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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3857, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719843

RESUMEN

Systematical and critical learning from industrial catalysis will bring inspiration for emerging nanocatalytic medicine, but the relevant knowledge is quite limited so far. In this review, we briefly summarize representative catalytic reactions and corresponding catalysts in industry, and then distinguish the similarities and differences in catalytic reactions between industrial and medical applications in support of critical learning, deep understanding, and rational designing of appropriate catalysts and catalytic reactions for various medical applications. Finally, we summarize/outlook the present and potential translation from industrial catalysis to nanocatalytic medicine. This review is expected to display a clear picture of nanocatalytic medicine evolution.


Asunto(s)
Nanomedicina , Catálisis , Humanos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Industrias , Nanotecnología/métodos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 546, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743357

RESUMEN

Industrial activities have the potential to pollute soils with a wide variety of heavy metals (HMs). In Ghana, however, assessment of HM pollution of soils in industrial areas remains limited. Accordingly, HM soil pollution in one of the industrial areas in Accra, Ghana was assessed. Soil samples were taken and analysed for HMs, including Fe, Zr, Zn, Ti, Sr, Rb, Mn, Pb, Cu, and Co, using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). HM geochemical threshold values (GTVs) were determined to establish soil HM pollution levels and identify areas needing remediation. Furthermore, risk assessments were conducted to evaluate the potential ecological and human health risks associated with these metals. The mean concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, and Pb in the soils were: 27133.83, 147.72, 16.30, 95.95, 307.11, 4663.66, 289.85, 418.54, 44.97, and 112.88 mg/kg, respectively. Generally, the concentrations of HMs decreased with depth, although some lower layers exhibited elevated HM levels. Soil pollution levels were categorized as low for Fe, Rb, Zr, Ti, Mn, Co, and Cu; moderate for Sr and Zn; and considerable for Pb. Notably, the northwestern part of the study area displayed a considerable to very high degree of HM contamination. While HMs in the soils posed low ecological risk, the human health risk assessment indicated potential health effects from Co, particularly in children. The presence of HMs in the soils was noted to originate from both natural geological phenomena and human activities, including industrial operations, agricultural practices, landfill activities, and vehicular emissions.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Ghana , Metales Pesados/análisis , Suelo/química , Medición de Riesgo , Humanos , Industrias , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0295548, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743654

RESUMEN

ESG has emerged as a prominent method for evaluating enterprises, gaining increasing importance in recent years. It assesses a company's ability to promote sustainable economic development and fulfill its social responsibilities, encompassing three non-financial dimensions: environmental, social, and corporate governance. Regulatory authorities, industry associations, and investment institutions worldwide have placed growing emphasis on a company's ESG performance. From the perspective of career concern, this study conducted a multiple regression analysis using data from Chinese A-share companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen from 2011 to 2020. It used CEO shareholding and CEO political affiliation as moderating variables to examine the impact of CEO career concerns on the corporate environment, society, and corporate governance performance. Empirical testing of whether CEO career concerns promote or suppress the ESG performance in enterprises. The findings of this study reveal that CEOs with heightened career concerns tend to impede the ESG performance of their respective enterprises. Additionally, CEO shareholding and political affiliations exert a negative moderating influence on the relationship between CEO career concerns and ESG performance. This research significantly extends the investigation into factors influencing ESG performance, offering fresh perspectives that could inform improved CEO oversight, foster corporate transformation, and enhance ESG performance.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Humanos , China , Industrias , Responsabilidad Social , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301451, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743650

