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1.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109859, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063319

RESUMEN

China's paper industry development is rapid, but the recycling rate of China's waste paper has been low all the time. Meanwhile, material flow analysis can help determine the flow of waste paper, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is the methodological framework for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, present study integrates these two methods into the model construction of China's waste paper recycling decision system. Present study constructs a benchmark model of China's waste paper recycling decision system in 2017, focusing on the impact of nonstandard waste paper recycling on the economic and environmental benefits of China's domestic waste paper recycling system. This model construction is followed by sensitivity analysis of the relevant parameters affecting the efficiency of the waste paper recycling system. Finally, present study forecasts the system's economic benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the context of integrating and regulating nonstandard recycling vendors. The results show that the economic benefit of China's waste paper recycling in 2017 is approximately 458.3 yuan/t and that the GHG emissions are 901.1 kgCO2eq. The standard recovery rate and nonstandard recovery acceptance rate will both have a significant impact on the system's economic benefits and improve the GHG emissions structure. In the context of integrating nonstandard recycling enterprises and individual recycling vendors, the economic benefits will rise to 3312.5 yuan/t in 2030, while GHG emissions will rise to 942.9 kgCO2eq. Present study can play a certain guiding role for policy makers in formulating waste paper recycling industry specifications and formulating relevant policies.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Reciclaje , China , Efecto Invernadero , Industrias
2.
BMJ ; 368: m345, 2020 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019763
3.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109782, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072951

RESUMEN

The steel industry is the largest consumer of energy in the world among industrial sectors. It is generally acknowledged that energy and environment are intimately related. Steel production is an energy intensive process that has a significant environmental impact. This paper reviews the progress made on energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and water consumption in the steel industry worldwide. The reduction in the availability of fresh water resources combined with the effects of global warming and climate change have increased pressure on industries, especially steel, to reduce its overall pollution, and specifically its water and carbon footprint. The implications of these effects on the value chain is discussed in this review. The contribution of new emerging technologies of iron and steelmaking is also reviewed. Finally, the important issues that contribute to define a sustainable industrial activity such as the recycling of steel and of by-products of steel production are studied. The history of steel industry is full of lessons, one of which is the need to keep the dreams alive. There are indeed expectations to solve problems created by technical progress.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Acero , Huella de Carbono , Contaminación Ambiental , Recursos Hídricos
4.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125266, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896197

RESUMEN

Determining the reliable source contribution and spatial distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a focal issue for soil regulation and remediation. For this purpose, three receptor models, US-EPA positive matrix factorization (EPAPMF), weighted alternating least squares positive matrix factorization (WALSPMF), and non-negative constrained absolutely principle analysis (NCAPCA), were used to a dataset consisting of ten PTEs (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) for source apportionment. Hazardous areas of ten PTEs were delineated using sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and uncertainty analysis. Three factors for ten PTEs were derived by three receptor models with a one-to-one correspondence between the factors. To obtain more appropriate results, the three receptor models were combined to calculate the ensemble-average source contributions. As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, and Ni were derived from a natural source with ensemble-average contributions higher than 85.72%. Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn were contributed by both parent material and anthropogenic influence. More than half of Hg concentrations were associated with atmospheric deposition caused by human emissions. The concentrations of 28.04% for Cd, 20.74% for Hg, 43.49% for Pb, and 23.71% for Zn were associated with human inputs including agriculture practice, industrial activities, and vehicle emissions. The maps of spatial distribution generated by the SIS indicated that parent materials controlled the spatial distributions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. 27.1% and 32.1% of the total area for Cd and Hg were identified as hazardous areas exceeding 1.5 times background values of Shandong province.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Modelos Teóricos , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Suelo/química , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Industrias , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
5.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 109997, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929047

