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2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e21, 2020 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159474

RESUMEN

We discuss opportunities in applying the resource-rationality framework toward answering questions in emotion and mental health research. These opportunities rely on characterization of individual differences in cognitive strategies; an endeavor that may be at odds with the normative approach outlined in the target article. We consider ways individual differences might enter the framework and the translational opportunities offered by each.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Salud Mental , Comprensión , Emociones , Humanos , Individualidad
4.
Science ; 367(6482): 1112-1119, 2020 03 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139539

RESUMEN

The genome versus experience dichotomy has dominated understanding of behavioral individuality. By contrast, the role of nonheritable noise during brain development in behavioral variation is understudied. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we demonstrate a link between stochastic variation in brain wiring and behavioral individuality. A visual system circuit called the dorsal cluster neurons (DCN) shows nonheritable, interindividual variation in right/left wiring asymmetry and controls object orientation in freely walking flies. We show that DCN wiring asymmetry instructs an individual's object responses: The greater the asymmetry, the better the individual orients toward a visual object. Silencing DCNs abolishes correlations between anatomy and behavior, whereas inducing DCN asymmetry suffices to improve object responses.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Drosophila melanogaster/crecimiento & desarrollo , Individualidad , Neurogénesis , Campos Visuales/fisiología , Vías Visuales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Variación Genética , Orientación/fisiología , Vías Visuales/anatomía & histología
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228416, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012193

RESUMEN

Intrusive memories are a core symptom of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). A growing body of analogue studies using trauma films suggest that carrying out specific demanding tasks (e.g., playing the video game Tetris, pattern tapping) after the analogue trauma can reduce intrusive memories. To examine the mechanism behind this effect, we tested whether mere engagement with attention-grabbing and interesting visual stimuli disrupts intrusive memories, and whether this depends on working memory resources and/or the concurrent activation of trauma film memories. In a total sample of 234 healthy participants, we compared no-task control conditions to a perceptual rating task with visually arresting video clips (i.e., non-emotional, complex, moving displays), to a less arresting task with non-moving, blurred pictures (Study 1), and to more demanding imagery tasks with and without repetitive reminders of the trauma film (Study 2). Generally, we found moderate to strong evidence that none of the conditions lead to differences in intrusion frequency. Moreover, our data suggest that intrusive memories were neither related to individual differences in working memory capacity (i.e., operation span performance; Study 1), nor to the degree of engagement with a visuospatial task (i.e., one-week recognition performance; Study 2). Taken together, our findings suggest that the boundary conditions for successful interference with traumatic intrusions may be more complex and subtle than assumed. Future studies may want to test the role of prediction errors during (re-)consolidation, deliberate efforts to suppress thoughts, or the compatibility of the task demands with the individual's skills.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Individualidad , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa , Reconocimiento en Psicología/fisiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Estrés Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Atención , Femenino , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Procesamiento Espacial , Juegos de Video , Adulto Joven
7.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(3): 292-293, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042120
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228271, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049999

RESUMEN

Studying personal identity, the continuity and sameness of persons across lifetimes, is notoriously difficult and competing conceptualizations exist within philosophy and psychology. Personal reidentification, linking persons between points in time is a fundamental step in allocating merit and blame and assigning rights and privileges. Based on Nozick's (1981) closest continuer theory we develop a theoretical framework that explicitly invites a meaningful empirical approach and offers a constructive, integrative solution to current disputes about appropriate experiments. Following Nozick, reidentification involves judging continuers on a metric of continuity and choosing the continuer with the highest acceptable value on this metric. We explore both the metric and its implications for personal identity. Since James (1890), academic theories have variously attributed personal identity to the continuity of memories, psychology, bodies, social networks, and possessions. In our experiments, we measure how participants (N = 1, 525) weighted the relative contributions of these five dimensions in hypothetical fission accidents, in which a person was split into two continuers. Participants allocated compensation money (Study 1) or adjudicated inheritance claims (Study 2) and reidentified the original person. Most decided based on the continuity of memory, personality, and psychology, with some consideration given to the body and social relations. Importantly, many participants identified the original with both continuers simultaneously, violating the transitivity of identity relations. We discuss the findings and their relevance for philosophy and psychology and place our approach within the current theoretical and empirical landscape.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Conocimiento , Masculino , Memoria , Autoimagen , Identificación Social
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229338, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092102