RESUMEN

As an emerging business modality and Internet format, live streaming e-commerce has developed rapidly since its emergence in 2016, especially since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in late 2019, when an increasing number of businesses from other industries attracted participation. However, with the development of the live streaming e-commerce industry, the industry's market environment is becoming increasingly chaotic. Therefore, during this period, government departments continuously formulate and implement relevant industry policies. In order to exploring the cooperation network structure, policy content distribution, and implementation effectiveness characteristics among publishers, this paper constructs a three-dimensional analysis framework of policy from the perspective of policy tools, policy effectiveness evaluation and policy publishers. The results show that in terms of policy tools, the overall structure of policy tools in the live streaming e-commerce industry is unreasonable, and different types of policy tools are significantly diverse. The proportion of environmental policy tools is greater than that of demand-based and supply-based policy tools, accounting for 62.97%, and among them, the tools related to industry regulation and management account for the largest proportion of the total, which greatly suppresses the enthusiasm of various entities in the industry for development. In terms of policy effectiveness evaluation, most of the policies do not formulate detailed long-, medium-, or short-term goals, nor are the policy priorities, incentive measures, or action modes perfect, indicating that the government's pushing and pulling forces for the live streaming e-commerce industry are insufficient. Finally, in the subject dimension of policy release, the synergy of relevant subjects is constantly improving, but there is also a phenomenon of over-concentration in the synergistic departments.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , China , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Industrias , Comercio , SARS-CoV-2 , Internet
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303572, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739613

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The development of the digital economy constitutes a key component of China's endeavors to advance towards "Digital China." The sports industry functions as a new catalyst for high-quality economic growth. This study systematically evaluated the integration between these two sectors. METHODS: First, we conducted two levels of grey relational analysis to assess their integration between 2016 and 2021. Second, we conducted a VAR analysis to determine whether their integration between 2009 and 2021 represents a causal relationship. RESULTS: At the macro level, the grey relational analysis reveals that the sports industry (grade = 0.770) ranked second among China's eight key economic sectors in terms of digital economy integration. At the meso level, a wide variation (ranging from 0.606 to 0.789) existed in the grade of integration between the digital economy and the sub-sectors of the sports industry. According to the VAR model, the digital economy does not Granger cause (p = 0.344) the growth of the sports industry. CONCLUSIONS: This study yielded two added values to the existing literature: First, there exists a sectoral imbalance in the digitization process; second, the explosive growth of the sports industry was not primarily caused by the digital economy. Accordingly, the "sports + digital" complex is still in the first wave of technological integration. We propose three policy recommendations, namely, sectoral synergistic development, overtaking via esports IP, and new economy and new regulation. Collectively, these findings provide updated insights for the digital transformation towards "building a leading sports nation" and "Digital China."


Asunto(s)
Deportes , China , Humanos , Desarrollo Económico , Industrias/economía , Modelos Económicos
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10928, 2024 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740781

RESUMEN

Health is the basis for human survival and development and is an important symbol to evaluate a country's economic growth and social progress. This article measures the degree of sports industry agglomeration in different regions of China and uses the Moran index to verify the existence of global autocorrelation in sports agglomeration. Next, the spatial Durbin model was used to verify the spatial spillover effect of sports industry agglomeration on the health level of residents, and the following conclusions were obtained.Firstly, there is spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity in the clustering level of China's sports industry. The spatial distribution is extremely uneven, and different regions have formed relatively stable spatial patterns. Secondly, the degree of aggregation of the sports industry can reduce the number of per capita visits and have a positive spatial spillover effect on the health of residents. Not only can it promote the health level of residents in the province, but it also has spatial spillover effects on surrounding areas.Finally, based on the research results, the following conclusions are proposed in this article. Policy recommendations include increasing investment in sports talent cultivation, accelerating the construction of sports center cities, and increasing residents' attention to sports to improve residents' health.


