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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111393, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753179

RESUMEN

The sources of marine debris (MD) on a small island are largely dependent on the activities on and around the island, one of which is tourism. In this study, the magnitude and tourists' perceptions of MD on a small tourism island (Tidung Islands, Jakarta, Indonesia) were assessed. The results indicated that the tourism is one of the largest waste-generating sources. Plastic waste formed the major proportion of the solid waste, accounting for 83.86% of the total. The unmanaged tourism waste led to a clean-coastal index corresponding to the category "extremely dirty" and decreasing visitors' acceptance index. The resulting conditions will make the tourism unsustainable. In tourism, waste management should be focused on, including prevention and collaborative actions with residents and tourism actors. In addition, the tourist awareness campaigns must be conducted prior to tourist-visitation on the island.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Administración de Residuos , Indonesia , Islas , Residuos Sólidos
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(10): 2244-2249, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701501

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic activities such as oil exploration have resulted in an environmental concern as they are comprised of residual hydrocarbons and metals. Following the hypothesis that endogenous bacterial communities have enhanced tolerance to heavy metals, we isolated and characterized culturable lead-resistant bacteria from an oil wastewater sample and determined whether they could reduce lead ions from the medium. The wastewater sample containing indigenous bacteria were taken out from a traditional oil field, Bojonegoro District, East Java, Indonesia, and bacteria were cultured Halomonas complex (HMC) medium containing lead (II) chloride (PbCl2) with different concentrations. Bioaccumulation of lead by heavy-metals resistant bacteria was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Our result found 21 bacterial strains that resist lead ions, of which one strain (RPb5-3) highly resisted to 10 mM. This bacterial strain also exhibited the highest accumulation of Pb, and it could grow at various temperatures, or more than their original environment. The bacterial strains could be used for bioremediation of lead toxicity, especially in oil pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Aguas Residuales , Bacterias , Biodegradación Ambiental , Indonesia , Plomo
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21111, 2020 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629744

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Intermittent combined pancreaticobiliary obstruction may lead to multiple episodes of ascending cholangitis and pancreatitis, usually due to choledocholithiasis or periampullary mass. However, one of the rare causes is periampullary or juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum. Although duodenal diverticula are relatively common in the general population, the overwhelming majority are asymptomatic. Duodenal diverticula can cause combined pancreaticobiliary obstruction through multiple mechanisms such as stasis-induced primary choledocholithiasis, stasis-induced intradiverticular enterolith, or longstanding diverticulitis, causing stenosing fibrosing papillitis or a combination of more than one of these mechanisms. Herein, I report a case of Lemmel syndrome due to a combination of multiple mechanisms and review the available literature on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, and management of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum. PATIENT CONCERNS: Multiple episodes of abdominal pain, jaundice, anorexia, fever, and significant unintentional weight loss. DIAGNOSES AND INTERVENTIONS: Primary choledocholithiasis, recurrent ascending cholangitis, recurrent acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic atrophy due to giant juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum, with unsuccessful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography that was completely resolved after open transduodenal sphincteroplasty and septoplasty, transampullary and transcystic common bile duct exploration and stone extraction, and duodenal diverticular inversion. OUTCOME: Complete resolution of combined pancreaticobiliary obstruction without recurrence for 2 years after surgery. LESSONS: Surgeons should be aware of such rare syndromes to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed or inappropriate management. Furthermore, they should understand the different available operative options for cases that are refractory to endoscopic approach.


Asunto(s)
Colangitis/complicaciones , Divertículo/complicaciones , Ictericia/etiología , Pancreatitis/complicaciones , Dolor Abdominal/etiología , Atrofia , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efectos adversos , Coledocolitiasis/complicaciones , Colestasis/etiología , Colestasis/patología , Diverticulitis/complicaciones , Divertículo/patología , Divertículo/cirugía , Neoplasias Duodenales/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia/etnología , Enfermedades Pancreáticas/patología , Recurrencia , Esfinterotomía Transduodenal/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21177, 2020 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702876

