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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466388

RESUMEN

Background: Tobacco growing has been considered a mainstay of Mozambique's economy, but there is a dearth of analysis of the tobacco policy landscape in the country. Methods: Review of government and non-government documents and academic papers addressing Mozambique's tobacco-growing history, the changes in the political economy of tobacco, and health policies addressing tobacco use and prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Results: Despite its tobacco growing and exporting history, the contribution of tobacco to the economy has been in steady decline in the past two decades, including in the areas dedicated to growing. At the same time there has been an increase in multinational control of the tobacco economy. In parallel, Mozambique's commitment to addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable disease and accession to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control indicate a potential for internal government tensions to balance immediate economic interests with long term health goals. Conclusions: With the decline in tobacco share of the overall economy, Mozambique may be well-positioned to explore alternative, sustainable livelihoods for farmers that grow tobacco, but it must overcome inter-sectoral barriers and advocate for a whole of government approach to address the health and economic impact of tobacco.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Industria del Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Agricultura , Humanos , Mozambique , Tabaco/crecimiento & desarrollo , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología
2.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021.
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-339551
3.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47858

RESUMEN

Este ano, relações entre fumar e maior exposição ao coronavírus também são abordadas em campanha de conscientização


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Industria del Tabaco , Instituciones Oncológicas
4.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47848

RESUMEN

Informação é de pesquisa do INCA, apresentada durante webinar em comemoração ao Dia Nacional de Combate ao Fumo


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Industria del Tabaco
5.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47850

RESUMEN

"Cigarro: a indústria fica com os lucros, você paga pelos prejuízos". Esta é uma das mensagens da nova fase da campanha Conta do Cigarro, da ACT Promoção da Saúde, que mostra os custos do tabagismo para a saúde e apoia o processo que tramita na 1ª Vara Federal de Porto Alegre pedindo ressarcimento aos cofres públicos. A ação judicial inédita, apresentada ano passado pela Advocacia Geral da União, pede também a responsabilização civil da indústria do cigarro


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Tabaquismo , Industria del Tabaco
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933121

RESUMEN

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) developed by the State Parties to the World Health Organization was ratified in Slovakia in 2004 and in Finland in 2005. The aim of this study was to explore and compare compliance with the FCTC in Finland and Slovakia. This is a two-country comparative study of tobacco control policy based on implementation of the FCTC in Slovakia and Finland. Compliance with the FCTC was measured similarly in Slovakia and Finland in terms of their institutional structure supporting a smoking free environment and implementation of selected articles of the FCTC. In Finland the responsibilities for anti-tobacco policy are clearly assigned. Slovakia does not have specifically responsible institutions. Finland has a clear plan for achieving the goal of a smoking-free country based on empirical evidence. Slovakia meets only the minimum standard resulting from its commitment as ratified in the FCTC and data are out of date or missing completely.


Asunto(s)
Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Industria del Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Comparación Transcultural , Finlandia , Regulación Gubernamental , Cooperación Internacional , Eslovaquia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Organización Mundial de la Salud
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237513, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790798

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The tobacco industry (TI) has used small cigarette pack sizes to encourage brand-switching and consumption, and to mitigate the impacts of tobacco tax increases. Since 2016, the European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) specifies a minimum pack size of 20 cigarettes. We examined cigarette pack sizes in the EU and whether pack size composition differed between cheap and expensive price segments, as well as the impact of the revised TPD. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of pricing data from 23 EU countries between 2006-2017. We examined pack sizes over time to assess the impact of the TPD, differences in pack size composition between cheap and expensive price segments, and compared gaps in median prices between products using actual and 'expected' prices (price if all packs contained 20 sticks). RESULTS: Cigarette pack sizes changed over time, across the EU. The distribution of pack sizes varied between price segments, with small pack sizes especially frequent in the cheap segment of the cigarette market, but this varied over time and across countries. Packs of <20 cigarettes almost disappeared from the data samples after implementation of the TPD. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the TPD appears to have virtually eliminated packs with <20 cigarettes, restricting their use by the TI. Our analysis suggests pack sizes have been used differentially across the EU. Country-level analyses on the industry's use of pack sizes, consumer responses, and evaluations of restricting certain pack sizes are needed to confirm our findings and strengthen policy.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Embalaje de Productos/métodos , Industria del Tabaco/métodos , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Unión Europea , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/provisión & distribución
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1055, 2020 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641026

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, banned characterizing flavors in cigarettes; however, mentholated tobacco products were exempt. Since 2009, over 20 US jurisdictions and numerous countries around the world have extended this restriction to menthol. Currently, the FDA is reconsidering its position on a nation-wide menthol cigarette ban. However, the effects of such a ban remain unclear. We conducted a scoping review to explore the impact of a menthol cigarette ban on individual behaviors (initiation, cessation, and product switching), sales, and compliance. METHODS: We conducted a search of the international literature using PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science (to November 25, 2019). We retrieved articles relevant to the impacts of an implemented or hypothetical menthol ban. We also included studies of flavored tobacco product bans due to their potential relevance in gauging compliance and product substitutability. RESULTS: The search identified 493 articles, of which 24 were included. Studies examined the effects of implemented menthol bans (n = 6), hypothetical menthol bans (n = 12) and implemented flavor bans that exclude menthol (n = 6). Menthol bans were found to reduce sales and increase smoking cessation with only partial substitution for non-menthol cigarettes. US smokers' reactions to a hypothetical ban indicate that about 25-64% would attempt to quit smoking and 11-46% would consider switching to other tobacco products, including 15-30% to e-cigarettes. Flavor ban studies indicate reductions in initiation of 6%. Ban compliance was high, but studies indicate that the tobacco industry and retailers have attempted to circumvent their impact via packaging changes and online sales. CONCLUSION: Our review finds that extending the US cigarette flavor ban to menthol products would promote smoking cessation and reduce initiation. This evidence supports further action by the FDA towards mentholated tobacco products. However, few studies have been conducted in the vaping era.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Aromatizantes , Mentol , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio , Humanos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Gusto , Industria del Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635251

