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1.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 31(1): 107-14, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25402233

RESUMEN

HIV patients on combination oral drug therapy experience insufficient drug levels in lymph nodes, which is linked to viral persistence. Following success in enhancing lymph node drug levels and extending plasma residence time of indinavir formulated in lipid nanoparticles, we developed multidrug anti-HIV lipid nanoparticles (anti-HIV LNPs) containing lopinavir (LPV), ritonavir (RTV), and tenofovir (PMPA). These anti-HIV LNPs were prepared, characterized, scaled up, and evaluated in primates with a focus on plasma time course and intracellular drug exposure in blood and lymph nodes. Four macaques were subcutaneously administered anti-HIV LNPs and free drug suspension in a crossover study. The time course of the plasma drug concentration as well as intracellular drug concentrations in blood and inguinal lymph nodes were analyzed to compare the effects of LNP formulation. Anti-HIV LNPs incorporated LPV and RTV with high efficiency and entrapped a reproducible fraction of hydrophilic PMPA. In primates, anti-HIV LNPs produced over 50-fold higher intracellular concentrations of LPV and RTV in lymph nodes compared to free drug. Plasma and intracellular drug levels in blood were enhanced and sustained up to 7 days, beyond that achievable by their free drug counterpart. Thus, multiple antiretroviral agents can be simultaneously incorporated into anti-HIV lipid nanoparticles to enhance intracellular drug concentrations in blood and lymph nodes, where viral replication persists. As these anti-HIV lipid nanoparticles also prolonged plasma drug exposure, they hold promise as a long-acting dosage form for HIV patients in addressing residual virus in cells and tissue.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Lípidos/farmacocinética , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacocinética , Adenina/uso terapéutico , Animales , Fármacos Anti-VIH/sangre , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Portadores de Fármacos/uso terapéutico , Combinación de Medicamentos , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/uso terapéutico , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , Indinavir/sangre , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Indinavir/uso terapéutico , Lípidos/uso terapéutico , Lopinavir/farmacocinética , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Ganglios Linfáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Macaca , Nanopartículas/uso terapéutico , Organofosfonatos/farmacocinética , Organofosfonatos/uso terapéutico , Ritonavir/farmacocinética , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Tenofovir , Latencia del Virus/efectos de los fármacos
2.
Biomaterials ; 37: 383-94, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25453966

RESUMEN

With the advent of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, the morbidity and the mortality associated to HIV have been considerably reduced. However, 35-40 million people bear the infection worldwide. One of the main causes of therapeutic failure is the frequent administration of several antiretrovirals that results in low patient compliance and treatment cessation. In this work, we have developed an innovative Nanoparticle-in-Microparticle Delivery System (NiMDS) comprised of pure drug nanocrystals of the potent protease inhibitor indinavir free base (used as poorly water-soluble model protease inhibitor) produced by nanoprecipitation that were encapsulated within mucoadhesive polymeric microparticles. Pure drug nanoparticles and microparticles were thoroughly characterized by diverse complementary techniques. NiMDSs displayed an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 100% and a drug loading capacity of up to 43% w/w. In addition, mucoadhesiveness assays ex vivo conducted with bovine gut showed that film-coated microparticles were retained for more than 6 h. Finally, pharmacokinetics studies in mongrel dogs showed a dramatic 47- and 95-fold increase of the drug oral bioavailability and half-life, respectively, with respect to the free unprocessed drug. These results support the outstanding performance of this platform to reduce the dose and the frequency of administration of protease inhibitors, a crucial step to overcome the current patient-incompliant therapy.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Indinavir/administración & dosificación , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas/química , Inhibidores de Proteasas/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Proteasas/farmacocinética , Adhesividad/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Oral , Alginatos/química , Animales , Bovinos , Quitosano/química , Perros , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Ácido Glucurónico/química , Ácidos Hexurónicos/química , Indinavir/sangre , Indinavir/farmacología , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Inhibidores de Proteasas/sangre , Inhibidores de Proteasas/farmacología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Factores de Tiempo , Difracción de Rayos X
3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 76(3): 475-83, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23305215

