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1.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(3): 346-355, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127685

RESUMEN

Dairy pastoralism is integral to contemporary and past lifeways on the eastern Eurasian steppe, facilitating survival in agriculturally challenging environments. While previous research has indicated that ruminant dairy pastoralism was practiced in the region by circa 1300 BC, the origin, extent and diversity of this custom remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse ancient proteins from human dental calculus recovered from geographically diverse locations across Mongolia and spanning 5,000 years. We present the earliest evidence for dairy consumption on the eastern Eurasian steppe by circa 3000 BC and the later emergence of horse milking at circa 1200 BC, concurrent with the first evidence for horse riding. We argue that ruminant dairying contributed to the demographic success of Bronze Age Mongolian populations and that the origins of traditional horse dairy products in eastern Eurasia are closely tied to the regional emergence of mounted herding societies during the late second millennium BC.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Industria Lechera , Agricultura/historia , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera/historia , Europa (Continente) , Historia Antigua , Caballos , Humanos , Dinámica Poblacional , Condiciones Sociales
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180852, 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187276

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to verify the dynamics of milk production in Southern Brazil, analyzing the spatial distribution, evolution and structure of bovine milk production systems in the dairy-specialized microregions. To this end, annual data from 2000 to 2015 are drawn from the Municipal Livestock Survey, reported by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, and the Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar, reported by the Banco Central do Brasil. Location quotient analyses, principal component analyses and clustering analyses are applied. Results of the location quotient analysis indicate that, of the 94 microregions in Southern Brazil, 36 are specialized in milk production. Two principal components were identified (mechanized production and family production) capable of explaining 78.3% of the variation in the data. Among microregions specialized in milk production, cluster analysis identifies four groups that are differentiated by productivity levels and predominance of family versus commercial production. Furthermore, results reveal that there is substantial heterogeneity among microregions specialized in bovine milk production in Southern Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera/estadística & datos numéricos , Leche , Animales , Brasil , Bovinos , Industria Lechera/economía , Femenino , Geografía
3.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(3): 288-289, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127684
4.
Animal ; 14(S1): s155-s164, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024570

RESUMEN

The average productive lifespan is approximately 3 to 4 years in countries with high-producing dairy cows. This is much shorter than the natural life expectancy of dairy cattle. Dairy farmers continue to cull cows primarily for reasons related to poor health, failure to conceive or conformation problems prior to culling. These reasons may indicate reduced welfare leading up to culling. Improvements in health care, housing and nutrition will reduce forced culling related to these welfare reasons. However, productive lifespan has remained similar in decades, despite large improvements in cow comfort and genetic selection for the ability to avoid culling. On the other hand, genetic progress for economically important traits is accelerating within the last decade, which should slightly shorten the average economically optimal productive lifespan. A major driver of productive lifespan is the availability of replacement heifers that force cows out when they calve. The average productive lifespan could be extended by reducing the supply of dairy heifers, which would also have benefits for environmental sustainability. Improvements in culling decision support tools would strengthen economically optimal replacement decisions. In conclusion, major factors of the relatively short productive lifespan of dairy cows are welfare-related, but other economic factors like supply of heifers, genetic progress and non-optimal decision-making also play important roles.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Industria Lechera/economía , Reproducción , Animales , Bovinos/genética , Agricultores , Femenino , Fertilización , Longevidad , Selección Genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228808, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049990

