Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.647
Filtrar
1.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13743, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699605

RESUMEN

To analyze limb pain in tethered dairy cows, we compared three cow floor mat materials (pasture mat® [PM], KKM rubber mat® [RM], and woodchip [WC]) with soil ground considering the pressure applied to the anterior knee of Holstein cows. Three Holstein dry cows (791.3 ± 44.6 kg, 3.8 ± 1.1 years old) moored at the Education and Research Center of Alpine Field Science of the Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, were tested. Pressure applied to the anterior knee of the cow by four different floor mat materials was compared using a commercially available pressure measurement sheet. The sustained pressures applied to the anterior knee of the test cow were 7.2 ± 1. 5, 29.3 ± 5.1, 17.0 ± 1.4, and 27.7 ± 2.5 MPa in the control, RM, PM, and WC, respectively, showing significant lower values (P < 0.05) than in the control. Sustained pressure was significantly lower in the PM than in the other treatments (P < 0.05). The RM was 41.7% cheaper than the PM. The pressure applied to the anterior knee of cow is lower on PM than on RM and WC. PM was more costly than RM but the sustained pressure was much lower on PM.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Leche , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Humanos
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 226, 2022 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701792

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A retrospective cohort study using a 10 year artificial insemination (AI) and cow reproductive performance data was conducted to study the success rate of AI; associations between effectiveness of AI and breed, AI season and, number of service per conception, and economic impact of failure of FSC in Dessie town, Dessie zuria and Kutaber districts. A total of 3480 dairy cows' AI and reproductive performance records which were performed between 2003 and 2013 in the three selected districts of South Wollo were used. The economic losses and costs for cows that failed to conceive at their first AI associated with the larger number of days open were estimated. RESULT: The prevalence of conception has a statistically significant difference between breeds of cows (P = 0.019). The non-return rate for first service was 58.54%. The median days to first service (DFS), inter-service interval (ISI) and gestation length (GL) were 126, 30 and 278 days respectively. Whereas, the mean + SD days open, calving interval (CI), number of inseminations (NOI) and number of services per conception (NSPC) were 147.2 ± 60.26, 424.5 ± 60.55, 1.14 ± 0.38 and 1.15 ± 0.39 respectively. Based on AI season there was a significant difference in conception between winter and spring (P = 0.021). There is a 45.04 days extension in the mean calving to conception interval in cows that did not conceive at their first AI but conceived by 2nd and 3rd AI than in cows that did conceive at their first AI. A total of 21,665.3 ETB extra costs was spent on reproductive treatment and other management for cows that failed to conceive at their first AI but conceived by second and third service. In cows that did not conceive totally the owner losses on average 473.7 ETB per cow per day extra costs until the cows will be culled. CONCLUSION: Therefore to increase the conception rate and decrease the economic loss the owners of the dairy cows should supervise the cows regularly and should be trained on how to identify cows on estrous, the AI technicians should be trained to conduct the AI service accurately.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera , Inseminación Artificial , Animales , Cruzamiento , Bovinos , Femenino , Humanos , Inseminación Artificial/veterinaria , Lactancia , Reproducción , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 45, 2022 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733232

RESUMEN

Bovine paratuberculosis is an endemic disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map). Map is mainly transmitted between herds through movement of infected but undetected animals. Our objective was to investigate the effect of observed herd characteristics on Map spread on a national scale in Ireland. Herd characteristics included herd size, number of breeding bulls introduced, number of animals purchased and sold, and number of herds the focal herd purchases from and sells to. We used these characteristics to classify herds in accordance with their probability of becoming infected and of spreading infection to other herds. A stochastic individual-based model was used to represent herd demography and Map infection dynamics of each dairy cattle herd in Ireland. Data on herd size and composition, as well as birth, death, and culling events were used to characterize herd demography. Herds were connected with each other through observed animal trade movements. Data consisted of 13 353 herds, with 4 494 768 dairy female animals, and 72 991 breeding bulls. We showed that the probability of an infected animal being introduced into the herd increases both with an increasing number of animals that enter a herd via trade and number of herds from which animals are sourced. Herds that both buy and sell a lot of animals pose the highest infection risk to other herds and could therefore play an important role in Map spread between herds.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculosis , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Irlanda/epidemiología , Masculino , Paratuberculosis/microbiología , Prevalencia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 3): 156378, 2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660448