RESUMEN

AIM: To describe the pharmacokinetics and safety of indinavir boosted with ritonavir (IDV/r) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and in the post-partum period. METHODS: IMPAACT P1026s is an on-going, prospective, non-blinded study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PK) in HIV-infected pregnant women with a Thai cohort receiving IDV/r 400/100 mg twice daily during pregnancy through to 6-12 weeks post-partum as part of clinical care. Steady-state PK profiles were performed during the second (optional) and third trimesters and at 6-12 weeks post-partum. PK targets were the estimated 10(th) percentile IDV AUC (12.9 µg ml(-1)h) in non-pregnant historical Thai adults and a trough concentration of 0.1 µg ml(-1), the suggested minimum target. RESULTS: Twenty-six pregnant women were enrolled; thirteen entered during the second trimester. Median (range) age was 29.8 (18.9-40.8) years and weight 60.5 (50.0-85.0) kg at the third trimester PK visit. The 90% confidence limits for the geometric mean ratio of the indinavir AUC(0,12 h) and Cmax during the second trimester and post-partum (ante : post ratios) were 0.58 (0.49, 0.68) and 0.73 (0.59, 0.91), respectively; third trimester/post-partum AUC(0,12 h) and Cmax ratios were 0.60 (0.53, 0.68) and 0.63 (0.55, 0.72), respectively. IDV/r was well tolerated and 21/26 women had a HIV-1 viral load < 40 copies ml(-1) at delivery. All 26 infants were confirmed HIV negative. CONCLUSION: Indinavir exposure during the second and third trimesters was significantly reduced compared with post-partum and ∼30% of women failed to achieve a target trough concentration. Increasing the dose of IDV/r during pregnancy to 600/100 mg twice daily may be preferable to ensure adequate drug concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/metabolismo , Ritonavir/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Indinavir/administración & dosificación , Indinavir/sangre , Indinavir/uso terapéutico , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Segundo Trimestre del Embarazo , Tercer Trimestre del Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/sangre , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
4.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 50(7): 625-35, 2012 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22562821

RESUMEN

A selective, sensitive and high-throughput ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of HIV-protease inhibitors ritonavir (RTV), lopinavir (LPV) and indinavir (IDV) in human plasma. Sample clean-up involved protein precipitation of both drugs and fluconazole used as internal standard from 100 µL human plasma. All the analytes were chromatographically separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 µm particle size) analytical column using 0.1% formic acid and methanol (40:60, v/v) as the mobile phase. The parent → product ion transitions for ritonavir (m/z 721.40→ 296.10), lopinavir (m/z 629.40→ 447.40) and indinavir (m/z 614.4→ 421.0) IS (m/z 307.10 → 220.10) were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring and positive ion mode. The method was validated over the concentration range of 30-15,000 ng/mL for LPV and IDV and 3-1500 ng/mL for RTV. The method was successfully applied to a pilot bioequivalence study in 36 healthy human subjects after oral administration of lopinavir 200 mg and ritonavir 50 mg tablet formulation under fasting conditions.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Indinavir/sangre , Lopinavir/sangre , Ritonavir/sangre , Adolescente , Adulto , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/química , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Humanos , Indinavir/química , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Lopinavir/química , Lopinavir/farmacocinética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ritonavir/química , Ritonavir/farmacocinética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 7(2): e31312, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22359586

RESUMEN

Sophora flavescens is a Chinese medicinal herb used for the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, skin diseases, pyretic stranguria and viral hepatitis. In this study the herb-drug interactions between S. flavescens and indinavir, a protease inhibitor for HIV treatment, were evaluated in rats. Concomitant oral administration of Sophora extract (0.158 g/kg or 0.63 g/kg, p.o.) and indinavir (40 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats twice a day for 7 days resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of plasma indinavir concentrations, with 55%-83% decrease in AUC(0-∞) and 38%-78% reduction in C(max). The CL (Clearance)/F (fraction of dose available in the systemic circulation) increased up to 7.4-fold in Sophora-treated rats. Oxymatrine treatment (45 mg/kg, p.o.) also decreased indinavir concentrations, while the ethyl acetate fraction of Sophora extract had no effect. Urinary indinavir (24-h) was reduced, while the fraction of indinavir in faeces was increased after Sophora treatment. Compared to the controls, multiple dosing of Sophora extract elevated both mRNA and protein levels of P-gp in the small intestine and liver. In addition, Sophora treatment increased intestinal and hepatic mRNA expression of CYP3A1, but had less effect on CYP3A2 expression. Although protein levels of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 were not altered by Sophora treatment, hepatic CYP3A activity increased in the Sophora-treated rats. All available data demonstrated that Sophora flavescens reduced plasma indinavir concentration after multiple concomitant doses, possibly through hepatic CYP3A activity and induction of intestinal and hepatic P-gp. The animal study would be useful for predicting potential interactions between natural products and oral pharmaceutics and understanding the mechanisms prior to human studies. Results in the current study suggest that patients using indinavir might be cautioned in the use of S. flavescens extract or Sophora-derived products.


