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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211606, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253158

RESUMEN

Aim: The present study sought to investigate dental caries experience and its association with sociodemographic, postnatal and breastfeeding variables in children in the agerange from 6 to 71 months of age, in the Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study that used secondary data pertaining to 402 indigenous children of the Low, Middle and Eastern Xingu regions, who participated in the Oral Health Epidemiological Survey in 2013. The dependent variable was dental caries, dichotomized by the median (dmf-t≤1 and dmf-t>1). The data of independent variables were obtained by means of instruments of the Local Health Information System of the Xingu Indigenous Special Sanitary District (DSEI). Raw analyses were performed to test the association of the independent variables with the dependent variable. The variables were tested in the multiple logistic regression model. Results: The mean value of the dmf-t index was 2.60 and the prevalence of affected children was 51%. In the multiple analysis, only children older than 36 months (OR: 6.64; CI95%: 4.11 to 10.73) and those that were breastfed for a longer period of time (OR: 1.88; CI95%: 1.16 to 3.02) showed significant association with the dmf-t>1 index. Conclusion: Childhood dental caries among indigenous children was associated with age and breastfeeding prolonged for over 26 months, therefore, pointing out the need to offer dental follow-up care at earlier ages


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Lactancia Materna , Indios Sudamericanos , Salud Bucal , Caries Dental
2.
Elife ; 102021 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586066

RESUMEN

In post-industrial settings, apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is associated with increased cardiovascular and neurological disease risk. However, the majority of human evolutionary history occurred in environments with higher pathogenic diversity and low cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that in high-pathogen and energy-limited contexts, the APOE4 allele confers benefits by reducing innate inflammation when uninfected, while maintaining higher lipid levels that buffer costs of immune activation during infection. Among Tsimane forager-farmers of Bolivia (N = 1266, 50% female), APOE4 is associated with 30% lower C-reactive protein, and higher total cholesterol and oxidized LDL. Blood lipids were either not associated, or negatively associated with inflammatory biomarkers, except for associations of oxidized LDL and inflammation which were limited to obese adults. Further, APOE4 carriers maintain higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol at low body mass indices (BMIs). These results suggest that the relationship between APOE4 and lipids may be beneficial for pathogen-driven immune responses and unlikely to increase cardiovascular risk in an active subsistence population.


Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Inmunidad Innata , Indios Sudamericanos , Lípidos/sangre , Clima Tropical , Biomarcadores/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Bolivia , Dieta , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Factores de Riesgo
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339975

RESUMEN

Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.


Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Bosques , Pandemias/historia , Pandemias/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil/epidemiología , Indios Sudamericanos , Salud Pública/historia , Ciudades , Gripe Humana/etiología , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, jul.-set. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339968

RESUMEN

Resumen Este artículo describe el inicio de las preocupaciones sanitarias vinculadas a las epidemias ocurridas durante el siglo XX en La Pampa, provincia argentina. Las epidemias, como las de la viruela, fueron un estímulo para estas políticas que frecuentemente tuvieron origen en Buenos Aires, la capital del país. El contagio de muchas epidemias dependía de carencias de infraestructura: agua, desagüe y desecho adecuado de basuras, de la ausencia de un número suficiente de trabajadores de salud, de la presencia de vectores transmisores de enfermedades como los mosquitos y, en última instancia, de la pobreza. La experiencia histórica descrita en este texto resalta la importancia de analizar el impacto del SARS-CoV-2 más allá de las grandes ciudades.