RESUMEN

In spite of meadow bird protection programs, a severe decline of meadow birds is taking place in the Netherlands. It is hypothesized that pesticides and other agrochemicals may contribute to this decline through a negative impact on the entomofauna; a very important food source of meadow birds and especially of their chicks. The present study analysed the presence of 664 pesticides (including biocides and some metabolites) in soil, concentrated feed, manure and some fodder samples from 23 cattle farms in the province of Gelderland (the Netherlands). Furthermore, the presence of 21 anti-parasitic medicines in manure from storage facilities was analysed. For farms practicing field grazing, the number of dung beetles in field samples of fresh manure was determined and a potential relationship with the presence of pesticide residues was explored. Of the 23 farms included in present study, 22 participated in meadow bird protection schemes. A total of 129 different pesticides (including biocides and metabolites) was detected, of which 115 at the 15 conventional farms and 69 at the 8 certified organic farms. The average total amount of pesticide residues detected tended to be lower at organic cattle farms than at conventional farms; for organic concentrated feed this difference was significant at a factor of 3.7. A significant negative correlation was found between the estimated daily intake of insecticides by cattle through the consumption of concentrated feed and hay, and the numbers of dung beetles detected in fresh manure samples in the field. We discuss the most important insecticides detected in concentrated feed and hay, and conclude that their quantities in manure and feed, if compared with LR50 values, give a reason for concern. More research is needed to establish the role of agrochemicals in the decline of meadow birds.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Insecticidas , Residuos de Plaguicidas , Plaguicidas , Animales , Bovinos , Pollos , Industria Lechera , Desinfectantes/análisis , Granjas , Insecticidas/análisis , Estiércol/análisis , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis
5.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13740, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670449

RESUMEN

To determine the optimal voluntary waiting period to first service after calving for maximizing the lifetime productivity of cows in a dairy herd, we simulated the changes in lifetime productivity due to increasing the number of days from calving to first service. We also assessed the effects of changes in the maximum number of services within a lactation, maximum number of calvings, and calf sale prices on lifetime productivity. We evaluated lifetime productivity as lifetime average productivity, that is, the sum of daily revenues from milk and calf sales from first calving to culling. The lifetime productivity at ≤65 days to first service was low because of the low conception rate during early lactation. In addition, lifetime productivity at ≥185 days to first service decreased as the number of days to first service increased. The number of days to first service for maximum lifetime productivity decreased as the maximum number of calvings increased. Furthermore, the decrease in lifetime productivity associated with decreasing the maximum number of services within a lactation from five to four was greater than that when the maximum number of calvings was decreased from six to five.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Leche , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Fertilización , Japón
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267731, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657780

RESUMEN

Among one of the key challenges in dairy production is the management of manure in a way that is beneficial for agricultural production, with minimal environmental and public health impacts. Manure management systems (MMS)-the entire system of handling, storage, and application of manure-are diverse in countries with developed dairy industries such as the United States, enabled by a number of different technologies. The ways in which dairy farmers manage manure is driven by varying tradeoffs, including economic, social, and environmental; however, existing research has not examined the relationships between components of MMS. Here we use data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2014 study to explore the ways in which manure handling, storage, and application are related, using a series of logistic regression models and network associations. We found significant associations between how manure is handled, stored, and applied, especially driven by the consistency of manure. For solid manure, we found highly heterogeneous systems, where farmers may have a suite of alternative manure management strategies available to them, and substitution is viable. Conversely, farms using liquid manure systems have very few substitutes in their MMS, suggesting greater investment in certain infrastructures, which are not easily changed. Such findings have important implications for shifting farmers towards management practices with minimal environmental and public health impacts, demonstrating that not all farm systems are easily changed. We highlight these results in light of current policies, which may not fully capture the relationships across the MMS, and suggest that greater financing may be necessary to shift MMS on some farms. Furthermore, we suggest that different MMS have varying tradeoffs across environmental, social, and economic aspects, which demonstrates that MMS are highly individualized to a given farm's goals and priorities.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Leche , Agricultura , Animales , Industria Lechera/métodos , Granjas , Estiércol/análisis , Leche/química , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269259, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657811