Asunto(s)
Miembro 1 de la Subfamilia B de Casetes de Unión a ATP/fisiología , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/fisiología , Interacciones de Hierba-Droga , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Preparaciones de Plantas/farmacocinética , Sophora , Miembro 1 de la Subfamilia B de Casetes de Unión a ATP/genética , Administración Oral , Animales , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Medicina de Hierbas/métodos , Indinavir/administración & dosificación , Indinavir/sangre , Preparaciones de Plantas/sangre , ARN Mensajero/análisis , Ratas
6.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 885-886: 138-49, 2012 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22265353

RESUMEN

A comparative study with three conventional extraction techniques namely protein precipitation (PP), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) has been demonstrated to assess the magnitude of matrix interference by post-column analyte infusion and post extraction analyte spiking for the determination of atazanavir from human plasma. Severe ion suppression observed in PP and to a lesser extent in LLE was circumvented by SPE on LiChrosep Sequence extraction cartridge. Based on these observations a selective, rugged and high throughput SPE-LC-MS/MS method has been developed for reliable determination of atazanavir in human plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold C18 (50mm×4.6mm, 5µm) analytical column using 5mM ammonium formate in water:methanol (10:90, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic conditions. The method was validated over a wide dynamic concentration range of 10-6000ng/mL. The mean relative recovery and absolute matrix effect across quality controls were 84.9 and 93.2%, respectively. The precision value for relative matrix effect between eight different lots of plasma, expressed as %CV of the slopes of the calibration lines was 2.41. The stability of atazanavir under different storage conditions varied from -8.4 to 5.4%. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 300mg atazanavir capsule formulation in 24 healthy Indian males under fasting condition.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Oligopéptidos/sangre , Piridinas/sangre , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Acetonitrilos , Sulfato de Atazanavir , Estudios Cruzados , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Humanos , Indinavir/sangre , Masculino , Metanol , Oligopéptidos/farmacocinética , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Equivalencia Terapéutica
7.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 68(5): 715-21, 2012 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22173281

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of venlafaxine extended-release (XR) capsules and desvenlafaxine extended-release (XR) tablets upon indinavir pharmacokinetic properties when co-administrated to healthy volunteers. METHODS: This was an open-label, two-period, fixed-dose study conducted at the clinical research unit located on a university campus. Twenty-four healthy volunteers enrolled in the study (mean age 28.3 ± 8.0 years). Each subject received a single dose of indinavir 800 mg on day 1. Subsequently, subjects were then randomly assigned to either the venlafaxine XR group (N = 12) or the desvenlafaxine XR group (N = 12). Starting on day 2, venlafaxine XR was dosed at 37.5 mg/day for 4 days and increased to 75 mg/day for 6 days. Desvenlafaxine XR was dosed at 50 mg/day for 10 days. On day 12, indivanvir 800 mg was co-administered to both the venlafaxine XR and the desvenlafaxine XR groups. The pharmacokinetics of indinavir were determined both before and at the end of antidepressant dosing. Plasma indinavir, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine concentrations were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultra-violet (UV) detection. Indinavir pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using validated computer software. RESULTS: Venlafaxine XR and desvenlafaxine XR did not produce any significant changes in indinavir disposition. Both antidepressants were well tolerated by the subjects with only minor adverse side effects. CONCLUSIONS: No pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction was demonstrated between venlafaxine XR and indinavir or between desvenlafaxine XR and indinvair. The lack of interaction could be due to the venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine extended-release formulation.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos/farmacología , Ciclohexanoles/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Adulto , Antidepresivos/administración & dosificación , Antidepresivos/sangre , Antidepresivos/farmacocinética , Cápsulas , Ciclohexanoles/administración & dosificación , Ciclohexanoles/sangre , Ciclohexanoles/farmacocinética , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Succinato de Desvenlafaxina , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Femenino , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Semivida , Humanos , Indinavir/administración & dosificación , Indinavir/sangre , Masculino , Tasa de Depuración Metabólica/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/sangre , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Comprimidos , Clorhidrato de Venlafaxina , Adulto Joven
8.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 879(23): 2332-8, 2011 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21752731