RESUMEN

The prevalence of skin lesions at the legs of dairy cows often serves as an indicator for animal welfare and is used as a measurement of adequacy of the present housing conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skin lesions at the carpus, tarsus, and stifle in Swiss dairy cows kept in tie stalls and to describe potential risk factors associated with the different types and severities thereof. Skin lesions and potential risk factors were assessed in 627 cows of 27 tie stall farms in a cross-sectional study. The associations of each outcome and the potential risk factors were assessed by means of logistic regression models using farm as the random factor. One odds ratio was obtained for each biologically relevant risk factor category and the final models were compared between the lesion types and locations. Tarsal lesions were recorded most frequently, with a prevalence of 62.2, 34.4, and 24.0% for moderate to severe hair loss, any severity of ulceration, and moderate to severe swelling, respectively. The prevalence of carpal lesions ranged from 54.4% for hair loss, over 7.7% for ulceration, to 6.1% for swelling, while stifle lesions were recorded less frequently with a prevalence of 18.6, 8.9, 3.4% for hair loss, ulceration, and swelling, respectively. The risk for various skin lesion types and locations significantly increased, when the concrete stall base was covered with a rubber mat and the bedding depth was low. Cows were at the lowest risk to develop skin lesions when they had more than 13 days of outdoor exercise per month. The prevalence of skin lesions in tied Swiss dairy cows is remarkably high and could possibly be reduced by providing the herd more frequent outdoor exercise and a well-cushioned, friction-absorbing and non-abrasive lying surface.


Asunto(s)
Huesos del Carpo , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Industria Lechera , Vivienda para Animales , Enfermedades de la Piel/veterinaria , Rodilla de Cuadrúpedos , Tarso Animal , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Bovinos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades de la Piel/epidemiología
6.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110049, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090806

RESUMEN

A compliant tool (CalcPEFDairy) to determine the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) of Dairy products has been developed following the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) v.6.3 guidance and the 2018 approved PEFCR for Dairy products. CalcPEFDairy is a new tool that simplifies and reduces the work for LCA practitioners when implementing the PEFCR for Dairy products. On contrary to traditional LCA software, CalcPEFDairy includes all the emission models needed to calculate farm and crop cultivation direct emissions and it also implements the specific calculation formulas stated in the PEFCR such as the Circular Footprint and Data Quality Requirement formulas. Moreover, the PEF compliant datasets provided by the Life Cycle Data Network are incorporated in the tool as source of secondary data. To demonstrate the accuracy of the tool a traditional dairy farm in Catalonia (Northwest of Spain) was assessed and the results compared with the European representative PEF compliant datasets for the production of raw milk, cheese and yoghurt. In addition to the environmental profile, CalcPEFDairy has determined the case study's environmental single score (ESS) for the production of raw milk (1.0 × 10-4) cheese (9.7 × 10-6) and yoghurt (1.4 × 10-5); these ESS results are within the range of the ESS obtained from the analysed EF-datasets. The data sets' average ESS for raw milk is 9.9 × 10-5 ± 1.1 × 10-5, while for cheese and yoghurt are 1.5 × 10-5 ± 3.1 × 10-6 and 1.9 × 10-5 ± 3.4 × 10-6 respectively. A 78% of the raw milk production ESS is attributed to the dairy farm activities while, the raw milk production stage affects in a 87.4% and 80.1% to the ESS for cheese and yoghurt respectively.


Asunto(s)
Queso , Industria Lechera , Animales , Huella de Carbono , Productos Lácteos , Leche , España
7.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 1-15, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029177

RESUMEN

This article reviews the basics of gastrointestinal nematode biology and pathophysiology in cattle and describes how gastrointestinal nematode epidemiology is driven by environmental, host, and farm economic determinants. Adverse effects from gastrointestinal nematodes on their hosts are caused by tissue damage, nutrient absorption, immunopathologic effects, and reduced food intake induced by hormonal changes. Weather and microenvironmental factors influence the development and survival of free-living parasitic stages. A holistic control approach entails the consideration of environmental, immunologic, and socioeconomic aspects of nematode epidemiology and is key for the development and communication of sustainable control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/veterinaria , Infecciones por Nematodos/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Industria Lechera/estadística & datos numéricos , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/parasitología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/parasitología , Nematodos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Nematodos/epidemiología
8.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 59-71, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029189