Asunto(s)
Deportes , China , Humanos , Industrias
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302586, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713698

RESUMEN

Given the advent of the digital era, digital transformation has become necessary for enterprise development. Political connections are the most important resources for enterprise development in most countries. However, the impact of political connections on corporate digital transformation has yet to be verified. This study uses ERNIE, a large language model, to construct a measurement of corporate digital transformation from the perspective of digital technology application through a textual analysis of the annual reports of A-share privately listed companies from 2008 to 2020 and analyzes the impact of political connections on corporate digital transformation and its mechanism of action. The findings demonstrate that political connections have a significant inhibitory effect on corporate digital transformation. This conclusion still holds after a series of robustness and endogeneity tests. The mechanism analyses demonstrate that political connections primarily affect corporate digital transformation through three mechanisms: weakening risk, inhibiting innovation, and enhancing resource crowding. We theoretically expand the understanding of the economic impact of political connections and provide new ideas for accelerating enterprise digital transformation from the perspective of policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Política , China , Humanos , Tecnología Digital , Sector Privado , Comercio , Industrias/economía
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301589, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713709

RESUMEN

The Baijiu industry is a significant contributor to both the food industry and the light industry. Its high tax characteristics effectively promote the sustainable development of the regional economy. First, the evaluation index system of scientific and technological innovation (STI) and high-quality development of Baijiu industry (HQDBI) were constructed. The entropy-improved CRITIC method was used to measure the weights. Second, the coordination relationship and evolution trend of STI and HQDBI were explored using the coupling coordination model and the Tapio decoupling model. Then, the transfer law and key influencing factors were further investigated using the Markov chain and grey correlation, respectively. The main contribution is the dynamic evolution of the coupling and decoupling relationships from the perspective of multiple Baijiu provinces, and deeply depicts the coordination relationship and evolutionary trends of STI and HQDBI. The results show that: the spatial distribution of the coupling coordination degree shows high values in the east-west and low values in the north-south characteristics. In 2021, a pattern of coordinated development in Baijiu provinces has emerged along the Yangtze River basin. The decoupling state is mainly strong decoupling, but it remains poor in Shanxi. The coordination process is unstable and difficult to achieve leapfrog development. Coordination, sustainability and innovation environment have a greater impact on the coordination of subsystems.


Asunto(s)
Invenciones , China , Industrias , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Industria de Alimentos , Modelos Teóricos
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302561, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718054

RESUMEN

This paper uses the difference-in-differences model to research how the "piercing the corporate veil" system marked by the 2005 Company Law amendment affects the level of corporate creditor protection. The research results show that private enterprises and local state-owned enterprises are sensitive and significant to this legal amendment. In contrast, local state-owned enterprises are more sensitive and have a stronger motivation to protect the interests of creditors. The motivation of companies with weaker profitability for creditor protection lasts not only for the year of law revision but also extends to the year of implementation. With the law's implementation, the growth effect of creditor protection for local state-owned enterprises has become more significant. Further analysis shows that the main findings of this article are more significant in companies with larger debt scales, companies with a higher year-on-year growth rate of operating income, companies with controlling shareholders, and companies with higher stock market capitalization. From an empirical research view, this paper explains the economic effect and mechanism of the whole corporate personality under the complete system and adds economic evidence for how the law acts on the capital market.


Asunto(s)
Inversiones en Salud , Inversiones en Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Inversiones en Salud/economía , Humanos , Modelos Económicos , Sector Privado/economía , Sector Privado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industrias/economía , Industrias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/economía
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 513, 2024 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709416

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic pollution impacts human and environmental health, climate change, and air quality. Karabük, an industrial area from the Black Sea Region in northern Türkiye, is vulnerable to environmental pollution, particularly soil and air. In this research on methodological aspects, we analyzed the concentrations of six potential toxic metals in the atmospheric deposition of the city using the passive method of moss biomonitoring. The ground-growing terrestrial moss, Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw., was collected during the dry season of August 2023 at 20 urban points. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Co were determined in mosses by the ICP-MS method. Descriptive statistical analysis was employed to evaluate the status and variance in the spatial distribution of the studied metals, and multivariate analysis, Pearson correlation, and cluster analysis were used to investigate the associations of elements and discuss the most probable sources of these elements in the study area. Cd and Co showed positive and significant inter-element correlations (r > 0.938), representing an anthropogenic association mostly present in the air particles emitted from several metal plants. The results showed substantial impacts from local industry, manufactured activity, and soil dust emissions. Steel and iron smelter plants and cement factories are the biggest emitters of trace metals in the Karabük area and the primary sources of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Co deposition.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Monitoreo Biológico/métodos , Ciudades , Briófitas/química , Industrias , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Turquía
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 522, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714532

