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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131623, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346348

RESUMEN

The increasing demand for the development of sustainable strategies to utilize and process agro-industrial residues paves new paths for exploring innovative approaches in this area. Biotechnology based microbial transformations provide efficient, low cost and sustainable approaches for the production of value added products. The use of organic rich residues opens new avenues for the production of enzymes, pigments, biofuels, bioactive compounds, biopolymers etc. with vast industrial and therapeutic applications. Innovative technologies like strain improvement, enzyme immobilization, genome editing, morphological engineering, ultrasound/supercritical fluid/pulse electric field extraction, etc. can be employed. These will be helpful in achieving significant improvement in qualitative and quantitative parameters of the finished products. The global trend for the valorisation of biowaste has boosted the commercialization of these products which has transformed the markets by providing new investment opportunities. The upstream processing of raw materials using microbes poses a limitation in terms of product development and recovery which can be overcome by modifying the bioreactor design, physiological parameters or employing alternate technologies which will be discussed in this review. The other problems related to the processes include product stability, industrial applicability and cost competitiveness which needs to be addressed. This review comprehensively discusses the recent progress, avenues and challenges in the approaches aimed at valorisation of agro-industrial wastes along with possible opportunities in the bioeconomy.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Residuos Industriales , Reactores Biológicos , Biotecnología , Industrias
2.
Appl Ergon ; 99: 103641, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768225

RESUMEN

There is a recent trend to place more emphasis on noise non-auditory effects. Despite its implications on health, there is a lack of recommendations for noise in occupational settings. This study aimed to present occupational exposure limits for noise-induced non-auditory effects in healthy males using empirical exposure-response regression models based on the data of laboratory and field considering the effective variables. To this end, the equivalent noise level was measured and recorded in four working settings including closed offices, open-plan offices, control rooms, and industrial workplaces during a normal working day. They were 65, 68, 73, and 80dB(A), respectively. In the laboratory, 31 healthy males were exposed to five noise conditions (four noisy conditions and one quiet) during 8 h and they were asked to perform the cognitive tests. In the field phase, 124 healthy males were also examined from four working settings in their workstations for 8 h. The psychophysiological parameters of the participants were recorded in both lab and field. The results indicated variations in mental responses at levels above 55dBA, and psychophysiological variations at levels above 70dB(A) in both phases. The findings also showed that the developed regression models could plausibly predict the noise-induced psychophysiological responses during exposure to noise levels; thus, they can be presented the likely exposure limits. Based on the results of the models, the levels <55dB(A) are likelihood of the acoustic comfort limit, and the levels ranged from 55 to 65dB(A) are the acoustic safe limits. The acoustic caution limit is the likelihood of the levels ranged from 65 to 75dB(A). The levels ranged from 75 to 80dB(A) are likely the action levels or control limits, and the occupational exposure limit are the probability of levels> 80dB(A).


Asunto(s)
Ruido en el Ambiente de Trabajo , Exposición Profesional , Humanos , Industrias , Masculino , Ruido en el Ambiente de Trabajo/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150311, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583066

RESUMEN

Carbon trading scheme is an instrument adopted in many countries of the world to reduce CO2 emissions. As an important way of environmental regulation, whether it can reduce the emissions and promote the economic development at the same time needs further investigation. This paper tests whether the Porter Hypothesis is true in China's carbon emissions trading scheme for energy intensive industries. Using provincial-level, industrial-level and firm-level data, we construct a DEA model that can incorporate the emissions trading behavior among different decision making units to show that the carbon emissions trading scheme can only reduce the CO2 emissions but cannot increase the output significantly. That is, the carbon intensity is decreased. The reason is that the carbon trading scheme is conducive to the improvement of the production efficiency, and firm-level research and development input increases after carbon trading scheme. These findings are robust to several robustness checks. Our paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the carbon emissions trading scheme in reducing emissions. An external technological breakthrough is needed if the win-win situation of reducing CO2 emissions and promoting economic development simultaneously is wanted to be achieved.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Desarrollo Económico , Industrias
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 149895, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798711

RESUMEN

Whether energy efficiency can significantly improve economic growth quality is an important perspective to understand the relationship between energy and economic growth. Based on the provincial data during 2000-2017 in China, this study uses the Shepherd energy distance function and entropy weight method to calculate the energy efficiency and economic growth quality of each province, and investigates the impact of energy efficiency on economic growth quality. The results indicate that energy efficiency does not significantly improve economic growth quality, but there is an obvious U-shaped relationship between energy efficiency and economic growth quality. The influence of energy efficiency has significant regional heterogeneity. Energy efficiency significantly increases economic growth quality in the eastern regions but significantly reduces economic growth quality in the central and western regions. Meanwhile, energy efficiency has a positive U-shaped relationship with economic growth quality in the eastern and central regions. Moreover, the upgrading of industrial structure plays an important role in the process of energy efficiency affecting economic growth quality. In response to the above conclusions, this paper puts forward the targeted policy implications to improve China's energy efficiency and promote high-quality economic development.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Energéticos , Desarrollo Económico , China , Eficiencia , Industrias
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150179, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798734