RESUMEN

Parasite species infecting cattle throughout northern North American are generally the same as those found throughout North America. Throughout Canada, cattle are primarily infected with Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora, whose larvae survive cold winters within soil of pastures. Overwintering larvae of these species maintain a temporary population of refugia available in spring to grazing cattle. Cattle from northern United States are also infected with Cooperia punctata and Haemonchus placei, whose larvae cannot survive cold winters within pastures. Anthelmintics with persistent activity are used during spring to recover some of these losses; however, anthelmintic resistance limits effectiveness of this strategy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Infecciones por Nematodos/veterinaria , Animales , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Industria Lechera/métodos , Femenino , Tracto Gastrointestinal/parasitología , Nematodos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Nematodos/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Nematodos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Nematodos/prevención & control , América del Norte/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228134, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990932

RESUMEN

Chronic lameness affects bovine welfare and has a negative economic impact in dairy industry. Moreover, due to the translational gap between traditional pain models and new drugs development for treating chronic pain states, naturally occurring painful diseases could be a potential translational tool for chronic pain research. We therefore employed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to stablish the proteomic profile of the spinal cord samples from lumbar segments (L2-L4) of chronic lame dairy cows. Data were validated and quantified through software tool (Scaffold® v 4.0) using output data from two search engines (SEQUEST® and X-Tandem®). Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) analysis was performed to detect proteins interactions. LC-MS/MS identified a total amount of 177 proteins; of which 129 proteins were able to be quantified. Lame cows showed a strong upregulation of interacting proteins with chaperone and stress functions such as Hsp70 (p < 0.006), Hsc70 (p < 0.0079), Hsp90 (p < 0.015), STIP (p > 0.0018) and Grp78 (p <0.0068), and interacting proteins associated to glycolytic pathway such as; γ-enolase (p < 0.0095), α-enolase (p < 0.013) and hexokinase-1 (p < 0.028). It was not possible to establish a clear network of interaction in several upregulated proteins in lame cows. Non-interacting proteins were mainly associated to redox process and cytoskeletal organization. The most relevant down regulated protein in lame cows was myelin basic protein (MBP) (p < 0.02). Chronic inflammatory lameness in cows is associated to increased expression of stress proteins with chaperone, metabolism, redox and structural functions. A state of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) might explain the changes in protein expression in lame cows; however, further studies need to be performed in order to confirm these findings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/genética , Dolor Crónico/veterinaria , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Cojera Animal/genética , Proteína Básica de Mielina/genética , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/genética , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/metabolismo , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/fisiopatología , Dolor Crónico/genética , Dolor Crónico/metabolismo , Dolor Crónico/fisiopatología , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Ontología de Genes , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Lactancia/fisiología , Cojera Animal/metabolismo , Cojera Animal/fisiopatología , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Proteína Básica de Mielina/metabolismo , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/clasificación , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/metabolismo , Fosfopiruvato Hidratasa/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratasa/metabolismo , Proteómica/métodos , Asta Dorsal de la Médula Espinal/metabolismo , Asta Dorsal de la Médula Espinal/fisiopatología
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109016, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901738

RESUMEN

Infections with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica remain a serious problem in dairy herds causing significant production losses. In sheep, a strong relationship between F. hepatica infections and an increase in serum ketone bodies due to reduced feed intake and liver damage was demonstrated. We hypothesized that F. hepatica infections might contribute to an increase in milk ketone bodies in dairy herds. Thus, the objective of the study was to estimate the association between F. hepatica bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies and milk production parameters (milk yield, milk protein, fat yield), somatic cell count (SCC) and the milk ketone bodies ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetone, inferred from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, via linear mixed model analysis. A further aim was to follow up the F. hepatica seroprevalence in dairy herds in the northern German region East Frisia. We collected BTM samples between October and December from 1022 herds in 2017 and 1318 herds in 2018. Overall, 33.1 % of the herds tested positive in 2017 and 37.0 % in 2018, showing decreased F. hepatica seroprevalences compared to prior seroprevalence studies in the same region in 2010, 2008 and 2006 (> 45 % positive herds). We estimated a significant negative association (P < 0.001) between herd F. hepatica infection category and average milk yield with a loss of -1.62 kg per cow per day in strongly infected herds compared to BTM ELISA negative herds. Moreover, F. hepatica infection category had a significant effect on herd average milk protein and fat yield (P < 0.001), showing a decrease of 0.06 kg for both parameters from BTM ELISA negative herds to strongly infected herds. No significant association with milk SCC was found (P = 0.664). Regarding ketone bodies, we estimated significant higher average BHB values in strongly infected herds compared to the other three infection categories in the model analysis (P = 0.002). The association between F. hepatica infection category and acetone values was not significant (P = 0.079). Besides primary ketosis, fasciolosis should be considered as differential diagnosis in dairy herds with increased BHB values.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/patología , Fascioliasis/veterinaria , Cetonas/análisis , Lactancia/fisiología , Leche/química , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis/epidemiología , Fascioliasis/patología , Alemania , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109019, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918044

