=0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.27). Inverse associations were found between cardiovascular disease death rate and diabetes prevalence and CFR. CONCLUSION: The association between population size and COVID-19 CFR may imply the healthcare strain and lower treatment efficiency in countries with large populations. The observed association between smoking in women and COVID-19 CFR might be due to the finding that the proportion of female smokers reflected broadly the income level of a country. When testing is warranted and healthcare resources are sufficient, strict quarantine and/or lockdown measures might result in excess deaths in underprivileged populations. Spatial dependence and temporal trends in the data should be taken into account in global joint strategy and/or policy making against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Producto Interno Bruto/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Densidad de Población , Regresión Espacial , Distribución por Edad , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Política de Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida , Mortalidad , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial
15.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1519-1526, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135448

RESUMEN

AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the postoperative Oxford Knee Score (OKS) demonstrated a ceiling effect at one and/or two years after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The secondary aim was to identify preoperative independent predictors for patients that achieved a ceiling score after TKA. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 5,857 patients undergoing a primary TKA were identified from an established arthroplasty database. Patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), OKS, and EuroQoL five-dimension (EQ-5D) general health scores were collected preoperatively and at one and two years postoperatively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent preoperative predictors of patients achieving postoperative ceiling scores. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify a preoperative OKS that predicted a postoperative ceiling score. RESULTS: The ceiling effect was 4.6% (n = 272) at one year which increased significantly (odds ratio (OR) 40.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 30.4 to 53.3; p < 0.001) to 6.2% (n = 363) at two years, when defined as those with a maximal score of 48 points. However, when the ceiling effect was defined as an OKS of 44 points or more, this increased to 26.3% (n = 1,540) at one year and further to 29.8% (n = 1,748) at two years (OR 21.6, 95% CI 18.7 to 25.1; p < 0.001). A preoperative OKS of 23 or more and 22 or more were predictive of achieving a postoperative ceiling OKS at one and two years when defined as a maximal score or a score of 44 or more, respectively. CONCLUSION: The postoperative OKS demonstrated a small ceiling effect when defined by a maximal score, but when defined by a postoperative OKS of 44 or more the ceiling effect was moderate and failed to meet standards. The preoperative OKS was an independent predictor of achieving a ceiling score. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1519-1526.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla , Indicadores de Salud , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/cirugía , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(9): 602-610, nov. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197342

RESUMEN

La medición de la densidad mineral ósea mediante la absorciometría radiológica de doble energía es la técnica de elección para la valoración ósea y un predictor importante del riesgo de fractura. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las fracturas por fragilidad ocurren en personas sin osteoporosis densitométrica, especialmente en enfermedades endocrinológicas. Las herramientas para la estimación del riesgo de fracturas como FRAX han mejorado la sensibilidad diagnóstica aunque no consideran otras características óseas adicionales. La investigación de la microarquitectura ósea supone una mejoría en el abordaje de estos pacientes. En este documento elaborado por miembros del grupo de trabajo de Metabolismo Mineral y Óseo de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición se revisan los nuevos avances en absorciometría radiológica de doble energía y otras técnicas más complejas para el estudio de la microarquitectura ósea así como los datos disponibles en diabetes tipo 2 y patología paratiroidea


Bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is the gold standard for the assessment of bone and an important predictor of fracture risk. However, most fragility fractures occur in people without densitometric osteoporosis, especially in endocrinological diseases. Fracture risk estimation tools such as FRAX have improved diagnostic sensitivity but do not include additional skeletal features. Bone microarchitecture research represents an improvement in the treatment of these patients. In this document members of the Mineral and Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition review new advances in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and other complex techniques for the study of bone microarchitecture as well as the available data on type 2 diabetes and parathyroid pathology


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteogénesis Imperfecta/diagnóstico , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica/métodos , Indicadores de Salud , Densidad Ósea , Absorciometría de Fotón , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Hiperparatiroidismo Primario/diagnóstico , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Chron Respir Dis ; 17: 1479973120962800, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000648