RESUMEN

Communicating the finiteness of the Earth system at sub-global scales is necessary to guide human activities within a safe operating space. Despite the numerous efforts committed to downscaling planetary boundaries (PBs) at multiple scales, neither top-down nor bottom-up approaches adequately account for the spatial heterogeneity and integrity of local and global natural systems. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed a hybrid approach that combines bottom-up aggregation and top-down adjustment for downscaling five crucial PBs (i.e., climate change, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, freshwater use, and land use change) to Chinese provinces and industries. In addition to the widely applied equity principle, we further incorporated the eco-efficiency principle into the downscaling of PBs under the proposition that safeguarding finite PBs should be reconciled with the pursuit of maximizing human welfare. Environmental sustainability at multiple scales was subsequently assessed with the complementary use of environmental footprints and downscaled PBs. The results demonstrate that 1) China suffers from severe unsustainability because of the transgression of PBs for phosphorus and nitrogen cycles, carbon emissions, and cropland use; 2) provinces in West and North China perform worse than other provinces in terms of the eco-efficiency in manufacturing industries, including Electronic equipment, Textiles, and Wood processing and furnishing, rendering these industries that are more unsustainable; and 3) industries with varying eco-efficiencies account differently for the provincial PBs. Construction dominates the provincial shares of carbon PBs, whereas Agriculture and Food processing and tobacco contribute most to the other four PBs. Our findings suggest that improving eco-efficiency in most manufacturing industries is the key to saving resources, reducing emissions, and safeguarding local boundaries.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Industrias , China , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Ciclo del Nitrógeno
6.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113839, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592663

RESUMEN

The ecological compensation (EC) mechanism is an innovative institutional arrangement which can effectively realize the coordinated development of social-economic growth and ecological protection. The current research on the evaluation of the implementation effect of EC mechanism mainly focuses on its environmental performance, how the EC mechanism guides the economically underdeveloped areas in the upper reaches of the basin to embark on the road of high-quality economic development, especially the mechanism of how EC triggers the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure, it is a topic worthy of in-depth discussion. This study takes China's first cross-provincial horizontal EC mechanism pilot (Xin'an River Basin EC) as the research object and regards it as a quasi-natural experiment. This paper selects the annual panel data of the 11 cities involved from 2009 to 2019 and builds a DID model to study the mechanism of EC affecting industrial structure adjustment systematically. The results show that the EC mechanism mainly promotes the adjustment of the industrial structure in the pilot area through two paths, this is achieved by triggering the transfer of backward or highly polluting industries and promoting the upgrading of the industrial structure. At the same time, technological innovation plays a part intermediary role in the impact of EC to promote the upgrading of industrial structure. Further analysis found that the larger the funds of compensation input, the higher the assessment intensity, the better the effects are. Finally, this study puts forward relevant policy recommendations to further release the potential of the horizontal EC for the reference of decision-makers.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Industrias , China , Ciudades , Invenciones , Ríos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113912, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628281

RESUMEN

The increase in coal consumption and its impact on the environment has become a bottleneck that hinders sustainable development. This paper discusses the effect of economic growth and coal intensity on China's coal consumption during 2005-2017 using the Laspeyres index decomposition method. The decoupling of coal consumption from economic growth was examined in conjunction with the Tapio elasticity index, and the decoupling contributions of economic growth and coal intensity are further determined. The results indicated that economic growth drives an increase in coal consumption; however, the contribution rate declines gradually with decrease in economic growth rate in each province. Further research showed that the secondary industry is the main contributor to the increment, and the rapid development of tertiary industry increases indirect coal consumption. Coal intensity has a positive impact on curbing coal consumption, but it is not sufficient to offset the increment generated by the economic effect. Moreover, in each province, the curbing effect gradually decreased as the decline in coal intensity weakened in the secondary industry. Furthermore, coal consumption is weakly decoupled from economic growth over the long term, and the secondary industry will determine the future trend of decoupling.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbón Mineral , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Desarrollo Económico , Industrias
8.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131658, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416585