RESUMEN

Automatic estimation of the poses of dairy cows over a long period can provide relevant information regarding their status and well-being in precision farming. Due to appearance similarity, cow pose estimation is challenging. To monitor the health of dairy cows in actual farm environments, a multicow pose estimation algorithm was proposed in this study. First, a monitoring system was established at a dairy cow breeding site, and 175 surveillance videos of 10 different cows were used as raw data to construct object detection and pose estimation data sets. To achieve the detection of multiple cows, the You Only Look Once (YOLO)v4 model based on CSPDarkNet53 was built and fine-tuned to output the bounding box for further pose estimation. On the test set of 400 images including single and multiple cows throughout the whole day, the average precision (AP) reached 94.58%. Second, the keypoint heatmaps and part affinity field (PAF) were extracted to match the keypoints of the same cow based on the real-time multiperson 2D pose detection model. To verify the performance of the algorithm, 200 single-object images and 200 dual-object images with occlusions were tested under different light conditions. The test results showed that the AP of leg keypoints was the highest, reaching 91.6%, regardless of day or night and single cows or double cows. This was followed by the AP values of the back, neck and head, sequentially. The AP of single cow pose estimation was 85% during the day and 78.1% at night, compared to double cows with occlusion, for which the values were 74.3% and 71.6%, respectively. The keypoint detection rate decreased when the occlusion was severe. However, in actual cow breeding sites, cows are seldom strongly occluded. Finally, a pose classification network was built to estimate the three typical poses (standing, walking and lying) of cows based on the extracted cow skeleton in the bounding box, achieving precision of 91.67%, 92.97% and 99.23%, respectively. The results showed that the algorithm proposed in this study exhibited a relatively high detection rate. Therefore, the proposed method can provide a theoretical reference for animal pose estimation in large-scale precision livestock farming.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Leche , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera/métodos , Granjas , Femenino , Lactancia
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(4): 216, 2022 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726076

RESUMEN

This study was an attempt at the analysis of the Zambia cattle population, its production systems and management practices using data collected during the 2017/2018 livestock and aquaculture census. The Public User Microdata Sample dataset provided by the Central Statistics Organization were analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Traditional system and free range grazing were found to be the main production system and feeding practices (97.2%). Despite large expanse of arable land, crop and fodder production, there was poor integration with cattle production system thus predisposing the animal to poor productivity due to inadequate nutrition. The management practices were found to be limiting and a hindrance to improved performance. The study revealed diverse cattle genetic resources comprising of local and exotic breeds, and their crosses at different genetic proportions. The local breed crosses were mainly directed at exotic beef breeds (and evidence of crosses with exotic dairy breeds) as smallholder farmers tend to improve on the production performances and productivity. Disease prevalence was high and had been an impediment to the growth of the cattle industry. It was clear that cattle production development must be anchored on a value chain system approach. Efforts aimed at capacity building should be targeted at the smallholder farmers with the bulk (93.5%) of the cattle population. This should include impacting farmers with husbandry skills through provision of elaborate livestock extension services aimed at integrating crops and fodder production in feeding practices, communal grazing management and adequate access to veterinary services to control disease prevalence. Value addition and market development would be helpful in unlocking the potential of the beef meat and milk products industry.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera , Fitomejoramiento , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Bovinos/genética , Industria Lechera/métodos , Ganado , Zambia
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7550, 2022 05 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534492