RESUMEN

China's economic development has entered a "new normal" stage where economic growth has slowed down. In this context, China's local authorities and industry circles are particularly concerned about the impact of emissions trading scheme (ETS), China's first major market-based approach to control greenhouse gas emissions, on competitiveness. This paper contributes to the thin empirical studies on this issue from the perspective of China's provincial industrial sub-sectors. We divide the industry of each province into 37 sub-sectors and screen the actual industrial sub-sector coverage of China's pilot ETSs. Taking advantage of the rich information of sub-sector characteristics and the longitudinal structure of our dataset over 2005-2015, we use a combination of propensity score matching technique and difference-in-difference models to analyze the impact of China's pilot ETSs on gross industrial output value (GIOV) and employment. Empirical results indicate that China's pilot ETSs have exerted a negative impact on the GIOV, and production cut is still the major approach to achieve carbon emission reductions. We also find China's pilot ETSs have led to a significant decrease in employment of the covered industrial sub-sectors. Several robustness checks confirm our findings. Further, our discussions suggest that in the short term, China's pilot ETSs have not promoted the "decoupling" of carbon emissions and economic outputs in industrial sub-sectors. While achieving carbon emission reductions, the pilot ETSs have failed to avoid a negative impact on competitiveness. Lastly, we suggest that competent authorities should prudently tailor the quota allocation methods according to sectorial conditions and consider setting up compensation measures, and covered enterprises should incorporate low-carbon development concept and address the challenges proactively from the long run.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Industrias , Carbono , China , Desarrollo Económico
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 57-62, 2020 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971929

RESUMEN

In 2017, nearly 38,000 persons of working age (16-64 years) in the United States died by suicide, which represents a 40% rate increase (12.9 per 100,000 population in 2000 to 18.0 in 2017) in less than 2 decades.* To inform suicide prevention, CDC analyzed suicide data by industry and occupation among working-age decedents presumed to be employed at the time of death from the 32 states participating in the 2016 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS).†,§ Compared with rates in the total study population, suicide rates were significantly higher in five major industry groups: 1) Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (males); 2) Construction (males); 3) Other Services (e.g., automotive repair) (males); 4) Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (males); and 5) Transportation and Warehousing (males and females). Rates were also significantly higher in six major occupational groups: 1) Construction and Extraction (males and females); 2) Installation, Maintenance, and Repair (males); 3) Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media (males); 4) Transportation and Material Moving (males and females); 5) Protective Service (females); and 6) Healthcare Support (females). Rates for detailed occupational groups (e.g., Electricians or Carpenters within the Construction and Extraction major group) are presented and provide insight into the differences in suicide rates within major occupational groups. CDC's Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices (1) contains strategies to prevent suicide and is a resource for communities, including workplace settings.


Asunto(s)
Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
10.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 110045, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929030

RESUMEN

China's rapid industrialization has induced water and energy shortage issue. Since water and energy resources are inextricably connected, the synergetic conservation of these two resources is conducive to China's sustainable development. In this paper, using a heterogeneous stochastic frontier model, we estimate the output and substitution elasticities of water and energy in China's industrial sector at the provincial level during the period of 2004-2014, in order to explore how to achieve synergetic conservation of water and energy resources by identifying the water-energy nexus. The results show that in China's industrial sector, the overall technical efficiency measured by the ratio of actual output to the ideal output in production frontier experienced a slight decline during the research period. The output elasticity (i.e., the changes in output caused by per unit change in a certain input) of water remains positive, while that of energy is negative in most years, indicating that water input increase contributes to industrial output growth, rather than energy input. Water and energy show a complementary relationship in most years, suggesting that a decrease in water input can reduce energy input. Therefore, to achieve the synergetic conservation of water and energy, the government should actively advance water-saving and energy-saving technologies by taking account of the differentiated production characteristics of different provincial-level industrial sector. In particular, when water and energy are complementary, the technological progress for saving either energy or water will be conducive to the synergetic conservation of these two resources.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Agua , China , Elasticidad , Tecnología
11.
Water Res ; 170: 115275, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759236

RESUMEN

Wastewater from food processing facilities can have high nutrient valorisation potential. Valorising sugar-rich agro-industrial wastewater may have significant impacts on sustainability of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The objective of this study is to evaluate the environmental, economic and social impacts of a novel wastewater valorisation technology. This technology is designed to produce single cell protein (SCP) from wastewater of a fruit juice processing facility. To evaluate the comprehensive sustainability impacts on WWTP and overall background economy, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed by combining the multi-regional input-output database (Exiobase) with process-based life cycle inventories of conventional and AgroCycle WWTP. The results indicated the upstream impacts of wastewater could have significant influence on sustainability of WWTP with nutrient valorisation. Therefore the 'zero burden assumption' should not be adopted for upstream wastewater. For the sustainability performance, valorising nutrients from WWTP with AgroCycle technology can improve the environmental performance of WWTP. However, the positive social-economic impacts were directly associated with WWTP system, not the whole background economy. The production of SCP could reduce the Gross Value Added (GVA) and employment in the 'oil seeds sector'. In order to improve the social-economic impacts and promote a circular bioeconomy model in the fruit juice sector, further development is required to improve valorisation productivity and create a better value chain for valorised products.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Aguas Residuales , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122478, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810735