RESUMEN

Analysis of hair is known to provide useful information about environmental and toxic exposures. Very little historical use has been made of this type of investigation. Here we study 138 human hair samples from 19th century in France. In order to examine the potential association between contamination and historical health impacts, we characterized contamination by 33 elements in a set of hair strands sampled during the last quarter of the 19th century in the Savoy region of France. After a selected washing step on 138 hair strands conserved at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (France), we assessed the presence of inorganics by ICP/MS, and lead level was higher than values reported in literature. We then compared concentrations and distributions between women and men, sampling locations and crossing gender and geographical origin. Hair lead level was high throughout Savoy at the end of the 19th century: significantly higher for people living in towns or industrial valleys, and lower for those of countryside and mountains areas. Environmental and economic changes (industrialization and urbanization with water adduction and leaded paints), living habits (kitchenware, cosmetics, wine, and tobacco), and local features (mines exploitation, railroad development, and industrialized narrow valleys) could be envisaged for explaining the level of lead contamination. In the same period, the two main industrial valleys of Savoy (Maurienne and Tarentaise) had high rates of endemic goiter and cretinism and among the highest hair lead levels. Other lines of evidence will need to be explore to investigate a possible link between historical Pb exposure and goiter in the study area.


Asunto(s)
Cabello , Plomo , Femenino , Francia , Cabello/química , Humanos , Industrias , Plomo/análisis , Masculino , Urbanización
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149993, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482145

RESUMEN

The ecological conservation and high-quality development of China's Yellow River Basin is a national strategy proposed in 2019. Under China's goal of achieving a carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, clarifying the carbon footprint of each province and the transfer paths of embodied carbon emissions is crucial to the carbon reduction strategy for this region. This paper uses input-output model and multi-regional input-output model to account for the carbon footprint of nine provinces in the Yellow River Basin, and to estimate the amount of embodied carbon transfer between provinces and industrial sectors. Social network analysis is applied to identify the critical industries in the inter-provincial embodied carbon emission transfers from the three major industries. We found that the per capita carbon footprint of the Yellow River Basin decreased by 23.4% in 2017 compared to 2012. Among the sectoral composition of the carbon footprint of each province, "Processing and manufacturing of petroleum, coking, nuclear fuel, and chemical products", "Construction", "Other services", and "Metal processing and metal, non-metallic products" are the four sectors with a higher proportion of emissions. The embodied carbon emission transfer between the provinces in middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin is much higher than that between the upstream provinces. Among carbon emission transfer network of three major industries in nine provinces,the secondary industry in Shaanxi has the highest centrality and is the most critical industry. This study provides a theoretical basis and data support for formulating carbon emission reduction plans in the Yellow River Basin.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Ríos , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Huella de Carbono , China , Industrias
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150155, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520921

RESUMEN

While land-based sources of plastic pollution have gained increasing attention in recent years, ocean-based sources have been less well studied. The aim of this study was to compare a variety of ropes (differing in age, wear surface and material) to quantify and characterise the production of microplastic during use. This was achieved by simulating, in laboratory and field experiments, rope hauling activity which is typically performed on board maritime vessels, such as fishing boats. Microplastic generation was quantified by collecting fragments that were released as a consequence of abrasion. Notably, we show that microplastic fragments generated from rope wear during use were characteristically irregular in shape, rather than fibrous such as those assigned to synthetic rope by previous studies. Therefore, we suggest that some of the plastic fragments found in the marine environment may have been falsely attributed to land-based sources but have in fact arisen form the abrasion of rope. Our research found that new and one-year old polypropylene rope released significantly fewer microplastic fragments (14 ± 3 and 22 ± 5) and less microplastic mass (11 ± 2 and 12 ± 3 µg) per metre hauled compared to ropes of two (720 ± 51, 247 ± 18 µg) or ten (767 ± 55, 1052 ± 75 µg) years of age. We show that a substantial amount of microplastic contamination is likely to directly enter the marine environment due to in situ rope abrasion and that rope age is an important factor influencing microplastic release. Our research suggests the need for standards on rope maintenance, replacement, and recycling along with innovation in synthetic rope design with the aim to reduce microplastic emission.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Industrias , Plásticos , Polipropilenos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126126, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673193