RESUMEN

Previous work has demonstrated some benefit from alternative breeds in low-input dairying, although there has been no systematic analysis of the simultaneous effect of Jersey crossbreeding on productivity, health, fertility parameters or milk nutritional quality. This work aimed to understand the effects of, and interactions/interrelations between, dairy cow genotypes (Holstein-Friesian (HF), Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbreds (HF × J)) and season (spring, summer, autumn) on milk yield; basic composition; feed efficiency, health, and fertility parameters; and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Milk samples (n = 219) and breed/diet data were collected from 74 cows in four UK low-input dairy farms between March and October 2012. HF × J cows produced milk with more fat (+ 3.2 g/kg milk), protein (+ 2.9 g/kg milk) and casein (+ 2.7 g/kg milk); and showed higher feed, fat, and protein efficiency (expressed as milk, fat and protein outputs per kg DMI) than HF cows. Milk from HF × J cows contained more C4:0 (+ 2.6 g/kg FA), C6:0 (+ 1.9 g/kg FA), C8:0 (+ 1.3 g/kg FA), C10:0 (+ 3.0 g/kg FA), C12:0 (+ 3.7 g/kg FA), C14:0 (+ 4.6 g/kg FA) and saturated FA (SFA; + 27.3 g/kg milk) and less monounsaturated FA (MUFA; -23.7 g/kg milk) and polyunsaturated FA (- 22.3 g/kg milk). There was no significant difference for most health and fertility parameters, but HF × J cows had shorter calving interval (by 39 days). The superior feed, fat and protein efficiency of HF × J cows, as well as shorter calving interval can be considered beneficial for the financial sustainability of low-input dairy farms; and using such alternative breeds in crossbreeding schemes may be recommended. Although statistically significant, it is difficult to determine if differences observed between HF and HF × J cows in fat composition are likely to impact human health, considering average population dairy fat intakes and the relatively small difference. Thus, the HF × J cow could be used in low-input dairying to improve efficiency and productivity without impacting milk nutritional properties.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Leche , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Femenino , Fertilidad , Leche/química
10.
Meat Sci ; 190: 108840, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525018

RESUMEN

Meat quality of beef-cross-dairy cattle born in the dairy industry and finished on hill-country pastures is not well characterised. This experiment aimed to objectively evaluate meat quality traits of 15 Angus and 18 Hereford sires via progeny testing of their 326 beef-cross-dairy offspring, and to compare the intramuscular fat (IMF) percentage with the AUS-MEAT marble scores. Beef-breed sires had similar and overall good objective meat quality characteristics. Ultimate pH was not affected by sire (P > 0.05). The differences among sires in meat quality (fat yellowness b*, meat redness a*, yellowness b* and chroma C*, cook loss and shear force, P < 0.05) were small and all values were within the normal range for beef. Marble scores could capture the variation of IMF at marbling score 1-3, but was not effective to distinguish between 0 and 1. In conclusion, the effect of sire on the meat quality of the beef-cross-dairy progeny in this study was of minor importance.


Asunto(s)
Cruzamiento , Carne , Animales , Carbonato de Calcio , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Carne/análisis , Nueva Zelanda
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0265775, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544454

RESUMEN

The initial movement of herders and livestock into the eastern steppe is of great interest, as this region has long been home to pastoralist groups. Due to a paucity of faunal remains, however, it has been difficult to discern the timing of the adoption of domesticated ruminants and horses into the region, though recent research on ancient dairying has started to shed new light on this history. Here we present proteomic evidence for shifts in dairy consumption in the Altai Mountains, drawing on evidence from sites dating from the Early Bronze to the Late Iron Age. We compare these finds with evidence for the rise of social complexity in western Mongolia, as reflected in material remains signaling population growth, the establishment of structured cemeteries, and the erection of large monuments. Our results suggest that the subsistence basis for the development of complex societies began at the dawn of the Bronze Age, with the adoption of ruminant livestock. Investments in pastoralism intensified over time, enabling a food production system that sustained growing populations. While pronounced social changes and monumental constructions occurred in tandem with the first evidence for horse dairying, ~1350 cal BCE, these shifts were fueled by a long-term economic dependence on ruminant livestock. Therefore, the spread into the Mongolian Altai of herds, and then horses, resulted in immediate dietary changes, with subsequent social and demographic transformations occurring later.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera , Ganado , Animales , Historia Antigua , Caballos , Humanos , Mongolia , Proteómica
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 204: 105679, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636232