Abstract This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Historia del Siglo XX , Viruela/historia , Epidemias/historia , COVID-19/historia , Argentina/epidemiología , Pobreza/historia , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Abastecimiento de Agua/historia , Viruela/prevención & control , Viruela/epidemiología , Indios Sudamericanos/historia , Indios Sudamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Eliminación de Residuos/historia , Vacunación/historia , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ciudades/historia , Ciudades/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/historia , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/historia , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/organización & administración , COVID-19/epidemiología , Política de Salud/historia , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Insectos Vectores , Personal Militar/historia
5.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9163

RESUMEN

Como Programa Provincial de Salud y Pueblos Indígenas -en conjunto con la Dirección de Organización Comunitaria en Salud, la Dirección Provincial de Salud Comunitaria de Salud- dependientes del Ministerio de Salud de la hoy provincia de Buenos Aires, comprendemos que la creación de Folletos digitales en los distintos Idiomas de los Pueblos-Naciones Indígenas hoy vigentes en esta provincia, es un derecho inalienable. Entendemos que en la actual coyuntura de emergencia sanitaria, es muy importante como Estado provincial poder llegar con información clara y oficial a los territorios, donde habitan nuestres hermanes indígenas, es por ello que partimos desde el respeto a sus idiomas, a sus prácticas, a sus costumbres y medicinas ancestrales. Es importantísimo que existan las traducciones o adaptaciones en los Idiomas Indígenas, pues el Idioma no debería ser una barrera para el acceso a la información y a las prestaciones sociales, así como para el acceso a servicios básicos, a la educación, a la justicia y a la salud, entre otros. La práctica de la Consulta Libre, Previa e Informada, es un derecho y debe estar garantizada en el acceso a la información, para que cada hermano, hermana, en todos los hechos y/o acciones pueda transformar, mejorar, disminuir, alterar su calidad de vida, y también para poder decidir en libertad qué camino seguir, de acuerdo a su buen entender y a las tradiciones ancestrales de cada Pueblo-Nación Indígena. Los Idiomas Indígenas Ancestrales, crean la territorialidad, que permite a cada persona entender el sentido de ser parte del territorio y no su dueñe, nos permite entender el sentir, el amor y conexión con la Tierra, Mapu, Pachamama, que tienen les Indígenas. Los Idiomas Indígenas Ancestrales, nos llevan a reconocernos en esta identidad plural que compone realmente a la hoy Argentina y a la hoy provincia de Buenos Aires.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Programas de Inmunización , Indios Sudamericanos , Argentina
6.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9164

RESUMEN

Folleto de la campaña de vacunación contra el Covid-19 de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, llamada Vacunate PBA, en el idioma del Pueblo Nación Quechua


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Programas de Inmunización , Argentina , Indios Sudamericanos , Salud de Poblaciones Indígenas
7.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9165

RESUMEN

Folleto de la campaña de vacunación contra el Covid-19 de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, llamada Vacunate PBA, en el idioma del Pueblo Nación Günün A Küna


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Programas de Inmunización , Argentina , Indios Sudamericanos
8.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9166

RESUMEN

Folleto de la campaña de vacunación contra el Covid-19 de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, llamada Vacunate PBA, en el idioma del Pueblo Nación Mapuche


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Argentina , Indios Sudamericanos
9.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9167

RESUMEN

Folleto de la campaña de vacunación contra el Covid-19 de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, llamada Vacunate PBA, en el idioma del Pueblo Nación Q’OM


Asunto(s)
Argentina , Programas de Inmunización , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Indios Sudamericanos
10.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346993

RESUMEN

This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Bosques , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , Ciudades , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/etiología , Pandemias/historia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pobreza , Salud Pública/historia , Factores Socioeconómicos
11.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346995

RESUMEN

This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/historia , Epidemias/historia , Viruela/historia , Animales , Argentina/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Ciudades/epidemiología , Ciudades/historia , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/historia , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/organización & administración , Femenino , Personal de Salud/historia , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud/historia , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos/historia , Indios Sudamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Insectos Vectores , Masculino , Personal Militar/historia , Pobreza/historia , Eliminación de Residuos/historia , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Viruela/epidemiología , Viruela/prevención & control , Vacunación/historia , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Abastecimiento de Agua/historia
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e185, 2021 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338185