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: International medical electives, whereby undergraduates visit an institution in a country other than their own, are a common part of medical training. Visiting students are often asked to provide local teaching, which may be acceptable where the visitor is acting within the bounds of their own competency and the normal practices of both their home and host institutions. However, the extent to which teaching is an accepted student activity globally has not previously been described. This study aims to address this using an international survey approach. METHODS: A voluntary electronic survey, created using the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES) framework, was distributed across established international medical student networks. This assessed the involvement of medical students in teaching and the educator training they receive, with the intention of comparing experiences between high-income countries (HICs) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs) to gauge the engagement of both "host" and "visiting" students. RESULTS: 443 students from 61 countries completed the survey, with an equal proportion of respondents from LMICs (49.4%, 219/443) and HICs (50.6%, 224/443). Around two thirds of students reported providing teaching whilst at medical school, with most reporting teaching numerous times a year, mainly to more junior medical students. There was with no significant difference between LMICs and HICs. Around 30 per cent of all medical students reported having received no teacher training, including 40 per cent of those already providing teaching. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that students are engaged in teaching globally, with no difference between HIC and LMIC contexts. However, students are underprepared to act as educators in both settings. Providing teaching as part of an elective experience may be ethically acceptable to both host and home institutions, but needs to be supported by formal training in delivering teaching.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Educación Médica , Participación de los Interesados , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza , Adulto , Curriculum/normas , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Educación Médica/normas , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Participación de los Interesados/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Formación del Profesorado/organización & administración , Formación del Profesorado/normas , Formación del Profesorado/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Enseñanza/normas
10.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226929, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017778

RESUMEN

The effect of culture on strategic interaction has been widely explored. However, the effect of the cultural background on focal point selection in tacit coordination games has not yet been examined. To accomplish this goal, in this study we have focused on the individual level of analysis. That is, we constructed a strategic profile to model the behavior of each individual player and then used unsupervised learning methods on the individual data points. We have chosen to examine two groups of participants, Israelis (ICB) and Chinese (CCB), each belonging to a different cultural background representing individualist and collectivist societies, respectively. Clustering the individual strategic profiles has allowed us to gain further insights regarding the differences between the behavioral strategies of each cultural group. The results of this study demonstrate that the cultural background has a profound effect on the strategic profile and on the ability to succeed in tacit coordination games. Moreover, the current study emphasizes the importance of relying on the individual level of analysis and not only on the group level of analysis. The implications of these results and potential future studies are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Cultura , Conducta Social , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Israel , Masculino , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
11.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(3): 411-422, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066980

RESUMEN

Communication plays an integral role in human social dynamics and is impaired in several neurodevelopmental disorders. Mice are used to study the neurobiology of social behavior; however, the extent to which mouse vocalizations influence social dynamics has remained elusive because it is difficult to identify the vocalizing animal among mice involved in a group interaction. By tracking the ultrasonic vocal behavior of individual mice and using an algorithm developed to group phonically similar signals, we showed that distinct patterns of vocalization emerge as male mice perform specific social actions. Mice dominating other mice were more likely to emit different vocal signals than mice avoiding social interactions. Furthermore, we showed that the patterns of vocal expression influence the behavior of the socially engaged partner but do not influence the behavior of other animals in the cage. These findings clarify the function of mouse communication by revealing a communicative ultrasonic signaling repertoire.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación Animal , Conducta Social , Ultrasonido , Vocalización Animal/fisiología , Agresión , Algoritmos , Animales , Femenino , Individualidad , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Ratones , Predominio Social , Localización de Sonidos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229310, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074130