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID pandemic has had a high psychological impact on healthy populations. Increased levels of perceived stress, depression, and insomnia are expected, especially in people with pre-existing medical conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who seem to be particularly vulnerable. However, the difference in psychological distress frequency between asthma and COPD patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of depression, perceived stress related to COVID, post-traumatic stress, and insomnia in asthma and COPD patients at a pulmonology clinic in Santa Marta, Colombia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed. The patients were contacted by telephone. An electronic link was sent to those who accepted. The questionnaire asked for perceived stress related to COVID-19, post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and insomnia risk. RESULTS: 148 asthma patients and 144 COPD patients participated in, between 18 and 96 years. The prevalence of high COVID-19 perceived stress was 10.6% (n = 31); post-traumatic stress risk, 11.3% (n = 33); depression risk, 31.5% (n = 92); and insomnia risk, 57.7% (n = 169). No significant differences were found between asthma and COPD in indicators of psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Asthma and COPD patients present similar frequencies of depression risk, COVID-19 perceived stress, post-traumatic stress risk, and insomnia risk during the Colombian lockdown. It is essential to evaluate and manage psychological distress among asthma and COPD patients. It can reduce the risk of exacerbation and improve the quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Calidad de Vida , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Colombia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/psicología , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Femenino , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Distrés Psicológico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Autoimagen , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/etiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología
20.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(5): 200-205, sept.-oct. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-196743

RESUMEN

ANTECEDENTES: La esteatosis hepática es un problema de salud pública de incidencia y prevalencia crecientes en nuestra sociedad. OBJETIVO: Determinar si la esteatosis hepática, medida mediante el Fatty Liver Index (FLI), se relaciona con el riesgo metabólico y vascular y, de ser así, identificar qué factor clínico-metabólico explica el mayor riesgo vascular de estos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal que incluye una muestra de 531 varones que acudieron a la unidad de chequeos de la Clínica Universitaria de Navarra. Se determinó el grado de esteatosis mediante el FLI. El riesgo metabólico fue evaluado mediante una escala basada en determinaciones de HDL, LDL, triglicéridos, glucemia, HOMA-IR, índice neutrófilo/linfocitario y presión sistólica; el riesgo vascular, mediante la presencia de placas ateromatosas en carótidas y/o femorales. La asociación dosis-respuesta entre el FLI y ambos riesgos se analizó mediante modelos no paramétricos (splines) y regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La muestra estudiada presenta una edad media de 52,70años, con el 49,3% de ellos presentando un FLI≥60, el 33,6% con síndrome metabólico y el 43,9% con placas ateromatosas en carótidas o femorales. La relación entre el FLI y el riesgo metabólico y vascular fue lineal (metabólico: valor de p no lineal=0,097; valor de p lineal <0,001; vascular: valor de p no lineal=1,000; valor de p lineal=0,028). Por cada 10unidades de incremento del FLI la odds de presentar placas de ateroma aumentaba en un 9,7% (OR=1,097; intervalo de confianza al 95%: 1,010-1,191). Al ajustar por trigliceridemia la asociación desaparecía (OR=1,001). CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con esteatosis hepática presentan un mayor riesgo metabólico y vascular. El mayor riesgo vascular está asociado con el nivel de triglicéridos. A nivel clínico, este estudio sugiere que estos pacientes podrían beneficiarse del tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia


BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is a public health problem with increased incidence and prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the liver steatosis, as measured by the Fatty Liver Index (FLI), is related to metabolic risk and vascular factors and, if so, to identify the clinical-metabolic factor that explains the higher vascular risk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a sample of 531 men who came to the University of Navarra Clinic Check-up Unit. The degree of steatosis was determined by the FLI. The metabolic risk was assessed using a scale based on determinations of HDL, LDL, triglycerides, blood glucose, HOMA-IR, neutrophil/lymphocyte index, and systolic blood pressure. The vascular risk was assessed by the presence of carotid and/or femoral atheromatous plaques. The dose-response association between FLI and both risks was analysed using non-parametric models (splines) and logistic regression. RESULTS: The sample studied had a mean age of 52.70years, with 49.3% having an FLI ≥60, as well as 33.6% with metabolic syndrome, and 43.9% with carotid and/or femoral atheromatous plaques. The relationship between FLI and metabolic risk and vascular was linear (metabolic: non-linear P=.097; linear P<.001; vascular: non-linear P=1.000; linear P=.028). For every 10 units of increase in FLI, the odds of presenting with atheroma plaques increased by 9.7% (OR=1.097; 95% confidence interval 1.010-1.191). When adjusting for triglyceridaemia, the association disappeared (OR=1.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with fatty liver disease had an increased metabolic and vascular risk. The increased vascular risk is associated with the triglyceride level. On a clinical level, this study suggests that these patients could benefit from treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/complicaciones , Enfermedades Vasculares/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Transversales , Hipertrigliceridemia/terapia , Triglicéridos/análisis , Indicadores de Salud , Medición de Riesgo , Modelos Logísticos
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