RESUMEN

Animal pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution assays of antiretroviral therapeutic drugs require accurate drug quantification in biological fluids and tissues. Here we report a simple, rapid, and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of commonly used antiretroviral drugs ritonavir (RTV), indinavir (IDV), atazanavir (ATV), and efavirenz (EFV) in mouse serum and tissues (liver, kidney, lung, and spleen). These antiretroviral drugs are currently the cornerstones of common therapeutic regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a gradient mobile phase (5% acetonitrile in methanol and 7.5mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0)) on an ACQUITY UPLC(®)BEH Shield RP 18 column. All compounds eluted within a 7 min run time. Lopinavir was used as an internal standard. Detection was achieved by dual positive and negative ionization modes on a quadrupole linear ion trap hybrid mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The dynamic range was 0.2-1000 ng/mL for RTV, IDV, and ATV, and 0.5-1000 for EFV. The method was validated and showed high and consistent intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision for all analytes. This method is used to support the preclinical development studies of targeted- and sustained-release combination ART (nanoART). The current data demonstrate a 1.5-4 fold increase in serum and tissue AUC of nanoformulated ATV, RTV, and EFV administered to mice when compared to native drug. In addition, the tested formulation enhanced exposure of the same anti-HIV drugs in mouse tissues.


Asunto(s)
Estructuras Animales/química , Fármacos Anti-VIH/análisis , Benzoxazinas/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Oligopéptidos/análisis , Piridinas/análisis , Ritonavir/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Alquinos , Animales , Fármacos Anti-VIH/sangre , Sulfato de Atazanavir , Benzoxazinas/sangre , Ciclopropanos , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Indinavir/análisis , Indinavir/sangre , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Oligopéptidos/sangre , Piridinas/sangre , Ritonavir/sangre
9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 12(1): 422-30, 2011 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21360313

RESUMEN

The aim of our present work was to develop indinavir O/W submicron lipid emulsions (SLEs) loaded with lipoamino acids for specific delivery to brain. Tetradecyl aspartic acid (A) and decyl glutamic acid (G) loaded stable SLEs of indinavir having a mean size range of 210-220 nm and average zeta potential of -23.54±1.2 mV were developed using homogenization and ultrasonication. The cumulative % drug release from different SLEs varied in between 26% and 85%. The formulations, SLE, SLE-A3, and SLE-G3 were stable to the centrifugal stress, dilution stress, and storage at RT. The total drug content and entrapment efficiency were determined by HPLC method. During pharmacokinetic studies in male Wistar rats there was no significant difference in the serum levels of indinavir for SLE, SLE-A3 and SLE-G3 formulations at all time points. In tissue distribution studies, the therapeutic availability (TA) of indinavir in brain and kidneys for SLE-A3 were 4.27- and 2.66-fold whereas for SLE-G3 were 2.94 and 2.12 times, respectively, higher than that of indinavir solution. But when compared with that of SLE, in brain tissue the levels of indinavir from SLE-G3 and SLE-A3 varied in between 2.5- and 3.38-fold. While in case of the kidney, it was between 1.23- and 1.54-fold only. However, the TA is not significantly different in tissues like the heart, liver, and spleen. Thus, brain-specific delivery of indinavir was improved by including tetradecyl aspartic acid and decyl glutamic acid in submicron lipid emulsions.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Indinavir/administración & dosificación , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Aminoácidos/química , Animales , Portadores de Fármacos , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Emulsiones/química , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/química , Indinavir/sangre , Indinavir/química , Lípidos/química , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Solubilidad , Distribución Tisular
10.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 42(4): 423-32, 2011 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21292000

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to develop stable parenteral pegylated indinavir submicron lipid emulsions (SLEs) for improving brain specific delivery. The O/W SLEs were prepared by homogenization and ultra sonication process. The sizes of oil globules varied from 241.5 to 296.4nm and zeta potential from -26.6 to -42.4mV. During in vitro drug release studies the cumulative amount of drug released within 12h from SLE-5, DSP2-3 and DPP5-3 was 71.8±0.76, 66.09±1.45 and 68.33±1.29, respectively. The total drug content and entrapment efficiencies were determined. The optimized formulations were stable for the effect of centrifugal stress, thermal stress, dilution stress and storage. In vivo pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies were performed in Swiss albino mice, the therapeutic availability (TA) of DSP2-3 was 3.59 times and 2.36 times in comparison to drug solution and SLE-5 respectively, where as DPP5-3 showed TA 2.8 and 1.84 times the drug solution and SLE-5, respectively. The brain to serum ratio of indinavir from DSP2-3 and DPP5-3 varied between 0.4 and 0.7 at all time points indicated the preferential accumulation of drug in brain. In conclusion, pegylated SLEs improved brain specific delivery of indinavir and will be useful in treating chronic HIV infection.