RESUMEN

Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) is a widespread parasite infection of livestock in Victoria, South-eastern Australia, where high rainfall and a mild climate is suitable for the main intermediate host Austropeplea tomentosa. The aims of this study were to quantify the prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica in dairy cattle in the irrigated dairy regions of Victoria and determine if triclabendazole resistance was present in infected herds. Cattle in 83 herds from the following six irrigation regions were tested for F. hepatica: Macalister Irrigation District (MID), Upper Murray (UM), Murray Valley (MV), Central Goulburn (CG), Torrumbarry (TIA) and Loddon Valley (LV). Twenty cattle from each herd were tested using the F. hepatica faecal egg count (FEC) as well as the coproantigen ELISA (cELISA). The mean individual animal true prevalence of F. hepatica across all regions was 39 % (95 % credible interval [CrI] 27%-51%) by FEC and 39 % (95 % CrI 27%-50%) by cELISA with the highest true prevalence (75-80 %) found in the MID. Our results show that 46 % of the herds that took part in this study were likely to experience fluke-associated production losses, based on observations that herd productivity is impaired when the true within-herd prevalence is > 25 %. Using the FEC and cELISA reduction tests, triclabendazole resistance was assessed on 3 herds in total (2 from the 83 in the study; and 1 separate herd that did not take part in the prevalence study) and resistance was confirmed in all 3 herds. This study has confirmed that F. hepatica is endemic in several dairy regions in Victoria: triclabendazole resistance may be contributing to the high prevalence in some herds. From our analysis, we estimate that the state-wide economic loss associated with fasciolosis is in the order of AUD 129 million (range AUD 38-193 million) per year or about AUD 50,000 (range AUD 15,000-75,000) per herd per year.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Fasciola hepatica/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antiplatelmínticos/farmacología , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Fascioliasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Fascioliasis/prevención & control , Fascioliasis/veterinaria , Prevalencia , Triclabendazol/farmacología , Victoria/epidemiología
12.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(7): 694-702, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910655

RESUMEN

Lemnaceae are being exploited to remediate a variety of different wastewaters. Our aim was to remediate dairy processing waste, which is produced in large amounts, and contains valuable plant nutrients, for example, nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and iron. However, initial trials failed to establish the growth of Lemna minor on this medium. A lack of growth can be due to a lack of essential plant nutrients, or the presence of phytotoxic ingredients. In this study we show that not just nutrient concentrations, but also the ratios between them can be important in facilitating growth. Lab-scale experiments in which L. minor were grown on 100 mL of synthetic dairy industry wastewater demonstrated that the skewed Ca:Mg ratio in synthetic wastewater is a key obstacle to good growth. Experiments showed that a ratio which favors magnesium over calcium negatively affects L. minor growth and photosynthetic yield, leading to RGRs as low as 0.05 day-1. A change in this ratio to favor calcium, through the addition of calcium sulfate, leads to RGRs of 0.2-0.3 day-1. Experiments lead us to conclude that a Ca:Mg ratio of 1:1.6 or greater is necessary for L. minor growth, and therefore phytoremediation of dairy industry processing wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Araceae , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Biodegradación Ambiental , Calcio , Industria Lechera , Magnesio , Aguas Residuales
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136120, 2020 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927281