RESUMEN

The illicit tobacco trade undermines the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies; increases the availability of cheap cigarettes, which, in turn, increases tobacco use and tobacco related deaths; and causes huge revenue losses to governments. There is limited evidence on the extent of illicit tobacco trade particularly cigarettes in Bangladesh. The paper presents the protocol for a mixed-methods study to estimate the extent of illicit cigarette trade in Bangladesh. The study will address three research questions: (a) What proportion of cigarettes sold as retail are illicit? (b) What are the common types of tax avoidance and tax evasion? (c) Can pack examination from the trash recycle market be considered as a new method to assess illicit trade in comparison to that from retailers and streets? Following an observational research method, data will be collected utilizing empty cigarette packs from three sources: (a) retailers; (b) streets; and (c) trash recycle market. In addition, a structured questionnaire will be used to collect information from retailers selling cigarettes. We will select post codes as Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) using a multi-stage random sampling technique. We will randomly select eight districts from eight divisions stratified by those with land border and non-land border; and within each district, we will randomly select ten postcodes, stratified by rural (five) and urban (five) PSU to ensure maximum geographical variation, leading to a total of eighty post codes from eight districts. The analysis will report the proportions of packs that do not comply with the study definition of illicit. Independent estimates of illicit tobacco are rare in low- and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh. Findings will inform efforts by revenue authorities and others to address the effects of illicit trade and counter tobacco industry claims.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco , Bangladesh , Impuestos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549287

RESUMEN

Changing global markets have generated a dramatic shift in tobacco consumption from high-income countries (HICs) to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); by 2030, more than 80% of the disease burden from tobacco use will fall on LMICs. Propelling this shift, opponents of tobacco control have successfully asserted that tobacco is essential to the economic livelihoods of smallholder tobacco farmers and the economy of tobacco-growing countries. This nexus of economic, agricultural and public health policymaking is one of the greatest challenges facing tobacco control efforts, especially in LMICs. To date, there is a lack of comparative, individual level evidence about the actual livelihoods of tobacco-growing farmers and the political economic context driving tobacco production. This comparative evidence is critically important to identify similarities and differences across contexts and to provide local evidence to inform policies and institutional engagement. Our proposed four-year project will examine the economic situation of smallholder farmers in two major tobacco-growing LMICs-Mozambique and Zimbabwe-and the political economy shaping farmers' livelihoods and tobacco control efforts. We will collect and analyze the existing data and policy literature on the political economy of tobacco in these two countries. We will also implement household-level economic surveys of nationally representative samples of farmers. The surveys will be complimented with focus group discussions with farmers across the major tobacco-growing regions. Finally, we will interview key informants in these countries in order to illuminate the policy context in which tobacco production is perpetuated. The team will develop country-level reports and policy briefs that will inform two sets of dissemination workshops in each country with relevant stakeholders. We will also conduct workshops to present our findings to the survey and focus group participants, and other members of these tobacco-growing communities, so they can directly benefit from the research to which they are contributing.


Asunto(s)
Industria del Tabaco , Tabaco , Agricultores , Humanos , Mozambique , Zimbabwe
16.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47466

RESUMEN

Nos Estados Unidos, segundo o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, o número de estudantes de ensino fundamental e médio que usam cigarros eletrônicos aumentou em 1,8 milhão em apenas um ano - de 3,6 milhões em 2018 para 5,4 milhões em 2019. Os usuários já são 27,5% dos estudantes de ensino médio.(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) E essa não é a única verdade a ser dita, temos outras. "Vapes", "vaporizadores" ou “dispositivos eletrônicos para fumar” englobam cigarro eletrônico e tabaco aquecido que, muitas vezes, para melhorar o gosto e aumentar o consumo, ganham sabores e adoçantes, facilmente adicionados aos cartuchos de tabaco, e nicotina


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo , Industria del Tabaco
17.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(4): 172-178, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396402

RESUMEN

In India, there has been no attempt to measure the implementation of World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 5.3, which provides guidelines to address tobacco industry interference (TII). This study draws on a desk review conducted to assess the frequency and severity of TIIs and the government's response, reported between January and December 2017. This study highlights that the government of India does not allow tobacco industry to participate in policy development. However, the industry interferes by collaborating with the government's allied organizations. The tobacco industry has diversified as food industry in India, and directly or indirectly supports various government programs, by investing through their corporate social responsibility schemes. In addition, there are limited legislative measures to allow transparency in adoption of Article 5.3 guidelines across the country. Hence, the findings of this study underscore an exigent need to adopt and implement Article 5.3 at the national level in India.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interinstitucionales , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria del Tabaco , Conflicto de Intereses , Gobierno , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , India , Formulación de Políticas , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Organización Mundial de la Salud
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