RESUMEN

There is ample evidence that meditation can regulate emotions. It is questionable, however, whether meditation can down-regulate sensitivity to emotional experience in high-level cognitive representations such as words. The present study shows that adept Zen meditators rated the emotional valence of (low-arousal) positive and (high- and low-arousal) negative nouns significantly more neutral after a meditation session, while there was no change of valence ratings after a comparison intervention in the comparison group. Because the Zen group provided greater "openness to experience" and lower "need for achievement and performance" in the "Big Five" personality assessment, we used these scores as covariates for all analyses. We found no differential emotion effects of Zen meditation during lexical decision, but we replicated the slow-down of low-arousal negative words during lexical decision in both groups. Interestingly, Zen meditation elicited a global facilitation of all response times, which we discuss in terms of increased attentional resources after meditation.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta , Discriminación en Psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Lenguaje , Meditación/psicología , Procesos Mentales/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Inteligencia , Masculino , Meditación/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas de Personalidad , Tiempo de Reacción , Adulto Joven
13.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 13(1): 1-10, jan.-abr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090453

RESUMEN

O processo de individualização em gêmeos se mostra mais complexo se comparado com filhos singulares, envolvendo maiores questões em relação à separação entre o bebê e a mãe, também entre os próprios cogêmeos. Devido ao aumento de nascimentos de gêmeos, o assunto é atual, porém ainda são poucos os estudos na área. O trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a produção científica brasileira sobre o processo de individualização em gêmeos na atualidade. Para isso, realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica integrativa em bases de dados online, de artigos e teses referentes à temática. Foram selecionados e analisados 14 trabalhos científicos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Verificou-se dificuldade em estudar o processo de individualização em gêmeos devido a algumas de suas particularidades, como a genética e ambiente de criação compartilhados, intensificando, consequentemente, as ideações e práticas culturais sobre o desenvolvimento gemelar. Assim, entende-se a necessidade de estudos mais aprofundados.


The process of individualization of twins appears to be more complex when compared with individual children, involving major issues regarding the separation between the baby and the mother and also among the twins themselves. Because of the increase in births of twins, this is a current subject, although there are still few studies in the area. This study aimed to investigate the Brazilian scientific production about the individualization process in twins today. For this, an integrative literature review of online databases was conducted, including papers and theses concerning the subject. A total of 14 scientific studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected and analyzed. While studying the process of individualization of twins, some challenges appeared, mainly due to particularities like shared genetics and raising environment, which consequently intensify the ideation and cultural practices related to the growth of twins. Thus, further studies are considered necessary.


Asunto(s)
Gemelos , Individualidad , Psicología Social , Relaciones entre Hermanos , Relaciones Familiares
14.
Emotion ; 20(1): 10-15, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961171

RESUMEN

To date, the field of emotion regulation (ER) has largely focused on intrinsic ER (i.e., regulation of one's own emotions) and has only recently started to investigate extrinsic ER (i.e., regulation of another person's emotions). This article selectively reviews current findings in order to answer the following questions: (a) What is extrinsic ER, and how can it be distinguished from related constructs such as emotion contagion, empathy, prosocial behavior, and social support? (b) How can we best model the processes through which extrinsic ER occurs as well as individual differences in extrinsic ER ability? The answers show that although extrinsic ER has much in common with intrinsic ER, the 2 cannot be equated. Research is therefore needed on the extrinsic side of ER. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Empatía , Objetivos , Humanos , Individualidad , Modelos Psicológicos , Apoyo Social
15.
Emotion ; 20(1): 21-29, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961173

RESUMEN

What are the cognitive processes that allow flexible responses to the changing demands of varying emotional contexts? Previous research suggests that higher levels of cognitive control are linked to successful emotion regulation. In particular, the implementation of emotion regulation strategies has been associated with individual differences in cognitive control, including (a) inhibiting prepotent responses, (b) updating information in working memory, and (c) shifting mental sets. Although most of this work has focused on the relationship between cognitive control and the short-term implementation of regulatory strategies, cognitive control may be even more important for understanding the dynamic adaptation to varying emotional contexts, that is, emotion regulation flexibility. However, cognitive control and emotion regulation flexibility have not been investigated in conjunction, resulting in a lack of a coherent understanding. In this article, we describe a framework outlining the importance of cognitive control for understanding three key components of emotion regulation flexibility: (a) strategy stopping or switching, (b) strategy maintenance, and (c) monitoring. We highlight the relevance of studying each of these components through the lens of cognitive control processes, particularly focusing on the tradeoff between shielding versus shifting goals and goal-directed behavior in various emotional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Adaptación Psicológica , Humanos , Individualidad , Inhibición Psicológica , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0221136, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986141