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Beef production in the Lake Taupo region of New Zealand (NZ) is regulated for nitrogen (N) leaching. The objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the implications of nitrogen emission limitations on eutrophication and climate change impacts of NZ beef through its life cycle to a European market and uniquely link it to 2) estimation of the reduction in these impacts that can be funded by the consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for a low environmental-impact product. METHOD: The cradle-to-market Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of NZ beef on the European market included beef production on farms, meat processing, packaging and transport stages. Various beef production systems in the Lake Taupo region were modelled: farm systems with and without regulated N leaching limits in place (using N fertiliser inputs of 0 and 100 kg N/ha/year respectively) using suckler beef or beef derived from surplus calves from a dairy farm. The FARMAX model was used to model farm productivity and profitability under these various scenarios, whereas the OVERSEER® model was used to model field/farm emissions (N, phosphorus (P)) and the NZ greenhouse gas (GHG) Inventory model was used to estimate total GHG emissions. Eutrophication and climate change impacts of NZ beef to the European market were calculated using recent regionalised LCA indicators. We estimated freshwater and marine eutrophication impacts of European beef using published N emissions to water and air. We estimated the European consumer's WTP for beef with positive environmental attributes based on a meta-regression analysis based on 21 published studies and compared farmer's profit for the farm system scenarios. RESULTS: When using common P-driven eutrophication indicators, the farms using 100 kg fertiliser-N/ha/year appeared to have a lower freshwater eutrophication impact than farms using no N fertiliser, which is in contradiction with the local freshwater policy for N regulations. When the contribution of both N and P were accounted for, the farms using no N fertiliser had the lowest estimated impact. Comparison with published environmental footprint of beef from Europe showed lower climate change and eutrophication impacts for NZ beef, thus showing potential positive environmental attributes for NZ beef. The European consumer's WTP (32% price premium) for such a beef product with low environmental impacts could offset the cost to farmers for implementing the reduction of N emissions. CONCLUSIONS: Bridging the gap between local freshwater policy and LCA indicators starts by considering both P and N emissions and impacts. Combining an environmental LCA with an economic analysis revealed that the consumer willingness to pay could compensate for the environmental cost of protecting the lake that currently only the farmers are bearing.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Carne Roja , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Europa (Continente) , Eutrofización , Nueva Zelanda
14.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(1): 37-46, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453755

RESUMEN

Casein was the major protein in the milk of mammals and it was massively lost in the discharged wastewater during dairy product manufacture. This work was aimed at recovering casein from the dairy wastewater by using foam fractionation. In order to improve the foam stability, xanthan gum was used as the foam stabilizer based on the association between protein and polysaccharide. The results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence emission spectrum suggested that casein could be associated with xanthan gum primarily through electrostatic attraction, which was significantly affected by pH. Moreover, the introduction of xanthan gum had a marked impact on the surface tension, foam ability, foam stability, turbidity, zeta potential and average particle size of casein dispersion. Foam fractionation was performed under the suitable operation condition of pH 6.0, loading liquid volume 400 mL, amount ratio of casein and xanthan gum 1:2, volumetric airflow rate 100 mL/min and pore diameter of gas distributor 0.180 mm. The enrichment ratio and the recovery percentage of casein reached as high as 16.81 and 86.51%, respectively. This work is expected to provide a cost-effective method to recover the trace desired material through improving foam stability based on intermolecular forces.Research highlightsFoam fractionation has been proposed to recover casein from dairy wastewater.Xanthan gum has been used to improve the foam stability of casein.The main interaction between casein and xanthan gum was an electrostatic attraction.Xanthan gum contributed to weakening the flowability of interstitial liquid.