RESUMEN

Communication has been identified as one constraint for cattle veterinarians to act as proactive health consultants. Motivational Interviewing (MI), an evidence-based client-centered communication methodology, may therefore be a useful tool in veterinary herd health management (VHHM). The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate associations between training in MI and different measures of performance in VHHM. MI skills of 36 Swedish cattle veterinarians randomly assigned to two groups - MI veterinarians (n = 18) who had received six-months training in MI and control veterinarians (n = 18) who were not trained - were assessed using the MI Treatment Integrity coding system. Skills were categorized as untrained, trained_poor, trained_near moderate and trained_moderate. Veterinarians each visited two to six cattle farms for VHHM consultations and revisited the same farms three to six months later to document implementation of recommendations. A gamma model and logistic or ordered logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between MI training and performance measured as: a) proportion of consultations resulting in written herd health plans, b) proportion of recommended measures fully or partially implemented, c) Likert scores of different estimates of client satisfaction and d) total time during 6 months allocated to VHHM visits on cattle farms. We found no evidence of any significant effects of MI training on the eight performance variables analyzed. However, a pattern of numerically higher values (better performance) in trained veterinarians with poor or moderate MI skills than in untrained veterinarians was observed in most variables. Clients were highly satisfied with veterinarians' attitude, competence and time efficiency. Farms implemented a median of 66.7% (interquartile range: 50-100) of the measures partially or fully. Veterinarians allocated little time to VHHM visits (median: 2.2; interquartile range: 0.65-4.1 h per week of full-time work within cattle). Veterinarians with moderate skills spent 2.14 times more time on VHHM visits than untrained veterinarians, but the confidence interval was wide (0.88-5.21). The pattern of numerically higher values in trained veterinarians supported findings from other studies in the same project indicating a positive effect of MI training on VHHM. Our observations suggest a considerable potential to increase veterinarians' engagement in VHHM.


Asunto(s)
Entrevista Motivacional , Veterinarios , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera/métodos , Agricultores , Granjas , Humanos
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(11): e0038322, 2022 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536052

RESUMEN

We report here on an outbreak of mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus, in a northern Italy (Lombardy Region) free stall dairy farm. This outbreak was unusual because it occurred in a closed dairy herd and proved to be extremely difficult to resolve even after the application of the classical control procedures, which are specifically focused on the contagious nature of S. agalactiae. In order to better understand the potential origins of the pathogen and the critical points that could impair the eradication program and to investigate the possible presence of S. agalactiae in sources outside the mammary gland, we collected 656 individual composite milk samples, 577 samples from extramammary body sites (289 rectal, 284 vaginal, and four throat samples from milking cows, dry cows, heifers, and calves), and 81 samples from the cattle environment, including the milking parlor and the barn. Twenty-two S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from lactating cows or their environment. Of these, nine were isolated from milk, two were from rectal swabs, and two were from vaginal swabs, while nine were isolated from environmental samples. Based on molecular serotyping, pilus island (PI) typing and multilocus sequence typing, all isolates belonged to serotype III, pilus type PI-1/2b, and sequence type 103 (ST103), a type previously described to have an environmental transmission cycle and a potential human origin. Once the classical mastitis control measures were supplemented with environmental hygiene measures, herd monitoring using bulk tank milk revealed no further positive results for S. agalactiae, and the outbreak was considered resolved. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus agalactiae is an important pathogen in humans and cattle. Bovine mastitis caused by this bacterium and its control are generally associated with contagious transmission between animals. More recently, the presence of a fecal-oral transmission cycle in cattle has been proposed, linked to the ability of some S. agalactiae strains to survive in the bovine gastrointestinal tract and environment. Based on analysis of 1,316 specimens from cattle and their environment on a single dairy farm, we demonstrate the presence of sequence type 103 (ST103), which may have an environmental mode of transmission. This possibility was supported by the fact that the mastitis outbreak could not be controlled through measures to prevent contagious transmission alone and required additional environmental hygiene measures to be brought to a halt. This case study highlights that measures to control animal disease need to evolve alongside the microorganisms that cause them.