RESUMEN

In recent years, consistent individual differences in behavior, or personalities, have been a topic of increasing interest as researchers strive to understand and predict the responses of individuals and populations to anthropogenic changes. Behavioral studies in wild populations often require that animals are live trapped before behavioral observation can occur, and this is especially true in studies investigating animal personalities. However, it is unknown whether the amount of time confined to a live trap may regulate the behavior of trapped individuals. Specifically, if the duration of trap confinement directly influences behavior, then by obtaining wild animals through live trapping we may be confounding the very measurements of greatest interest. To investigate whether the duration of trap confinement influences the behavior of trapped individuals, we performed a study on two small mammal species, focusing specifically on personality traits. We positioned high-definition trail cameras facing Longworth small mammal traps in the field to observe capture events and record the time of capture. We then measured personality in captured deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and southern red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) using three standardized tests, and through linear and generalized linear models we found that the time an animal had spent confined to a trap before testing did not affect 86% of behaviors exhibited. Our results showed two weak behavioral effects of confinement duration on boldness and docility resulting from an interaction between the duration of confinement and whether or not an individual was naïve to trapping. Our results suggest that behavioral measurements of wild, trapped small mammals are not determined by the time spent confined to a trap. However, researchers should use caution and consider whether an animal is naïve to trapping during analysis since habituation to the live trap may play a role in the effects of confinement duration on behavior.


Asunto(s)
Arvicolinae/fisiología , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Individualidad , Peromyscus/fisiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Mamíferos , Roedores/fisiología
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227995, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995586

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity is marked by insufficient reflection and forethought, whereas Need for Cognition (NFC) also referred to as cognitive motivation or intellectual engagement is marked by elaborated thinking. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of these personality traits as resilience or risk factors, respectively, in diabetes self-management and glycaemic control. Further, it was examined whether diabetes-specific self-efficacy could serve as a mediator of these relationships. DESIGN/MEASURES: Data of 77 participants with type 2 diabetes was ascertained, using self-report instruments for NFC, impulsivity, diabetes-specific self-efficacy, and diabetes self-management. Glycemic control was assessed by the biomarker HbA1c. RESULTS: While NFC was strongly positively associated with diabetes self-management and glycemic control, impulsivity showed a reverse pattern. Results of simple and serial mediation models showed that the effects on diabetes self-management and HbA1c of both, impulsivity and NFC, were mediated by self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: The moderate to high standardized coefficients suggests that NFC might be an important protective factor and impulsivity a possible risk factor for effective diabetes self-management and glycemic control. These traits could be applied for an easy-to-use questionnaire-based patient screening, enabling trait-tailored treatments and programs which in turn may lower economic and health costs associated with poor diabetes-care.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicología , Hiperglucemia/prevención & control , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Individualidad , Resiliencia Psicológica , Automanejo , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , Autoeficacia , Autoinforme
19.
20.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113855, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918136

RESUMEN

The potential influence of microplastic debris on marine organisms is an issue of great ecological and socioeconomic concern. Experiments exposing fishes and invertebrates to constant concentrations of microplastics often yield high variation in particle ingestion rates among individuals. Yet, despite an increasing interest in microplastic ingestion in the wild, the potential intrinsic drivers of inter-individual variation have received little attention so far. Here we assessed individual-level ingestion of Polyethylene microspheres by laboratory-reared juvenile anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, in relation to (a) ambient particle concentrations and (b) repeatable behavioural traits. We show that microplastic ingestion is highly variable at all tested particle concentrations and that this variation can partially be explained by individual activity levels. Moreover, the relationship between ingestion and behavioural variation increased notably when only the most behaviourally consistent individuals (n = 40 out of 60) were considered in the analysis. Our findings indicate that microplastic ingestion rates in juvenile reef fishes may be less dependent on ambient concentrations than expected; instead they are to some degree phenotype-dependent. Care should thus be taken when reporting mean responses to microplastic exposure treatments, because some individuals may not be affected in the same way as others due to differential ingestion behaviour. We also discuss potential ramifications of non-random ingestion variability on population- and community-level responses.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Peces , Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Individualidad , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Fenotipo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
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