RESUMEN

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolyesters accumulated as carbon and energy storage materials under unbalanced growth conditions by various microorganisms. They are one of the most promising potential substitutes for conventional non-biodegradable plastics due to their similar physicochemical properties, but most important, its biodegradability. Production cost of PHAs is still a great barrier to extend its application at industrial scale. In order to reduce that cost, research is focusing on the use of several wastes as feedstock (such as agro-industrial and municipal organic waste and wastewater) in a platform based on mixed microbial cultures. This review provides a critical illustration of the state of the art of the most likely-to-be-scale-up PHA production processes using mixed microbial cultures platform and waste streams as feedstock, with a particular focus on both, upstream and downstream processes. Current pilot scale studies, future prospects, challenges and developments in the field are also highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Polihidroxialcanoatos , Biopolímeros , Carbono , Industrias , Aguas Residuales
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122496, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831257

RESUMEN

Pulp and paper industry is swiftly budding to fulfill industrial needs and with the growth of this industry, a large amount of waste has also generated which includes biological sludge generated from the wood digestion process, fly ash accumulation and lime mud produced in chemical reagent recovery circuit. There are many health hazards associated with generated wastes and this waste material can be utilized in sustainable ways to generate useful resources through technological innovations. This review highlights a few useful aspects of waste conversion to resources like the production of green energy, sorbent development, and clinker preparation. The generation of resources from such wastes is a revolutionary and innovative concept for sustainable development including valorization of the generated waste to integrate pulp and paper industry with biorefinery. This review paper focuses on the sustainable utilization of waste from such industry along with its efficiency and future challenges.


Asunto(s)
Residuos Industriales , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Ceniza del Carbón , Industrias , Madera
14.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124669, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524613

RESUMEN

Sugar production is a water intensive process that produces a large amount of wastewaters with high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), mostly consists of organic carbon compounds. Conventional treatment methods are limited to provide the necessary treatment of effluent COD to meet the regulatory limits prior to discharge. The treatment performance of electrooxidation (EO) and electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) for organic removal were investigated in a laboratory scale study. The experimental conditions were optimized for both EO and ECP using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and the models provided highly significant quadratic models for both treatment methods. The effects of pH, H2O2 dosage, current density, and operation time were investigated using BBD. The results showed that EO could remove 75% of organics at optimum conditions of pH 5.3; current density of 48.5 mA cm-2; and operation time of 393 min. The predicted values were in reasonable agreement with measured values. ECP could remove total and soluble COD and total and dissolved organic carbon by 65, 64, 66, and 63%, respectively at optimum conditions of H2O2 dosage of 21 mL L-1; current density of 48 mA cm-2; and operation time of 361 min. The methods were compared based on removal efficiency and energy consumption during operation.


Asunto(s)
Beta vulgaris/química , Técnicas Electroquímicas/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Aguas Residuales/química , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Técnicas Electroquímicas/normas , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Industrias , Compuestos Orgánicos , Oxidación-Reducción , Azúcares , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/normas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Purificación del Agua/normas
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109838, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677564