Asunto(s)
Emulsiones Grasas Intravenosas/química , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Indinavir , Animales , Encéfalo , Colesterol/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Excipientes/química , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/administración & dosificación , Indinavir/administración & dosificación , Indinavir/análogos & derivados , Indinavir/sangre , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Lípidos , Masculino , Ratones , Nanopartículas , Tamaño de la Partícula , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Polietilenglicoles , Sonicación , Aceite de Soja/química , Distribución Tisular
11.
Ther Drug Monit ; 33(1): 25-31, 2011 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21233689

RESUMEN

Indinavir boosted with ritonavir (IDV/r) dosing with 400/100 mg, twice daily, is preferred in Thai adults, but this dose can lead to concentrations close to the boundaries of its therapeutic window. The objectives of this analysis were to validate a population pharmacokinetic model to describe IDV/r concentrations in HIV-infected Thai patients and to investigate the impact of patient characteristics on achieving adequate IDV concentrations. IDV/r concentration data from 513 plasma samples were available. Population means and variances of pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a nonlinear mixed effects regression model (NONMEM Version VI). Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the probability of achieving IDV concentrations within its therapeutic window. IDV/r pharmacokinetics were best described by a one-compartment model coupled with a single transit compartment absorption model. Body weight influenced indinavir apparent oral clearance and volume of distribution and allometric scaling significantly reduced the interindividual variability. Final population estimates (interindividual variability in percentage) of indinavir apparent oral clearance and volume of distribution were 21.3 L/h/70 kg (30%) and 90.7 L/70 kg (22%), respectively. Based on model simulations, the probability of achieving an IDV trough concentration greater than 0.1 mg/L was greater than 99% for 600/100 mg and greater than 98% for 400/100 mg, twice daily, in patients weighing 40 to 80 kg. However, the probability of achieving IDV concentrations associated with an increased risk of drug toxicity (greater than 10.0 mg/L) increased from 1% to 10% with 600/100 mg compared with less than 1% with 400/100 mg when body weight decreased from 80 to 40 kg. The validated model developed predicts that 400/100 mg of IDV/r, twice daily, provides indinavir concentrations within the recommended therapeutic window for the majority of patients. The risk of toxic drug concentrations increases rapidly with IDV/r dose of 600/100 mg for patients less than 50 kg and therapeutic drug monitoring of IDV concentrations would help to reduce the risk of IDV-induced nephrotoxicity.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Monitoreo de Drogas , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Ritonavir/farmacocinética , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Indinavir/efectos adversos , Indinavir/sangre , Indinavir/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método de Montecarlo , Ritonavir/efectos adversos , Ritonavir/sangre , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Tailandia , Adulto Joven
12.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 36(3): 355-61, 2010 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19722914

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Compartmental as well as noncompartmental analyses are used routinely in pharmacokinetic analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetic parameters of the anti-HIV agent, indinavir, have been determined in six male rats applying both the compartmental and the noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A very slow declining phase was found in the indinavir plasma concentration profile using an extended sampling time period and applying a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography assay method. This apparent terminal elimination phase can cause some significant errors when applying noncompartmental kinetic analysis to the data, with mean residence time (MRT) (544.2 +/- 123.2 minutes), total systemic clearance (12.0 +/- 2.1 mL/min/kg), and steady-state volume of distribution (V(d) (ss)) (6.4 +/- 1.0 L/kg) being highly different from the results of compartmental kinetic analysis (MRT, Cl(total), and V(d) (ss) values of 23.7 +/- 5.9 minutes, 35.18 +/- 5.1 mL/min/kg, and 0.84 +/- 0.28 L/kg, respectively). The parameters estimated by our noncompartmental approach were also significantly different from the results of the same type of data analysis reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: The differences in parameter estimations, while being a result of the extended plasma sampling period, which is recommended in noncompartmental analysis, support the priority of applying the compartmental analysis approach in the similar cases with some pre-assumptions, mainly ignoring the final apparent terminal elimination phase(s), very deep tissue, which involves very low drug concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporales/fisiología , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Modelos Biológicos , Animales , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Semivida , Indinavir/sangre , Masculino , Tasa de Depuración Metabólica , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
13.
Life Sci ; 85(7-8): 296-302, 2009 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19559714