RESUMEN

Energy recovery from waste resources is a promising approach towards environmental consequences. In the prospect of environmental sustainability, utilization of agro-industrial waste residues as feedstock for biorefinery processes have gained widespread attention. In the agro-industry, various biomasses are exposed to different unit processes for offering value to various agro-industrial waste materials. Agro-industrial wastes can generate a substantial amount of valuable products such as fuels, chemicals, energy, electricity, and by-products. This paper reviews the methodologies for valorization of agro-industrial wastes and their exploitation for generation of renewable energy products. In addition, management of agro-industrial wastes and products from agro-industrial wastes have been elaborated. The waste biorefinery process using agro-industrial wastes does not only offer energy, it also offers environmentally sustainable modes, which address effective management of waste streams. This review aims to highlight the cascading use of biomass from agro-industrial wastes into the systemic approach for economic development.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Industriales , Industrias , Biomasa , Residuos Industriales/análisis
12.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48496

RESUMEN

O Observatório das Estratégias da Indústria do Tabaco (Observatório) foi lançado em 2016 pelo Centro de Estudos sobre Tabaco e Saúde (CETAB) da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública (ENSP) da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ) para monitorar as tentativas de interferência da indústria do tabaco nas políticas de saúde pública


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Tabaco
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770009

RESUMEN

South Africa has used intermittent alcohol prohibitions and restrictions as a strategy to relieve hospitals of alcohol-related trauma cases and spare services for COVID-19 caseloads. Alcohol regulation is highly contested and involves a diverse range of actors who influence policies to align with their interests. This study sought to examine the strategies used by these actors to shape the COVID-19 related alcohol regulation in South Africa as presented by online news media. We found that the voice of pro-regulation actors is smaller and fragmented compared to opponents of the regulation as each actor seeks to advance their own interests. Despite the regulations initially being framed as a COVID-19 public health measure, pro-regulation government ministries, such as police and transport, perceive the regulations as a way of reducing existing (pre-pandemic) alcohol-related harm, such as crime, road-traffic injuries, and gender-based violence. The pre-existing failures in the alcohol regulatory environment and the current policy momentum created by COVID-19 could present an opportunity to retain components of the new laws and improve alcohol regulation in South Africa. However, there is a dominant and cohesive alcohol industry voice that strongly opposes the regulations, citing economic impacts, illicit trade and lack of evidence on the positive effects of the alcohol bans. Strategies employed by industry include lobbying, framing, and litigation. The regulations implemented under the guise of COVID-19 prevention have presented valuable lessons for alcohol regulation more generally. However, whether these regulations translate to sustainable policy changes will depend upon how and if the strong industry voice is countered.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , COVID-19 , Humanos , Industrias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sudáfrica
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770135

RESUMEN

The world of work is changing dramatically due to continuous technological advancements and globalization (the so-called industry 4 [...].


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Industrias , Internacionalidad
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770285

RESUMEN

Recently, the operation of distribution systems does not depend on the state or utility based on centralized procedures, but rather the decentralization of the decisions of the distribution companies whose objectives are the efficiency of interconnectivity. Therefore, distribution companies are exposed to greater risks, and due to this, the need to make decisions based on increasingly reliable models has grown up considerably. Therefore, we present a survey of key aspects, technologies, protocols, and case studies of the current and future trend of Smart Grids. This work proposes a taxonomy of a large number of technologies in Smart Grids and their applications in scenarios of Smart Networks, Neural Networks, Blockchain, Industrial Internet of Things, or Software-Defined Networks. Therefore, this work summarizes the main features of 94 research articles ranging the last four years. We classify these survey, according Smart Grid Network Topologies, because it can group as the main axis the sensors applied to Smart Grids, as it shows us the interconnection forms generalization of the Smart Networks with respect to the sensors found in a home or industry.


Asunto(s)
Cadena de Bloques , Sistemas de Computación , Industrias , Tecnología
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770370

RESUMEN

Crude oil is one of the critically needed resources. It is the main pillar supporting almost everything we rely on in daily life. Unfortunately, due to many factors, crude oil costs too much. Transportation is one of the critical factors that affect such costs. Due to many environmental risks attached to the transportation process, many countries added very high tariffs to cover any hazards during the transportation, loading, and unloading process. Logistics concerns and political conflicts are the other key factors that can massively impact the transportation cost. This paper presents an Industry 4.0-compliant PeTroShare (PTS), a blockchain-powered trustworthy, logistics-friendly, and cost-efficient crude oil trading platform. PTS is a novel ride-sharing platform that enables an anonymous exchange of crude oil between oil producers and customers, focusing mainly on the product quality, not the source of origin. In our scenario, floating crude oil tankers will hold the cargo to an intermediate position in the open ocean. PTS will match the product availability based on the location and the needed quality of the customer requests. Consequently, the time and distance travelled are minimized. Our simulation results show that enabling the anonymous sharing of crude oil products can significantly enhance system efficiency and cost-effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Cadena de Bloques , Petróleo , Industrias , Privacidad , Transportes
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770607