RESUMEN

Although dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has been shown to improve index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), the importance of the early DAPT administration on IMR and left ventricular function has not been clearly defined. In this study, we aimed to assess whether early DAPT administration affect IMR, epicardial flow, and left ventricular function in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).This was a prospective non-randomized study on STEMI receiving primary PCI in a tertiary hospital. All subjects received loading dose DAPT (Aspirin + Clopidogrel) before primary PCI. Patients were then divided into 2 groups, the first group consists of patients receiving DAPT time ≤2 hours and the second group consists of those with DAPT time >2 hours. The primary endpoint of this study was IMR, a microvasculature function index measured quantitatively by pressure-/temperature-tipped guidewire after balloon dilatation. The secondary endpoint was the mean difference of global longitudinal strain (GLS) change at 6 months follow-up, TIMI flow before, and after PCI between the 2 groups.There were 40 subjects qualified for the study, 20 subjects in each group. There was no significant difference in IMR (50.90 [34.66] vs 58.06 [45.56], P = .579) between the 2 groups. Early administration of DAPT improved ventricular function at 6 months, reflected by statistically significant greater improvement in terms of ΔGLS (-3.48 [2.61] vs -1.23 [2.87], P = .013) and Δejection fraction (10.65% [8.74] vs -0.75% [12.83], P = .002) in the DAPT time ≤2 hours group compared with DAPT time >2 hours group. TIMI flow before PCI (P = .653) and TIMI flow after PCI (P = .205) were similar in the 2 groups.Early DAPT administration ≤2 hours may improve left ventricular function, but not IMR and TIMI flow.


Asunto(s)
Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/métodos , Inhibidores de Agregación Plaquetaria/normas , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia , Masculino , Microvasos/efectos de los fármacos , Microvasos/fisiopatología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/normas , Inhibidores de Agregación Plaquetaria/uso terapéutico , Estudios Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/fisiopatología , Función Ventricular/efectos de los fármacos
5.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(5): 488-490, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525377

RESUMEN

The purpose of this article is to provide a brief report on how the Indonesian population has experienced the COVID-19 pandemic in the first 2 months since the establishment of COVID-19 Rapid Response Task Force on March 13. The discussion will focus on the psychological trauma that the population has experienced due to the lack of preparedness, the poorly equipped health care system, and lockdown policies in dealing with the spread of the coronavirus. Four different types of psychological trauma were increasingly observed, based on digital communication with people affected and reports from the news and social media. These 4 types of psychological trauma were social withdrawal, hysteria, individual violence, and collective violence. On the basis of the described psychological consequences of the pandemic, it can be assumed that both the individual and collective reactions must be considered to reduce harm of the coronavirus pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Síntomas Conductuales , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Violencia Doméstica , Miedo , Control de Infecciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Trauma Psicológico , Aislamiento Social , Estigma Social , Desempleo , Adulto , Síntomas Conductuales/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Humanos , Indonesia , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Desempleo/psicología , Adulto Joven
6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(7): 746-755, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572175

RESUMEN

The lack of effective pharmaceutical interventions for SARS-CoV-2 raises the possibility of COVID-19 recurrence. We explore different post-confinement scenarios by using a stochastic modified SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered) model that accounts for the spread of infection during the latent period and also incorporates time-decaying effects due to potential loss of acquired immunity, people's increasing awareness of social distancing and the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Our results suggest that lockdowns should remain in place for at least 60 days to prevent epidemic growth, as well as a potentially larger second wave of SARS-CoV-2 cases occurring within months. The best-case scenario should also gradually incorporate workers in a daily proportion at most 50% higher than during the confinement period. We show that decaying immunity and particularly awareness and behaviour have 99% significant effects on both the current wave of infection and on preventing COVID-19 re-emergence. Social distancing and individual non-pharmaceutical interventions could potentially remove the need for lockdowns.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Máscaras , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Política Pública , Argentina/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Japón/epidemiología , Modelos Estadísticos , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Riesgo , Conducta Social , España/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 258: 113119, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534301

RESUMEN

Healthcare workers have emerged as a vulnerable population group during COVID-19, and securing supply chains of personal protective equipment (PPE) has been identified as a critical issue to protect healthcare workers and to prevent health system overwhelm. While securing PPE is a complex logistical challenge facing many countries, it is vital to recognise the social and health systems issues that structure the differential degrees of risk faced by various subgroups of healthcare workers. As an illustrative case study, the author identifies two key social factors that are likely to face the degrees of risk faced by midwives in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, if and when COVID-19 takes hold in Indonesia. Healthcare workers in both high and low resource-settings globally are likely to face particular risks and vulnerabilities that are shaped by localized social and health systems factors. Qualitative social and health systems research can and should be utilized proactively in order to protect healthcare workers, to inform more equitable program design, and to create a foundation for health equity within the future of global health that emerges from the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Personal de Salud , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Partería , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sociológicos
9.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(3): 158-163, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498137