RESUMEN

AIMS: To evaluate the possible herb-drug interaction of St. John's wort (SJW) extracts with indinavir in rats and to set up a model for characterizing pre-systemic sites for the interactions between orally administered herbs and pharmaceuticals. MAIN METHODS: The in vivo pharmacokinetic study and in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model were employed in the research. Plasma indinavir concentration and cytochrome P450 3A activities were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: Oral administration of either 150 or 300 mg/day SJW for 15 days significantly reduced indinavir plasma levels with certain pharmacokinetic parameter changes. The cytochrome P450 3A analysis suggested that this interaction was attributable to the induction of indinavir metabolism. Further perfusion study demonstrated that both small intestine and the liver contributed significantly to the reduction of indinavir bioavailability and was flow rate-dependent. Moreover, the small intestine was the major site for the pre-systemic metabolism of indinavir, whether with or without SJW pretreatment. SIGNIFICANCE: Herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions between SJW and indinavir can be clearly observed in the Wistar rat model. Particularly, the respective first-pass effect contributed by the small intestine and the liver could be differentiated and quantified. The application of the animal model to investigating herb-drug interactions or other relevant research purposes is envisioned.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Interacciones de Hierba-Droga , Hypericum/química , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Extractos Vegetales/efectos adversos , Animales , Área Bajo la Curva , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Indinavir/sangre , Masculino , Microsomas Hepáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Microsomas Hepáticos/enzimología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Factores de Tiempo
14.
AIDS ; 23(4): 447-54, 2009 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19240457

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis with a combination of zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC) and indinavir (IDV), after vaginal exposure to HIV. DESIGN: : Experimental intravaginal exposure of female cynomolgus macaques to SIVmac251. METHODS: ZDV/3TC/IDV treatment was initiated 4 h after exposure and continued for 28 days. Groups of six animals received a placebo or a combination of oral ZDV (4.5 mg/kg), 3TC (2.5 mg/kg) and IDV (20 mg/kg) twice daily or subcutaneous ZDV (4.5 mg/kg) and 3TC (2.5 mg/kg) twice daily, and a higher dose of IDV (60 mg/kg) administered orally twice daily. RESULTS: In the placebo group, all animals were infected. Antiretroviral association protected one of the six animals if all drugs were administered orally and four of the six animals if ZDV and 3TC were administered subcutaneously and IDV was given orally at triple dose. In infected animals, viremia was significantly delayed and lowered in treated animals than in animals given placebo, and high CD4 cell counts were maintained in the treated animals, at least in the medium term. Antiretroviral dosages made in macaques receiving the same treatments showed that protection efficacy could be linked to antiretroviral plasmatic concentration. CONCLUSION: This study shows, for the first time in macaques, that the postexposure prophylaxis recommended for humans may be effective after vaginal exposure. Improvements in pharmacokinetic parameters significantly increased treatment efficiency.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida del Simio/prevención & control , Administración Oral , Animales , Fármacos Anti-VIH/sangre , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Femenino , Indinavir/sangre , Indinavir/uso terapéutico , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Lamivudine/sangre , Lamivudine/uso terapéutico , Macaca fascicularis , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/inmunología , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/virología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida del Simio/inmunología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida del Simio/transmisión , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida del Simio/virología , Vagina/virología , Carga Viral , Viremia/prevención & control , Zidovudina/sangre , Zidovudina/uso terapéutico
15.
AIDS ; 23(4): 534-8, 2009 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19169139

RESUMEN

HIV protease inhibitors have been shown to exert antiangiogenic and antitumor actions independently from their antiretroviral effect. Based on these studies, HIV-seronegative patients with classic Kaposi's sarcoma were treated with indinavir and followed for clinical evolution, drug pharmacokinetics and Kaposi's sarcoma biomarkers. A favorable clinical course was associated with high drug plasma levels, reduced production of basic fibroblast growth factor, lower numbers of circulating endothelial cells, and a decrease in antibody titers against human herpesvirus 8.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/uso terapéutico , Indinavir/uso terapéutico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Antineoplásicos/sangre , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Seronegatividad para VIH , Herpesvirus Humano 8/inmunología , Humanos , Indinavir/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sarcoma de Kaposi/sangre , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
J Pharm Sci ; 98(1): 327-36, 2009 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18506817