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyse the geographical distribution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to identify high-risk areas in space and time for the occurrence of cases and deaths in the indigenous population of Brazil. This is an ecological study carried out between 24 March and 26 October 2020 whose units of analysis were the Special Indigenous Sanitary Districts. The Getis-Ord General G and Getis-Ord Gi* techniques were used to verify the spatial association of the phenomena and a retrospective space-time scan was performed. There were 32 041 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 471 deaths. The non-randomness of cases (z score = 5.40; P < 0.001) and deaths (z score = 3.83; P < 0.001) were confirmed. Hotspots were identified for cases and deaths in the north and midwest regions of Brazil. Sixteen high-risk space-time clusters were identified for the occurrence of cases with a higher RR = 21.23 (P < 0.001) and four risk clusters for deaths with a higher RR = 80.33 (P < 0.001). These clusters were identified from 22 May and were active until 10 October 2020. The results indicate critical areas in the indigenous territories of Brazil and contribute to better directing the actions of control of COVID-19 in this population.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
13.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 192-207, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115384

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Southeast and South Coast of Brazil was inhabited during most of the Holocene by shellmound builders. Although there are cultural differences in the archaeological record between regions, it is still debatable how these differences may relate to different population histories. Here, we contribute to this discussion by exploring dental morphological affinities between several regional series. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental morphology of 385 individuals from 14 archaeological sites was analyzed using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System. Fifteen traits were used to explore morphological affinities among series through Euclidean distance, Mean Measure of Divergence, and Principal Component Analysis. Mantel matrix correlation and partial correlation tests were used to examine the association between biological, geographic, and chronological distances. RESULTS: Morphological affinities show that ceramic and nonceramic South Coast groups cluster and differ from most Southeast series. In contrast, Southeast coastal and riverine groups display high morphological variance, showing less biological coherence among them. These biological distances between regions are partially explained by geography, but not by chronology. CONCLUSIONS: The results support that these coastal populations were low-mobility groups. Although interactions between individuals of different regions likely existed, gene flow occurred mostly among individuals from local or adjacent areas. The introduction of ceramic in the South Coast is not associated with changes in dental morphology patterns, suggesting its adoption is not exclusively associated with the arrival of different biological groups. Southeast coastal and riverine groups show high phenotypic diversity, suggesting a different history of human occupation and cultural development than observed in the South Coast.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Indios Sudamericanos/historia , Diente/anatomía & histología , Antropología Física , Arqueología , Brasil , Historia Antigua , Humanos
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(1): 109-119, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169504

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: According to demographic history, Ecuador has experienced shifts in its Native American populations caused by European colonization and the African slave trade. The continuous admixture events among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a stratified population. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the level of genetic substructure in the Ecuadorian Mestizo population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 377 male and 209 female samples were genotyped for two sets of X-chromosomal markers (32 X-Indels and 12 X-STRs). Population analyses performed included Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests, LD analysis, PCA, pairwise FST s, and AMOVA. RESULTS: Significant levels of LD were observed between markers separated by distances of less than 1 cM, as well as between markers separated by distances varying from 10.891 to 163.53 cM. Among Ecuadorian regions, Amazonia showed the highest average R2 value. DISCUSSION: When X-chromosomal and autosomal differentiation values were compared, a sex-biased admixture between European men and Native American and African women was revealed, as well as between African men and Native American women. Moreover, a distinct Native American ancestry was discernible in the Amazonian population, in addition to sex-biased gene flow between Amazonia and the Andes and Pacific coast regions. Overall, these results underline the importance of integrating X chromosome information to achieve a more comprehensive view of the genetic and demographic histories of South American admixed populations.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética/genética , Genética de Población/métodos , Indios Sudamericanos/genética , Antropología Física , Cromosomas Humanos X/genética , Ecuador , Femenino , Humanos , Mutación INDEL/genética , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento/genética , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética
15.
Malar J ; 20(1): 285, 2021 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174891