Asunto(s)
Caseínas/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/química , Aguas Residuales/química , Animales , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Industria Lechera/métodos , Leche/química , Tamaño de la Partícula
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 108967, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812121

RESUMEN

Neospora caninum infection is regarded as one of the most important infectious causes of abortion in dairy cattle. To intervene in its spread, four potential controls including test-and-cull, medication, vaccination, and selective breeding are considered and assessed in this study. The cost of each control, together with the inevitable annual loss due to population dynamics, is adopted as an assessment criterion from an economic point of view. By performing simulation and sensitivity analysis, our results demonstrate that compared with each single control, combined controls are worthwhile with better financial outcomes. For farm affected with significant prevalence (equal to or greater than 30%), vaccine treatment is the most effective and economical option among all control strategies. On the other hand, for farm where prevalence is relatively low (around 10%), combined control, by applying vaccination followed with test-and-cull, medication or selective breeding, could be alternative treatment to provide better financial outcome against single control in an observed period.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/terapia , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Terapia Combinada/veterinaria , Animales , Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , Cruzamiento , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/economía , Coccidiosis/economía , Coccidiosis/prevención & control , Coccidiosis/terapia , Industria Lechera/economía , Neospora/fisiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Vacunas Antiprotozoos
16.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(3): 433-444, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758318

RESUMEN

The objective of this current work was to determinate the effect of high temperatures on milk production of dairy cows in southern Slovakia in the year 2015. The hypotheses that milk production is influenced by the altitude and cooling were tested. Production data included 227,500 test-day records belonging to 34 Holstein breed herds situated in lowlands, 115 to 150 m above sea level (ASL) and kept in free-stall housing. Dairy farms were classified into groups based on cooling system. The first group of cows (19 herds) was cooled evaporative (foggers) and forced ventilation, and the second group (15 herds) was using cooled only forced ventilation (automatically controlled fans in housing and feeding areas). During the period from May to September, 36 summer and 22 tropical days were recorded, 37 days had a mean thermal humidity index value above 72.0, and on 34 days we recorded mean values above 78.0. The highest milk yields were recorded at the altitude 1 (115 m ASL) (9219.0 kg year-1; 10327.0 kg year-1) and the lowest at the altitude 2 (126 m ASL) (7598.7 kg year-1; 8470.21 kg year-1) (P < 0.001). Dairy cows cooled evaporative milked significantly more milk than cows cooled only with forced air flow (9650.4 kg vs. 8528.0 kg; P < 0.001). Fat and protein production differed also significantly (364.0 kg vs. 329.5 kg, P < 0.001; 312.2 kg vs. 279.7 kg, P < 0.001). It can be concluded that not only heat stress but also location farm above sea level can affect milk production. Evaporative cooling associated with increased air velocity is the appropriate protection against high temperatures.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Estrés por Calor , Leche , Altitud , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Lactancia
17.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(3): 291-299, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763957

RESUMEN

The study was conducted in Ludhiana District of Punjab (India) to understand the organic waste management practices followed by dairy farmers of the area. To investigate the practices pertaining to organic waste management, an ex-post facto research design was used and a total of 80 dairy farmers were selected randomly for the study, grouped as small and large dairy farmers. Results revealed that the majority of the farmers were using paddy straw as animal bedding followed by in situ burning. As far as paddy stubbles were concerned, most of the farmers were mulching them followed by in situ burning. All farmers were found to be using wheat straw as livestock feed and mulching wheat stubbles. For household waste, the majority of the farmers were found to be feeding kitchen waste to their livestock, preparing farmyard manure from garden waste and paper waste. For dairy waste management, all the farmers were preparing farmyard manure from dung and discarding livestock urine in drains. A little more than half of the farmers were producing biogas from the dairy waste. The majority of the dairy farmers of the research area were found to have low organic waste utilization scores. Relational analysis was carried out and social participation and knowledge level were found to be highly significant (p < 0.01) with a positive effect on the organic waste utilization score. Therefore, the study was concluded with the impression that the knowledge level of the farmers needs to be enhanced for better and effective utilization of organic waste.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Administración de Residuos , Animales , Biocombustibles , Industria Lechera , Humanos , India , Estiércol
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 115-125, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501949