RESUMEN

Indinavir, a HIV-1 protease inhibitor, showed large inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. It has been proposed as a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, that may contribute to limit indinavir bioavailability. A liquid formulation of indinavir was developed from indinavir capsules in order to study indinavir pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Compartmental and noncompartmental analysis of indinavir plasma concentrations showed high inter-individual variability in terms of area under the curve (AUC) and maximal plasma concentration (C(max)). A significant negative association between AUC normalized to body weight (AUC x weight) and lymphocyte P-gp activity, using Rh123 efflux assay, was observed (p = 0.008; r = -0.75). AUC normalized to elimination rate constant (AUC x beta) also showed a significant negative relationship with lymphocyte P-gp activity (p = 0.03, r = -0.64). Apparent clearance (CL/[F x weight]) and volume of distribution (VD/[F x weight]) showed a positive correlation with P-gp activity. Conversely, elimination rate constant did not correlate with P-gp activity. Although there is not enough evidence of a correlation between lymphocitary and intestinal function of P-gp, our results suggest a relationship between a P-gp phenotype marker, Rh123 efflux assay in lymphocytes, and indinavir bioavailability.


Asunto(s)
Miembro 1 de la Subfamilia B de Casetes de Unión a ATP/metabolismo , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Leucocitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Miembro 1 de la Subfamilia B de Casetes de Unión a ATP/sangre , Adulto , Disponibilidad Biológica , Femenino , Humanos , Indinavir/sangre , Leucocitos Mononucleares/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
17.
Clin Chem ; 55(1): 170-4, 2009 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19028822

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most HPLC-UV methods for therapeutic drug monitoring of anti-HIV drugs have long run times, which reduce their applicability for high-throughput analysis. We developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-diode array detection method for the simultaneous quantification of the HIV-protease inhibitors (PIs) amprenavir, atazanavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir (TPV), and the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) efavirenz and nevirapine. METHODS: Solid-phase extraction of 1 mL plasma was performed with Waters HLB cartridges. After 3 wash steps, we eluted the drugs with methanol, evaporated the alcohol, and reconstituted the residue with 50 microL methanol. We injected a 4-microL volume into the UPLC system (Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C8 column maintained at 60 degrees C) and used a linear gradient of 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate and 50 mmol/L formic acid in water versus acetonitrile to achieve chromatographic separation of the drugs and internal standard (A-86093). Three wavelengths (215, 240, and 260 nm) were monitored. RESULTS: All drugs were eluted within 15 min. Calibration curves with concentrations of 0.025-10 mg/L (1.875-75 mg/L for TPV) showed coefficients of determination (r(2)) between 0.993 and 0.999. The lower limits of quantification were well below the trough concentrations reported in the literature. Inter- and intraassay CVs and the deviations between the nominal and measured concentrations were <15%. The method was validated by successful participation in an international interlaboratory QC program. CONCLUSIONS: This method allows fast and simultaneous quantification of all commercially available PIs and NNRTIs for therapeutic drug monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/sangre , Alquinos , Sulfato de Atazanavir , Benzoxazinas/sangre , Carbamatos/sangre , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Ciclopropanos , Furanos , Humanos , Indinavir/sangre , Lopinavir , Nelfinavir/sangre , Nevirapina/sangre , Oligopéptidos/sangre , Piridinas/sangre , Pirimidinonas/sangre , Pironas/sangre , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ritonavir/sangre , Saquinavir/sangre , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Sulfonamidas/sangre
18.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 23(5): 328-39, 2008.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18974610