Asunto(s)
Mastitis Bovina , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Animales , Bovinos , Industria Lechera/métodos , Granjas , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia , Mastitis Bovina/epidemiología , Mastitis Bovina/microbiología , Leche/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/veterinaria , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética
15.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 249: 110431, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550249

RESUMEN

Various antimicrobial components, such as lactoferrin, S100 calcium-binding protein A7 (S100A7), and IgA, produced by epithelial cells and leukocytes in lactating mammary glands are important for host defense against invading pathogens. Increase in milking frequency enhances milk yield in ruminants and implies an increase in frequency of teat stimulation. However, the influence of frequent teat stimulation on the production of antimicrobial components remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of frequent teat stimulation, with and without milk removal, on the lactoferrin, S100A7, and IgA concentrations in milk of lactating Shiba goats in Japan. The lactoferrin, S100A7, and IgA concentrations in milk were measured using ELISA. We found that lactoferrin concentration decreased by frequent teat stimulation with milk removal, although concentrations of IgA and S100A7 increased. Frequent teat stimulation without milk removal also altered the lactoferrin, IgA, and S100A7 concentrations. Furthermore, frequent teat stimulation increased IL-22 concentration, which has been reported to upregulate S100A7 production in cultured human keratinocytes. Thus, these findings indicate that frequent teat stimulation, with or without milk removal, affects antimicrobial components in milk and may be useful for the prevention and treatment of mastitis in ruminants.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Glándulas Mamarias Humanas , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/análisis , Antiinfecciosos/metabolismo , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Cabras , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Lactancia , Lactoferrina/análisis , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/metabolismo , Glándulas Mamarias Humanas/química , Glándulas Mamarias Humanas/metabolismo , Leche/química , Rumiantes/metabolismo
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 148: 65-73, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513909

RESUMEN

Bovine mastitis, especially subclinical mastitis (SCM), is one of the most prevalent and economically costly diseases in the dairy industry worldwide. Understanding the prevalence and spatial distribution of bovine SCM and its associated risk factors will facilitate the prevention and control of the disease. We reviewed published studies pertaining to epidemiological surveys of SCM among dairy cows during the past decade (2012-2021) in China from inception to March 20, 2020, with PubMed, Clinical Trial, VIP, CNKI and databases being used to identify English and Chinese articles. Therefore, we retrieved 41 studies related to epidemiological surveys of SCM among dairy cows, using our eligibility criteria. We demonstrated that the prevalence of SCM in dairy cows was 37.7% during the selected periods, indicating a slight increase in the incidence of SCM in a comparison between 2012 and 2016 and 2017-2021. The estimated prevalence of SCM was 36.4%-50.2% in the seven regions, which was no statistically significant difference. The highest prevalence of SCM was 72% in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the lowest prevalence was 19% in Hubei Province. The variation in diagnostic methods was not significant in the studies. Dairy cows' parity was a risk factor associated with the prevalence rate of SCM. Cow's age might affect the prevalence of SCM during the selected periods. This study may facilitate the control with specific strategies to reduce costs and antibiotics overuse, enhance food safety and public health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Mastitis Bovina , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Lactancia , Mastitis Bovina/diagnóstico , Mastitis Bovina/epidemiología , Leche , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 204: 105666, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594608

RESUMEN

There is increasing emphasis on the need to reduce antimicrobial use (AMU) on dairy farms to reduce the emergence of resistant bacteria which could compromise animal health and impact human medicine. In addition to AMU, the role of farm management is an area of growing interest and represents an alternative route for possible interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of farm management practices and AMU on resistances of sentinel bacteria in bulk milk. Dairy farms from two, geographically separate locations within the British Isles were recruited as part of two study groups. Farm management data from study group 1 (n = 125) and study group 2 (n = 16) were collected by means of a face-to-face questionnaire with farmers carried out during farm visits. For study group 2, additional data on AMU was collated from veterinary medicine sales records. Sentinel bacterial species (Enterococcus spp. and E. coli), which have been reported to be of value in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) studies, were isolated from bulk tank milk to monitor antimicrobial susceptibilities by means of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). MIC data for both groups was used to generate an overall "score" for each farm. For both groups, this overall farm mean MIC was used as the outcome variable to evaluate the impact of farm management and AMU. This was achieved through use of elastic net modelling, a regularised regression method which also featured a bootstrapping procedure to produce robust models. Inference of models was based on covariate stabilities and bootstrapped P-values to identify farm management and AMU practices that have significant effects on MICs of sentinel bacteria. Practices which were found to be of importance with respect to Enterococcus spp. included management of slurry, external entry of livestock to the dairy herd, use of bedding materials and conditioners, cubicle cleaning routines and antibiotic practices, including use of ß-lactams and fluoroquinolones. Practices deemed to be of importance for E. coli MICs included cubicle and bedding management practices, teat preparation routines at milking and the milking procedure itself. We conclude that a variety of routine farm management practices are associated with MICs of sentinel bacteria in bulk milk. Amendment of these practices offers additional possible routes of intervention, alongside alterations to AMU, to mitigate the emergence and dissemination of AMR on dairy farms.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Leche , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bacterias , Industria Lechera/métodos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Granjas , Leche/microbiología
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 204: 105665, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597103