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In the current early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, Bali needs to prepare to face the escalation of cases, with a particular focus on the readiness of healthcare services. We simulated the future trajectory of the epidemic under current conditions, projected the impact of policy interventions, and analyzed the implications for healthcare capacity. METHODS: Our study was based on the first month of publicly accessible data on new confirmed daily cases. A susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered (SEIR) model for COVID-19 was employed to compare the current dynamics of the disease with those predicted under various scenarios. RESULTS: The fitted model for the cumulative number of confirmed cases in Bali indicated an effective reproduction number of 1.4. Interventions have decreased the possible maximum number of cases from 71 125 on day 86 to 22 340 on day 119, and have prolonged the doubling time from about 9 days to 21 days. This corresponds to an approximately 30% reduction in transmissions from cases of mild infections. There will be 2780 available hospital beds, and at the peak (on day 132), the number of severe cases is estimated to be roughly 6105. Of these cases, 1831 will need intensive care unit (ICU) beds, whereas the number of currently available ICU beds is roughly 446. CONCLUSIONS: The healthcare system in Bali is in danger of collapse; thus, serious efforts are needed to improve COVID-19 interventions and to prepare the healthcare system in Bali to the greatest extent possible.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Sector de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Sector de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Política de Salud , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232080, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379774

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Indonesia's national health information systems collect data on maternal deaths but the completeness of reporting is questionable, making it difficult to design appropriate interventions. This study examines the completeness of maternal death reporting by the district health office (DHO) system in Banten Province. METHOD: We used a nested-control study design to compare data on maternal deaths in 2016 from the DHO reporting system and the MADE-IN/MADE-FOR method in two districts and one municipality in Banten Province, with the aim of identifying and characterizing missed deaths in the DHO reporting system. The capture-recapture method was used to assess the magnitude of underreporting of maternal deaths by both systems. RESULTS: A total of 169 maternal deaths were reported in the MADE-IN/MADE-FOR study for calendar year 2016 in the three study areas. The DHO system reported 105 maternal deaths for the same period, of which 90 cases were found in both data sources. Capture-recapture analyses suggest that the MADE-IN/MADE-FOR approach identified 92% (95% CI: 87%-95%) of all maternal deaths, while the DHO system captured 57% (95% CI: 50%-64%) of all maternal deaths. Deaths of women who resided in urban areas had four times higher odds (OR 4.3, 95% CI: 1.52-12.3) of being missed by the DHO system compared to deaths among women who lived in rural or remote areas after adjusting for other covariates. CONCLUSION: The DHO reporting system missed approximately half of the maternal deaths in the 3 study areas, suggesting that the DHO system is likely to grossly underestimate the maternal mortality ratio. The DHO reporting system needs to be improved to capture and characterize all maternal deaths.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Materna , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29352-29360, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440875

RESUMEN

Cement is a vital material used in the construction of concrete buildings. World annual cement demand is increasing rapidly along with the improvement in infrastructure development. However, cement manufacturing industries are facing challenges in reducing the environmental impacts of cement production. To resolve this issue, a suitable methodology is crucial to ensure the selected processes are effective and efficient and at the same time environmentally friendly. Different technologies and equipment have potential to produce variations in operational effectiveness, environmental impacts, and manufacturing costs in cement manufacturing industries. Therefore, this work aims to present the sustainability assessment of cement plants by taking into consideration of environmental, social, and economic impacts. Three cement production plants located in Western Indonesian are used as case studies where social impact and environmental impact are evaluated via life cycle assessment (LCA) model. This model is integrated with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multi-criteria decision analysis tool in selecting the most sustainable cement manufacturing plant.