RESUMEN

A novel method for the prediction of drug-drug interaction has been established based on the in vitro metabolic stability in the "serum incubation method" using cryopreserved human hepatocytes suspended in 100% human serum. As a novel approach, the inhibitory effect of inhibitors on the metabolism of substrates during the first-pass elimination process in the liver (hepatic availability) and in the elimination process from the systemic circulation (hepatic clearance) were separately predicted with the anticipated inhibitor/substrate concentrations during absorption and in the systemic circulation, respectively. Ketoconazole strongly inhibited CYP3A4-mediated terfenadine metabolism in vitro, and the method predicted 6- to 37-fold increase of terfenadine AUC by the concomitant dosing of ketoconazole, which reasonably well agreed with the observed 13- to 59-fold increase of AUC in clinical studies. The CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of indinavir was also subject to the inhibition by ketoconazole in vitro at the lower indinavir concentration (2 microM), whereas no substantial inhibition was observed at 12 microM due to the saturation of indinavir metabolism. Predicted no interaction between ketoconazole and indinavir was consistent with the minimal increase (1.3-fold increase) of indinavir AUC by ketoconazole observed in clinical study. In addition, the method was applied to the CYP2D6-mediated desipramine-quinidine interaction: the predicted 6.4-fold increase of desipramine AUC by quinidine was consistent with the observed 6.7-fold increase of AUC in the clinical drug-drug interaction study. On the other hand, desipramine metabolism was little affected by ketoconazole in vitro, and consequently, it predicted no drug-drug interaction between desipramine and ketoconazole in humans, which agreed with the negligible interaction observed in clinical study. The accuracy of predictions for drug-drug interaction by the serum incubation method was evaluated by comparing the predicted increase of AUC after an oral administration by the inhibitor with the corresponding drug-drug interaction reported from clinical studies. These data demonstrated that the newly established method provides an in vitro tool for the prediction of drug-drug interaction with the accuracy ranging from 0.46 to 1.5.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Farmacológicas , Hepatocitos/metabolismo , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/sangre , Área Bajo la Curva , Criopreservación , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Desipramina/sangre , Humanos , Indinavir/sangre , Cetoconazol/sangre , Tasa de Depuración Metabólica , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/metabolismo , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Quinidina/sangre , Tecnología Farmacéutica/métodos , Terfenadina/sangre
19.
Acta Pol Pharm ; 65(1): 93-100, 2008.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18536180

RESUMEN

Combination therapy with protease inhibitors (PIs) is used for the treatment of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To achieve optimal drug concentrations for viral suppression and avoidance of drug toxicity, therapeutic drug monitoring of PIs levels has been considered essential. In this study an analytical procedure for simultaneous monitoring the plasma concentrations of a total four protease inhibitors: indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir and saquinavir was presented. The plasma samples were liquid/liquid extracted and subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The lopinavir and saquinavir in the patient plasma samples were monitored by ultraviolet detection at 215 nm. Extraction procedure using methyl tert-butyl ether and the mobile phase consisted from acetonitrile with phosphate buffer on a Symmetry C18 column were used to monitor these two compounds. Linearity of the method was obtained in the concentration range of 0.1 - 15.0 mg/mL for all four protease inhibitors. Under steady state conditions, the plasma concentrations of protein inhibitors in 23 patients were determined and area under the plasma concentration-time curve was estimated to maintain optimal viral suppression. We developed a simple and specific method for the simultaneous determination of lopinavir and saquinavir.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Monitoreo de Drogas/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Adulto , Área Bajo la Curva , Combinación de Medicamentos , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/farmacocinética , Humanos , Indinavir/sangre , Indinavir/farmacocinética , Lopinavir , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nelfinavir/sangre , Nelfinavir/farmacocinética , Pirimidinonas/sangre , Pirimidinonas/farmacocinética , Saquinavir/sangre , Saquinavir/farmacocinética
20.
Anal Chem ; 80(13): 4969-75, 2008 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18533679

RESUMEN

We report here on the use of a prototype matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitative analysis of six antiretroviral drugs in lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Of the five investigated MALDI matrixes, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and the novel 7-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin (HFMC) showed the broadest application ranges for the antiretroviral drugs. For DHB, the mean relative errors ranged from 8.3 (ritonavir) to 4.3% (saquinavir). The mean precisions (CV) ranged from 17.3 (nevirapine) to 10.8% (saquinavir). The obtained lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) readily allow clinical applications using just 1 million PBMC from HIV-infected patients under therapy. The new matrix HFMC was used for quantitative analysis of the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir using a stainless steel target plate as well as a target plate with a novel, strongly hydrophobic fluoropolymer coating. Using the coated target plate, the mean relative error improved from 10.1 to 4.6%, the mean precision from 33.9 to 9.9% CV, and the LLOQ from 16 to 1 fmol. In addition, the measurement time for one spot went down from 6 to only 2.5 s.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/sangre , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/sangre , Leucocitos Mononucleares/química , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/sangre , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/métodos , Cumarinas/química , Humanos , Indinavir/sangre
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