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fifty-three percent of all cases of malaria in the Americas in 2019 came from Venezuela, where the epidemic is heavily focused south of the Orinoco river, and where most of the country's Amerindian groups live. Although the disease is known to represent a significant public health problem among these populations, little epidemiological data exists on the subject. This study aims to provide information on malaria incidence, geospatial clustering, and risk factors associated to Plasmodium falciparum infection among these groups. METHODS: This is a descriptive study based on the analysis of published and unpublished programmatic data collected by Venezuelan health authorities and non-government organizations between 2014 and 2018. The Annual Parasite Index among indigenous groups (API-i) in municipalities of three states (Amazonas, Bolivar, and Sucre) were calculated and compared using the Kruskal Wallis test, risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection were identified via binomial logistic regression and maps were constructed to identify clusters of malaria cases among indigenous patients via Moran's I and Getis-Ord's hot spot analysis. RESULTS: 116,097 cases of malaria in Amerindian groups were registered during the study period. An increasing trend was observed between 2014 and 2016 but reverted in 2018. Malaria incidence remains higher than in 2014 and hot spots were identified in the three states, although more importantly in the south of Bolivar. Most cases (73.3%) were caused by Plasmodium vivax, but the Hoti, Yanomami, and Eñepa indigenous groups presented higher odds for infection with Plasmodium falciparum. CONCLUSION: Malaria cases among Amerindian populations increased between 2014 and 2018 and seem to have a different geographic distribution than those among the general population. These findings suggest that tailored interventions will be necessary to curb the impact of malaria transmission in these groups.


Asunto(s)
Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Indios Sudamericanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis Espacial , Venezuela/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 66(2): 156-171, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182852

RESUMEN

Studies of the current Chilean population performed using classical genetic markers have established that the Chilean population originated primarily from the admixture of European people, particularly Spaniards, and Amerindians. A socioeconomic-ethno-genetic cline was established soon after the conquest. Spaniards born in Spain or Chile occupied the highest Socioeconomic Strata, while Amerindians belonged to the lowest. The intermediate strata consisted of people with different degrees of ethnic admixture; the larger the European admixture, the higher the Socioeconomic Level. The present study of molecular genomic markers sought to calculate the percentage of Amerindian admixture and revealed a finer distribution of this cline, as well as differences between two Amerindian groups: Aymara and Mapuche. The use of two socioeconomic classifications - Class and Socioeconomic Level - reveals important differences. Furthermore, Self-reported Ethnicity (self-assignment to an ethnic group) and Self-reported Ancestry (self-recognition of Amerindian ancestors) show variations and differing relationships between socioeconomic classifications and genomic Amerindian Admixture. These data constitute a valuable input for the formulation of public healthcare policy and show that the notions of Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Strata and Class should always be a consideration in policy development.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos , Genómica , Chile , Frecuencia de los Genes , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos/genética , España
17.
Hum Genet ; 140(12): 1651-1661, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047840

RESUMEN

Puberty is a complex developmental process that varies considerably among individuals and populations. Genetic factors explain a large proportion of the variability of several pubertal traits. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of variants involved in traits that result from body growth, like adult height. However, they do not capture many genetic loci involved in growth changes over distinct growth phases. Further, such GWAS have been mostly performed in Europeans, but it is unknown how these findings relate to other continental populations. In this study, we analyzed the genetic basis of three pubertal traits; namely, peak height velocity (PV), age at PV (APV) and height at APV (HAPV). We analyzed a cohort of 904 admixed Chilean children and adolescents with European and Mapuche Native American ancestries. Height was measured on roughly a [Formula: see text]month basis from childhood to adolescence between 2006 and 2019. We predict that, in average, HAPV is 4.3 cm higher in European than in Mapuche adolescents (P = 0.042), and APV is 0.73 years later in European compared with Mapuche adolescents (P = 0.023). Further, by performing a GWAS on 774, 433 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a genetic signal harboring 3 linked variants significantly associated with PV in boys (P [Formula: see text]). This signal has never been associated with growth-related traits.