Asunto(s)
Materiales de Construcción , Ambiente , Indonesia , Industria Manufacturera
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 364, 2020 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448167

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reports of human rickettsial infection in Indonesia are limited. This study sought to characterize the epidemiology of human rickettsioses amongst patients hospitalized with fever at 8 tertiary hospitals in Indonesia. METHODS: Acute and convalescent blood from 975 hospitalized non-dengue patients was tested for Rickettsia IgM and IgG by ELISA. Specimens from cases with seroconversion or increasing IgM and/or IgG titers were tested for Rickettsia IgM and IgG by IFA and Rickettsia genomes using primers for Rickettsia (R.) sp, R. typhi, and Orientia tsutsugamushi. Testing was performed retrospectively on stored specimens; results did not inform patient management. RESULTS: R. typhi, R. rickettsii, and O. tsutsugamushi IgG antibodies were identified in 269/872 (30.8%), 36/634 (5.7%), and 19/504 (3.8%) of samples, respectively. For the 103/975 (10.6%) non-dengue patients diagnosed with acute rickettsial infection, presenting symptoms included nausea (72%), headache (69%), vomiting (43%), lethargy (33%), anorexia (32%), arthralgia (30%), myalgia (28%), chills (28%), epigastric pain (28%), and rash (17%). No acute rickettsioses cases were suspected during hospitalization. Discharge diagnoses included typhoid fever (44), dengue fever (20), respiratory infections (7), leptospirosis (6), unknown fever (6), sepsis (5), hepatobiliary infections (3), UTI (3), and others (9). Fatalities occurred in 7 (6.8%) patients, mostly with co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Rickettsial infections are consistently misdiagnosed, often as leptospirosis, dengue, or Salmonella typhi infection. Clinicians should include rickettsioses in their differential diagnosis of fever to guide empiric management; laboratories should support evaluation for rickettsial etiologies; and public policy should be implemented to reduce burden of disease.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre/diagnóstico , Hospitalización , Infecciones por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Rickettsia/epidemiología , Rickettsia rickettsii/inmunología , Rickettsia typhi/inmunología , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Niño , Preescolar , Dengue/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Fiebre/microbiología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Indonesia/epidemiología , Lactante , Leptospirosis/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Orientia tsutsugamushi/inmunología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones por Rickettsia/microbiología , Tifus por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Fiebre Tifoidea/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008749, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453742

RESUMEN

Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country, host to striking levels of human diversity, regional patterns of admixture, and varying degrees of introgression from both Neanderthals and Denisovans. However, it has been largely excluded from the human genomics sequencing boom of the last decade. To serve as a benchmark dataset of molecular phenotypes across the region, we generated genome-wide CpG methylation and gene expression measurements in over 100 individuals from three locations that capture the major genomic and geographical axes of diversity across the Indonesian archipelago. Investigating between- and within-island differences, we find up to 10.55% of tested genes are differentially expressed between the islands of Sumba and New Guinea. Variation in gene expression is closely associated with DNA methylation, with expression levels of 9.80% of genes correlating with nearby promoter CpG methylation, and many of these genes being differentially expressed between islands. Genes identified in our differential expression and methylation analyses are enriched in pathways involved in immunity, highlighting Indonesia's tropical role as a source of infectious disease diversity and the strong selective pressures these diseases have exerted on humans. Finally, we identify robust within-island variation in DNA methylation and gene expression, likely driven by fine-scale environmental differences across sampling sites. Together, these results strongly suggest complex relationships between DNA methylation, transcription, archaic hominin introgression and immunity, all jointly shaped by the environment. This has implications for the application of genomic medicine, both in critically understudied Indonesia and globally, and will allow a better understanding of the interacting roles of genomic and environmental factors shaping molecular and complex phenotypes.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Transcriptoma , Islas de CpG , Ambiente , Epigénesis Genética/fisiología , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/estadística & datos numéricos , Genética de Población , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/estadística & datos numéricos , Genómica/métodos , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Islas/epidemiología , Islas del Pacífico/epidemiología , Linaje , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , RNA-Seq
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232550, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433645