RESUMEN

Due to population growth and the considerable increase in usage of the resources, Human environment quality has been highly threatened by pollutants in recent decades. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread, persistent organic pollutants which are of great concern due to their carcinogenicity. The present study is the first investigation that assesses contamination, sources and cancer risk of 16 priority PAHs proposed by US EPA in urban dust samples (n = 80) taken in different land-uses of Tehran metropolis, the capital of Iran. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is used to measure PAHs concentrations. The results showed that the average concentration of the total 16 PAHs and the average Benzo[a]pyrene total potency equivalency were 566 µg kg-1 dry weight and 36.4 µg kg-1, respectively. In the commercial and residential land-uses high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were dominated, whereas in green lands, light molecular weight (LMW) PAHs showed maximum contribution. The highest concentration of total PAHs were observed in the commercial areas due to limited air circulation and heavy traffic loads. Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) model was applied to evaluate the cancer risk of exposure to PAHs contaminated dust. Based on the results, Tehran's residents (children and adults) in various land-uses except for green lands, are in high potential cancer risk of PAHs via ingestion and dermal contact exposure routs. Ace, Chr, Pyr, and BghiP which are indicators of traffic emissions, were found to be predominant PAH contributors in urban dust of commercial areas. Also, Ace, Fl, Phe, and BghiP which are derived from fossil fuel combustion, were mainly observed in the industrial land-use. Based on the results of factor analysis and diagnostic ratios, Diesel/gasoline engine vehicular emissions and combustion were found to be the main sources of PAHs in urban dust of Tehran.


Asunto(s)
Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Adulto , Niño , Ciudades , Gasolina/análisis , Humanos , Industrias , Irán , Medición de Riesgo , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109843, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678701

RESUMEN

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in creosote oil are particularly difficult to remove from the soil environment. Their hydrophobic character and low bioavailability to soil microorganisms affects their rate of biodegradation. This study was performed on samples of soil that were (for over forty years) subjected to contamination with creosote oil, and their metagenome and physicochemical properties were characterized. Moreover, the study was undertaken to evaluate the biodegradation of PAHs by autochthonous consortia as well as by selected bacteria strains isolated from long-term contaminated industrial soil. From among the isolated microorganisms, the most effective in biodegrading the contaminants were the strains Pseudomonas mendocina and Brevundimonas olei. They were able to degrade more than 60% of the total content of PAHs during a 28-day test. The biodegradation of these compounds using AT7 dispersant was enhanced only by Serratia marcescens strain. Moreover, the addition of AT7 improved the effectiveness of fluorene and acenaphthene biodegradation by Serratia marcescens 6-fold. Our results indicated that long-term contact with aromatic compounds induced the bacterial strains to use the PAHs as a source of carbon and energy. We observed that supplementation with surfactants does not increase the efficiency of hydrocarbon biodegradation.


Asunto(s)
Caulobacteraceae/aislamiento & purificación , Creosota/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Pseudomonas mendocina/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Caulobacteraceae/metabolismo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Industrias , Polonia , Pseudomonas mendocina/metabolismo , Suelo/química
17.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124717, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499315

RESUMEN

Long-term atmospheric measurement of 17 total (gaseous and particulate) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has been made from 2007 to 2016 at five industrial and urban sites in Busan, South Korea, based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. In the present study, two pooled datasets covering a combination of 2 industry sites and 3 urban sites have been subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) to identify and quantify the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Additionally, PMF has been applied to the industrial urban dataset consisting of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PCDD/Fs. The results show that the sum of PCDD/F mass (Σ17PCDD/Fs) at the industrial sites is determined by five major sources: non-ferrous metal production (33.7%), diesel vehicle emissions (30.2%), ferrous metal production (22.4%), other industrial emissions (11.1%), and traffic emissions (2.6%), while the PAH mass (Σ16PAHs) is predominantly associated with emissions from coal combustion, followed by traffic emissions. At the urban sites, the largest contribution to the Σ17PCDD/Fs was observed from transported emissions being emitted from metallurgical industry (75.5%), followed by diesel vehicle emissions (24.5%). The application of congener-specific toxicity to PCDD/F mass (Σ17fg I-TEQ Sm-3) indicates enhanced contributions from the ferrous metallurgical emission factor associated with penta- and hexa-chlorinated furans across the study sites.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Industrias , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análisis , Carbón Mineral/efectos adversos , República de Corea , Urbanización , Emisiones de Vehículos
18.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124804, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541900