RESUMEN

Industry 4.0 is envisioned to transform the entire economical ecosystem by the inclusion of new paradigms, such as cyber-physical systems or artificial intelligence, into the production systems and solutions. One of the main benefits of this revolution is the increase in the production systems' efficiency, thanks to real-time algorithms and automatic decision-making mechanisms. However, at the software level, these innovative algorithms are very sensitive to the quality of received data. Common malfunctions in sensor nodes, such as delays, numerical errors, corrupted data or inactivity periods, may cause a critical problem if an inadequate decision is made based on those data. Many systems remove this risk by seamlessly integrating the sensor nodes and the high-level components, but this situation substantially reduces the impact of the Industry 4.0 paradigm and increases its deployment cost. Therefore, new solutions that guarantee the interoperability of all sensors with the software elements in Industry 4.0 solutions are needed. In this paper, we propose a solution based on numerical algorithms following a predictor-corrector architecture. Using a combination of techniques, such as Lagrange polynomial and Hermite interpolation, data series may be adapted to the requirements of Industry 4.0 software algorithms. Series may be expanded, contracted or completed using predicted samples, which are later updated and corrected using the real information (if received). Results show the proposed solution works in real time, increases the quality of data series in a relevant way and reduces the error probability in Industry 4.0 systems.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Ecosistema , Algoritmos , Industrias , Programas Informáticos
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770723

RESUMEN

The main contribution of this paper is to develop a new flowmeter fault detection approach based on optimized non-singleton type-3 (NT3) fuzzy logic systems (FLSs). The introduced method is implemented on an experimental gas industry plant. The system is modeled by NT3FLSs, and the faults are detected by comparison of measured end estimated signals. In this scheme, the detecting performance depends on the estimation and modeling performance. The suggested NT3FLS is used because of the existence of a high level of measurement errors and uncertainties in this problem. The designed NT3FLS with uncertain footprint-of-uncertainty (FOU), fuzzy secondary memberships and adaptive non-singleton fuzzification results in a powerful tool for modeling signals immersed in noise and error. The level of non-singleton fuzzification and membership parameters are tuned by maximum correntropy (MC) unscented Kalman filter (KF), and the rule parameters are learned by correntropy KF (CKF) with fuzzy kernel size. The suggested learning algorithms can handle the non-Gaussian noises that are common in industrial applications. The various types of flowmeters are investigated, and the effect of common faults are examined. It is shown that the suggested approach can detect the various faults with good accuracy in comparison with conventional approaches.


Asunto(s)
Flujómetros , Algoritmos , Lógica Difusa , Industrias
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769542

RESUMEN

Working towards sustainable population development is an important part of carbon mitigation efforts, and decoupling carbon emissions from population development has great significance for carbon mitigation. Based on the construction of a comprehensive population development index (PDI), this study adopts a decoupling model to explore the dependence between carbon emissions and PDI across 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2017. Then, the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT) model is used to investigate the impact of population factors on carbon emissions. The results show that the decoupling relationship between carbon emissions and PDI has experienced a transformation from expansive negative coupling to expansive coupling and then to weak decoupling at the national level, while some provinces have experienced the same evolutionary process, but the decoupling state in most provinces is not ideal. Sending talent to western provinces and developing low-carbon supporting industries will accelerate carbon decoupling. At the national level, incorporating environmental protection into the existing education system as part of classroom teaching could contribute to carbon decoupling.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Industrias , Tecnología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769558

RESUMEN

Maryland's growing chicken industry, including concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and meat processing plants, raises a number of concerns regarding public health and environmental justice. Using hot spot analysis, we analyzed the totality of Maryland's CAFOs and meat processing plants and those restricted to the Eastern Shore to assess whether communities of color and/or low socioeconomic status communities disproportionately hosted these types of facilities at the census tract level. We used zero-inflated regression modeling to determine the strength of the associations between environmental justice variables and the location of CAFOs and meatpacking facilities at the State level and on the Eastern Shore. Hot spot analyses demonstrated that CAFO hot spots on the Eastern Shore were located in counties with some of the lowest wealth in the State, including the lowest ranking county-Somerset. Zero-inflated regression models demonstrated that increases in median household income across the state were associated with a 0.04-unit reduction in CAFOs. For every unit increase in the percentage of people of color (POC), there was a 0.02-unit increase in meat processing facilities across the state. The distribution of CAFOs and meat processing plants across Maryland may contribute to poor health outcomes in areas affected by such production, and contribute to health disparities and health inequity.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Pollos , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Humanos , Industrias , Maryland
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