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The maternal mortality rate in Indonesia is still quite high. It requires good knowledge for early prevention. The study aimed to analyze the determinants of knowledge of the pregnancy danger signs in Indonesia. METHODS: The samples used were 85,832 women of childbearing age (15-49 years old). The variables included understanding of danger signs of pregnancy, types of residence, age, education, employment, marital status, wealth, parity, the autonomy of health, current pregnancy status, and media exposure. The determinant was pointed out by using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Urban women were 1.124 times more likely to understand the pregnancy danger signs of than rural women. Older women could identify pregnancy danger signs better than those aged 15-19 years. The more educated a woman is, the higher knowledge of the pregnancy danger signs she has. Married women or those who live with their partner were at 1.914 times likely to identify the pregnancy danger signs than unmarried ones or those who have never been in a relationship. If the wealth status gets higher, knowledge of the pregnancy danger signs will be better too. Grande multiparous women were at 0.815 times more likely to understand the pregnancy danger signs than primiparous. Women with the autonomy of health had 1.053 times chances to identify the pregnancy danger signs than those without autonomy. Women who were currently pregnant had 1.229 times better understanding of the pregnancy danger signs than women who were not currently pregnant. Media exposure had a good effect on women's understanding of the pregnancy danger signs. CONCLUSION: All variables tested were the determinants of knowledge of the pregnancy danger signs in Indonesia. These include residence, age, education, employment, marital status, wealth, parity, the autonomy of health, current pregnancy status, and media exposure.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia , Estado Civil , Persona de Mediana Edad , Paridad , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008295, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379762

RESUMEN

Genetic epidemiology can provide important insights into parasite transmission that can inform public health interventions. The current study compared long-term changes in the genetic diversity and structure of co-endemic Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax populations. The study was conducted in Papua Indonesia, where high-grade chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum and P. vivax led to a universal policy of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in 2006. Microsatellite typing and population genetic analyses were undertaken on available isolates collected between 2004 and 2017 from patients with uncomplicated malaria (n = 666 P. falciparum and n = 615 P. vivax). The proportion of polyclonal P. falciparum infections fell from 28% (38/135) before policy change (2004-2006) to 18% (22/125) at the end of the study (2015-2017); p<0.001. Over the same period, polyclonal P. vivax infections fell from 67% (80/119) to 35% (33/93); p<0.001. P. falciparum strains persisted for up to 9 years compared to 3 months for P. vivax, reflecting higher rates of outbreeding in the latter. Sub-structure was observed in the P. falciparum population, but not in P. vivax, confirming different patterns of outbreeding. The P. falciparum population exhibited 4 subpopulations that changed in frequency over time. Notably, a sharp rise was observed in the frequency of a minor subpopulation (K2) in the late post-ACT period, accounting for 100% of infections in late 2016-2017. The results confirm epidemiological evidence of reduced P. falciparum and P. vivax transmission over time. The smaller change in P. vivax population structure is consistent with greater outbreeding associated with relapsing infections and highlights the need for radical cure to reduce recurrent infections. The study emphasizes the challenge in disrupting P. vivax transmission and demonstrates the potential of molecular data to inform on the impact of public health interventions.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Artemisininas/uso terapéutico , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Lactonas/uso terapéutico , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Malaria Vivax/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria Vivax/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Femenino , Variación Genética , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Humanos , Indonesia , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epidemiología Molecular , Plasmodium falciparum/clasificación , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Plasmodium vivax/clasificación , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Plasmodium vivax/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232909, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379812

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Geographical variation may likely influence the effectiveness of prevention efforts for malaria across Indonesia, in addition to factors at the individual level, household level, and contextual factors. This study aimed to describe preventive practices at individual and a household levels applied by rural communities in five provinces in eastern Indonesia and its association with the incidence of malaria among adult (≥15 years) populations. METHODS: This study analyzed a subset of data of nationally representative community-based survey 2018 Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas). Data for socio-demographic (age, gender, education and occupation) and preventive behaviors (use of mosquito bed nets while slept, insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs), mosquito repellent, mosquito electric rackets, mosquito coil/electric anti-mosquito mats, and mosquito window screen) were collected. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Total of 56,159 respondents (n = 23,070 households) living in rural areas in Maluku (n = 8044), North Maluku (n = 7356), East Nusa Tenggara (n = 23,254), West Papua (n = 5759) and Papua (n = 11,746) were included in the study. In the multivariable models, using a bed net while slept likely reduced the odds of self-reported malaria among Maluku participants. Reduced odds ratios of self-reported malaria were identified in those participants who used ITNs (North Maluku, ENT, Papua), repellent (Maluku, West Papua, Papua), anti-mosquito racket (ENT), coil (Maluku, North Maluku, Papua) and window screen (West Papua, Papua). CONCLUSION: Our study concluded that the protective effects of preventive practices were varied among localities, suggesting the need for specific intervention programs.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/prevención & control , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antimaláricos/farmacología , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Indonesia/epidemiología , Repelentes de Insectos , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida/estadística & datos numéricos , Malaria/epidemiología , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110763, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425168