RESUMEN

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is one of the most important water quality parameters that quantifies the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize oxidizable pollutants (mainly organics) in water samples. However, erroneous COD results were commonly observed for bromide-rich industrial wastewater samples using standard COD test. Bromide in water sample is known to seriously interfere with COD test. However, there is no satisfactory approach to effectively eliminate bromide interference thus far. In this study, two strategies, namely masking and correction, were investigated for their effectiveness to suppress bromide interference. For the masking strategy, silver ion was assessed for its effectiveness to neutralize bromide in water samples through precipitation and complex formation reactions. Silver ion offered only partial masking effect on bromide, while the residue bromide can still cause significant interference on COD determination. For the correction strategy, an equivalent redox reaction reflecting bromide interference mechanism was proposed, and a theoretical correction factor of 0.1 g COD/g Br- was found based on stoichiometry. The effectiveness of the proposed correction factor for bromide interference under different wastewater pollutant matrix was evaluated using different types of wastewater samples (synthetic wastewater, domestic wastewater and bromide-rich industrial wastewater) with varying amounts of bromide (from 0 to 2000 mg L-1) added to the samples. The findings showed that with bromide concentration up to 600 mg L-1, the correction factor of 0.1 g COD/g Br- was applicable to all the tested wastewater samples, suggesting that this correction strategy could be practically used to eliminate bromide interference in standard COD test.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno , Bromuros , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Residuos Industriales , Industrias , Oxígeno/química , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Calidad del Agua
19.
Gen Dent ; 68(1): 56-60, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859664

RESUMEN

The purpose of this retrospective, observational study was to characterize the amounts and types of healthcare industry payments made to dental care providers in 2017. Data were collected from the Open Payments database of the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Dentists were classified as providing general services or services in 1 of 9 specialties recognized by the American Dental Association (prior to the recognition of dental anesthesiology). The value and nature of each payment made to providers were recorded, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Distributions across dental specialties were compared with analyses of variance. In 2017, US dentists received a total of 321,627 industry payments totaling $110,750,601. The most money was spent on service fees ($37,333,870; 33.7%), followed by consulting fees ($12,983,013; 11.7%) and royalties and licenses ($11,426,776; 10.3%). Each provider received a median payment of $63.27 (range, $0.21-$22,931,027.12) spread over 2 payments (range, 1-285). Participation rates among dental specialists ranged from 19% to 62%, and the highest rates were found among orthodontists (61.8%), oral and maxillofacial surgeons (55.7%), and periodontists (54.6%). The greatest median payments per provider were made to specialists in oral and maxillofacial radiology ($187.52), periodontics ($127.31), and oral and maxillofacial surgery ($123.39). The mean number (P < 0.01) and amount of payments (P < 0.01) per provider differed significantly across all specialties. The majority of dentists in this study received less than $200; however, the distribution of payments was positively skewed by a few top earners. The effect of these payments on clinical practice remains to be determined.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto de Intereses , Economía en Odontología , Industrias/economía , Anciano , Odontología , Honorarios y Precios , Sector de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Industrias/ética , Medicare , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/economía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124757, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726607

RESUMEN

In this study, in order to determine atmospheric PAH concentrations in Inegol/Turkey, ambient air samples were collected from two different sites representing industrial and uncontrolled furniture manufacturers regions. Sampling campaign took place between December 2017 and November 2018. Air samples were collected using high volume air samplers (HVAS) and PAH concentrations were determined in both gas and particulate phases. The mean of the atmospheric PAH concentrations obtained in the gas phase in the furniture workshops (FW) and industrial district (ID) regions were 697.82 ±â€¯637 ng/m3 and 772.92 ±â€¯864.23 ng/m3, respectively. The concentrations in the particulate phase in the regions were 413.52 ±â€¯430.23 ng/m3 and 342.40 ±â€¯527.48 ng/m3, respectively. The average total (gas + particlulate phases) concentration of ∑16PAH determined in the site of FW was 1111.34 ±â€¯1045.24 ng/m3 while that was 772.92 ±â€¯864.23 ng/m3 in ID. These values are over the ambient levels reported for urban sites wherein big industries exist around the world. Additionally, the average of particle phase percentage was 30% because of nearby combustion sources. The determination of possible sources of PAHs in the regions was performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA results showed that the main sources of pollutants of the regions are intertwined (combustion, traffic, industries). However, the most effective source is thought to be uncontrolled combustion of furniture wastes as fuel for residential heating. Health risks for the citizens were calculated for both regions and were found not to be at high-class risk.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Industrias , Material Particulado/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Ciudades , Carbón Mineral/análisis , Análisis de Componente Principal , Estaciones del Año , Turquia
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