Asunto(s)
Indios Sudamericanos/genética , Pubertad/genética , Adolescente , Desarrollo del Adolescente , Adulto , Envejecimiento/genética , Estatura/genética , Chile , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Femenino , Variación Genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Elife ; 102021 05 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988506

RESUMEN

In high-income countries, one's relative socio-economic position and economic inequality may affect health and well-being, arguably via psychosocial stress. We tested this in a small-scale subsistence society, the Tsimane, by associating relative household wealth (n = 871) and community-level wealth inequality (n = 40, Gini = 0.15-0.53) with a range of psychological variables, stressors, and health outcomes (depressive symptoms [n = 670], social conflicts [n = 401], non-social problems [n = 398], social support [n = 399], cortisol [n = 811], body mass index [n = 9,926], blood pressure [n = 3,195], self-rated health [n = 2523], morbidities [n = 1542]) controlling for community-average wealth, age, sex, household size, community size, and distance to markets. Wealthier people largely had better outcomes while inequality associated with more respiratory disease, a leading cause of mortality. Greater inequality and lower wealth were associated with higher blood pressure. Psychosocial factors did not mediate wealth-health associations. Thus, relative socio-economic position and inequality may affect health across diverse societies, though this is likely exacerbated in high-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Indios Sudamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Edad , Bolivia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105778, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836465

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oily fish is a major dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and other nutrients that may reduce the expression of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) biomarkers, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin. However, information on this relationship is limited. We aimed to assess the association between oily fish intake and WMH severity in a population of frequent fish consumers. METHODS: The study included 572 individuals aged ≥60 years living in three neighboring rural villages of coastal Ecuador. Dietary oily fish intake was calculated and all participants received a brain MRI. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics, level of education, cardiovascular risk factors and other cSVD biomarkers, were fitted to assess the independent association between amounts of oily fish intake and WMH severity. RESULTS: Overall, the mean intake of oily fish was 8.5 ± 4.7 servings per week, and 164 individuals (29%) had moderate-to-severe WMH (according to the modified Fazekas scale). A multivariate logistic regression model disclosed a significant inverse association between the amount of oily fish intake and the presence of moderate-to-severe WMH (OR: 0.89; 95% C.I.: 0.85-0.94; p < 0.001). Predictive margins revealed an almost linear inverse relationship between quartiles of oily fish intake and probabilities of WMH severity, which became significant when the 1st quartile was compared with the 3rd and 4th quartiles. CONCLUSIONS: Increased amounts of oily fish intake are inversely associated with WMH severity. Further studies are warranted to determine whether oily fish intake reduces the risk of cSVD-related cerebrovascular complications.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable/etnología , Aceites de Pescado/administración & dosificación , Indios Sudamericanos , Leucoencefalopatías/prevención & control , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos Marinos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatías/diagnóstico por imagen , Leucoencefalopatías/etnología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Protectores , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009327, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced health authorities across the world to take important decisions to curtail its spread. Genomic epidemiology has emerged as a valuable tool to understand introductions and spread of the virus in a specific geographic location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the sequences of 59 SARS-CoV-2 samples from inhabitants of the Colombian Amazonas department. The viral genomes were distributed in two robust clusters within the distinct GISAID clades GH and G. Spatial-temporal analyses revealed two independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 in the region, one around April 1, 2020 associated with a local transmission, and one around April 2, 2020 associated with other South American genomes (Uruguay and Brazil). We also identified ten lineages circulating in the Amazonas department including the P.1 variant of concern (VOC). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first genomic epidemiology investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in one of the territories with the highest report of indigenous communities of the country. Such findings are essential to decipher viral transmission, inform on global spread and to direct implementation of infection prevention and control measures for these vulnerable populations, especially, due to the recent circulation of one of the variants of concern (P.1) associated with major transmissibility and possible reinfections.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , COVID-19/etnología , COVID-19/transmisión , Colombia/epidemiología , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análisis Espacial , Factores de Tiempo
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