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal flora of animals, and represents one of the leading causes of contagious mastitis in dairy herds worldwide. Sixty-seven epidemiologically unrelated S. aureus isolates from nasal and mastitis milk samples of dairy-producing animals (32 cows, 25 sheep, and 10 goats) were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and spa typing followed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on representative isolates and SCCmec-typing on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. The highest resistance was observed to penicillin (64.2%, 43/67), followed by tetracycline (23.9%, 16/67), erythromycin (22.4%, 15/67), and streptomycin (17.9%, 12/67). In general, 18 spa types (including newly identified t16958) and 13 sequence types (STs) belonging to 8 clonal complexes (CCs) were detected. The cow-associated isolates were mainly assigned to CC5 (n = 18, related to t267-ST97, t521-ST352, t527-ST97, t304-ST6, and t084-ST15), followed by CC398 (n = 6, t937-ST291), CC45 (n = 3, t230-ST45), CC88 (n = 2, t2526-ST88), CC22 (n = 2, t3680-ST22), and CC522 (n = 1, t3576-ST522). Small ruminant isolates were mostly clustered into CC522 (n = 29, related to t3576, t1534, t16958, t7308, t7311, t7305 [ST522], t1534-ST2057, and t5428-ST2079). Two isolates from cows with mastitis were found to be MRSA, exhibited a composite profile of t937-ST291-SCCmecIV. No isolates carried the PVL and mecC genes. A significant difference in clonal types of S. aureus isolates from cows in comparison with those from small ruminants was found. This study demonstrated the circulation of diverse clones of S. aureus among dairy animals in Iran, with a different clonal composition between cows and small ruminants. The current study also reports MRSA-related mastitis in dairy cows, emphasizing the need for comprehensive surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Genotipo , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria , Rumiantes/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Ovinos , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135345, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831252

RESUMEN

Intensification of the dairy industry globally, combined with a changing climate, has placed increased pressure on natural capital assets (and the flow of ecosystem services) on farms. Agroforestry is widely promoted as an intervention to address these issues. While some benefits of integrating trees on farms, such as carbon sequestration and biodiversity, are reasonably well known, less is known about other potential benefits, such as on-farm production. Understanding and quantifying these benefits would inform farm planning and decision-making. We used a systematic review approach to analyse the evidence base for biophysical ecosystem services from woody systems (including shelterbelts, riparian plantings, plantations, pasture trees, silvopasture and remnant native vegetation) provided to grazed dairy enterprises. We identified 83 publications containing 123 records that fit our review criteria of reporting on biophysical ecosystem services from woody systems on dairy farms relative to a grazed pasture comparison. For each relationship between a woody system and ecosystem service, we assessed the level of support, strength and predominant direction of evidence, and summarised the causal relationships (woody system ≫ mechanism ≫ outcome). Shelterbelts and riparian plantings were the most commonly reported woody systems. Linkages between woody systems and ecosystem services were largely positive, with the types of services provided and their importance differing among systems. Mean evaluation scores for the strength of the evidence were moderate to strong. However, the number of records for each relationship was often low. Consequently, only eight of the 30 causal pathways identified had high confidence; a further 14 had medium confidence indicating that these have good potential to deliver benefits but warrant further work. Although the evidence here was largely qualitative, our results provide strong support for the internal benefits that natural capital assets, such as on-farm woody systems, can provide to the productivity and resilience of grazed dairy enterprises.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera/métodos , Árboles , Biodiversidad , Secuestro de Carbono , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Granjas
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 108992, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835054

RESUMEN

Eprinomectin (EPM) has been recently granted a marketing authorisation in the European Union for use in goats, with a zero-day milk withdrawal period. Considering the high prevalence of benzimidazole resistance worldwide and the economic implications of managing milk residues, EPM may today be considered the main (or even the only) affordable treatment option, at least in dairy goats in the EU. However, the chosen dose (1 mg/kg) seems to be suboptimal, especially for lactating goats, and the chosen route of administration (Pour-on) highly subject to inter-individual variability. Considering the scarcity of anthelmintic resources, such a dosage regimen might threat the sustainability of this crucial drug in goat milk production and needs to be urgently discussed and reassessed.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera/normas , Enfermedades de las Cabras/tratamiento farmacológico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Animales , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Industria Lechera/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria Lechera/tendencias , Unión Europea , Femenino , Cabras , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación
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