RESUMEN

Pinkeye (infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, IBK) is an important disease of cattle worldwide. It has a substantial negative impact on farm productivity and is a major cost burden, but specific data on losses are lacking. This study was conducted to understand farmers' perceptions of the impact of pinkeye on farm productivity and animal welfare, and factors influencing the money farmers estimated spending on pinkeye in 2018. Data were collected by the first Australia-wide online survey on pinkeye. There were 1035 suitable responses analysed for impact on farm productivity. From these 82% of respondents represented farms in southern Australia, 58% reported cattle breeding as their main enterprise, and 89% bred animals on farm. Farmers were more likely to rank the impact of pinkeye on farm productivity as high if they had younger cattle, treated cattle with pinkeye more frequently, and as their herd size increased. Fewer farmers chose pinkeye as an animal welfare concern than as an economic and farm management issue, but overall animal welfare was rated by the greatest number of farmers as a high severity concern (n = 691), followed by decreased sale value and farm profits (n = 561). This suggests a shift in the equipoise between the economics of food animal production and animal welfare expectations. The median amount reportedly spent on pinkeye in 2018 by Australian farmers (n = 779) was $250.00 per farm. Farmers reported spending more money on pinkeye as herd size and number of cattle affected by pinkeye increased, their perception of pinkeye impact on farm productivity and animal welfare increased, if they treated pinkeye more frequently, reported higher fly worry, if their herds contained Angus cattle, if they bred on farm, and if they were located in southern Australian regions. Study findings should be used to better understand pinkeye, target expenditure, and improve outcomes for cattle and farmers.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Queratoconjuntivitis , Infecciones por Mycoplasma , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Australia , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Industria Lechera , Agricultores , Granjas , Humanos , Queratoconjuntivitis/veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 270: 109454, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597149

RESUMEN

Infection with Mycoplasma bovis has been identified as a growing threat in dairy industries worldwide and there is an urgent need for an inexpensive and accurate herd-level screening tool to identify herds that have been exposed to M. bovis. This study aimed to evaluate the use of the MilA ELISA for testing bulk tank milk (BTM) samples for antibodies against M. bovis and estimate a suitable cut-off and diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) for this assay. An optimal cut-off was then applied for investigating the geographical and seasonal distribution of infection with M. bovis in Australia. A total of 5554 BTM samples from 2683 dairy herds were collected during March, August and December 2017. BTM samples were tested in the MilA ELISA and a cut-off of 29 antibody units (AU) was estimated to be optimal using Bayesian latent class analysis which makes no assumption about the true disease status of herds under investigation. At this cut-off, the DSe and DSp were estimated to be 96.6% (95% highest probability density [HPD] interval: 87.0, 99.8) and 94.2% (95% HPD: 89.9, 97.4), respectively. The diagnostic specifications were found to vary markedly with stage of the production cycle, suggesting that targeted sampling was needed to maximize accuracy. We also found distinct differences in the apparent prevalence of M. bovis in different dairying regions, as well as seasonal variation. The highest apparent prevalence of M. bovis was observed in samples collected in March and an overall drop in the proportion of positive herds was seen from March to December. Overall, this study provides insights into the dynamics of BTM antibodies against M. bovis in Australian dairy herds and how the MilA ELISA can be applied for bulk tank milk testing.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Mycoplasma bovis , Animales , Australia/epidemiología , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Industria Lechera , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Leche , Prevalencia
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...