RESUMEN

Countries in the Asia-Pacific region are pioneers in the implementation of climate change mitigation initiatives. They have implemented readiness activities to fulfil the requirements for results-based payments from the forestry sector (termed REDD+). Using content analysis, a questionnaire, and a series of workshops with key stakeholders, we mapped the REDD + readiness of 11 Asia-Pacific countries with respect to UNFCCC's resolutions on REDD+. Their status was mapped against the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), which constitutes the five design elements of the Warsaw REDD + Framework and the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) requirements. While the overall achievements vary across the studied countries, our results demonstrate that Vietnam, Nepal, and Indonesia are in an advanced stage of REDD + readiness. A significant number of conditional NDCs and timely and adequate technical and financial support are imperative for the studied countries to achieve a high level of readiness. However, lack of trust and coordination among the state and non-state actors, limited national participation of Civil Society Organizations and Indigenous Peoples in REDD + related committees, and conflicts among regulatory frameworks related to forestry and other land uses remain common challenges for these countries. These challenges risk disrupting the essence of REDD + as a multi-level, multi-stage and multi-stakeholder governance system. Stakeholders in these countries are optimistic about a better performance of REDD + regarding emission reduction, enhanced livelihoods, improved forest governance and improvement in biodiversity. However, any optimism is challenged by stakeholder's own suspicion of the effectiveness of REDD + projects to achieve permanency and control leakage/displacement. Building political will and the development of context-specific benefit-sharing plans and their effective implementation could be important keys to maintaining optimism of stakeholders about REDD + initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Asia , Indonesia , Nepal , Vietnam
19.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126714, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464776

RESUMEN

Nowadays, the solid waste produced from palm oil has become one of the essential oils in the world in general and especially in Indonesia. Biomass waste is processed through substantial quantities of palm oil extraction. With the reduction in fossil fuels in recent years, it has had an impact on the deterioration of electricity supply at the National and International levels. Biomass is a renewable energy that can replace conventional energy. Besides, power generation from biomass is environmentally friendly and sustainable. This simulation was conducted to analyze the maximum power from the burning of oil palm biomass for the electricity generation. The novelty of the article is the performance and behavior of palm oil biomass-based co-fuel in the power generation process. The biomass wastes used in this simulation include OPF, EFB, PKS, and OPM. The results of this simulation indicate that the maximum power produced with OPF can produce 49.54 MW with variations in the flow rate of biomass at 8 kg/s. While at the time of recycling up to 100% OPM biomass produces 61.05 MW higher than OPF, EFB and PKS. Meanwhile, the OPF-PKS mixed biomass can produce 106.15 MW of power plants when the airflow rate reaches 171 kg/s. The overall results of the simulation for the analysis of the maximum power that can be used as a power station show suitability and can apply in rural/remote areas. Besides, the availability of oil palm biomass in Aceh Province is also sufficient to overcome electricity shortages and reduce dependence on conventional energy.


Asunto(s)
Aceite de Palma , Centrales Eléctricas , Residuos Sólidos , Biomasa , Electricidad , Combustibles Fósiles , Indonesia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 729: 139016, 2020 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361458

RESUMEN

This study aims to present the correlation between sunlight exposure and Covid-19 statuses in Jakarta, Indonesia. The secondary data analysis was derived from surveillance data for Covid-19 from government authorities, including the Ministry of Health, the Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency, and the local government of Jakarta. Three statuses related to Covid-19 were examined in the study: incidence, death, and recovered. Meanwhile, sunlight exposure was presented as daily duration of it. Only the number of recovered patients correlated significantly with sunlight exposure (p-value = .025; r = 0.350). This study's findings showed that sunlight exposure was associated with recovery from Covid-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Luz Solar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Indonesia , Neumonía Viral/terapia
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