RESUMEN

The use of soil microarthropods as indicators of soil pollution in home gardens of an industrial area has been covered in this study. Soil samples were collected from 25 home gardens in three zones in Eloor during summer and North East monsoon from 2014 to 2018, for the study of soil microarthropods, soil properties, soil nutrients, and trace elements. The relationships among QBS-ar, microarthropod abundance, soil properties, and soil nutrients, were used to estimate the pollution hazard of the industrial area. The microarthropods present in the study area were Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diplopoda, and Araneae. A prominent study area feature was the absence of Collembola and Acari. The QBS-ar index score in these regions showed that the home gardens located adjacent to the industrial area showed low soil quality, with soil quality class values ranging from 1 to 2 throughout the study period. Discriminant analysis of soil nutrients with soil properties and microarthropod abundance showed that in Zone 1 and Zone 2, the data in 2018 was very well discriminated compared to other years. The hazard assessment in the Eloor region showed various levels of hazard zonation: Zone 1 with high-hazard and medium-hazard areas, Zone 2 with medium-hazard areas, and Zone 3 with low- and medium-hazard areas. The study is one of the first kinds that have used QBS-ar scores and soil properties along with soil nutrients and trace elements for estimating the level of hazard in home garden agroecosystems and thus points to an easy, simple, and practical approach in the monitoring and management of soil ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Jardines , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Suelo/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Animales , Industrias
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299030, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696535

RESUMEN

In recent years, as China experiences economic expansion and its corporations become more global, it has notably become a central hub for cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on the world stage. The Chinese government, in tandem, leverages these international M&A operations to drive industrial transformation and progress in technology. This research investigates the role of China's industrial policies in shaping cross-border M&A activities by examining recent instances. Findings indicate that relaxing financial barriers and applying specific industrial tactics bolster companies' abilities to secure funding, consequently energizing cross-border M&A initiatives. Several firms in these international mergers and acquisitions are intricately connected to political strategies, markedly affecting the formulation of industrial policies. This assertion is corroborated through the analysis of relevant statistical evidence. The study methodically collects and scrutinizes data to quantitatively depict the current landscape and influencing elements of cross-border M&A, thus providing concrete evidence for policy and business strategy formulation.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , China , Industrias/economía , Humanos , Comercio
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 506, 2024 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702588

RESUMEN

Industrial cities are hotspots for many hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which are detrimental to human health. We devised an identification method to determine priority HAP monitoring areas using a comprehensive approach involving monitoring, modeling, and demographics. The methodology to identify the priority HAP monitoring area consists of two parts: (1) mapping the spatial distribution of selected categories relevant to the target pollutant and (2) integrating the distribution maps of various categories and subsequent scoring. The identification method was applied in Ulsan, the largest industrial city in South Korea, to identify priority HAP monitoring areas. Four categories related to HAPs were used in the method: (1) concentrations of HAPs, (2) amount of HAP emissions, (3) the contribution of industrial activities, and (4) population density in the city. This method can be used to select priority HAP monitoring areas for intensive monitoring campaigns, cohort studies, and epidemiological studies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , República de Corea , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Industrias , Humanos , Sustancias Peligrosas/análisis
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301891, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709731

RESUMEN

In the context of the continued advancement of the green economy transition, the proactive pursuit of carbon emissions reduction and the early attainment of carbon neutrality goals have emerged as essential components in promoting high-quality economic development. Not only does it contribute to the creation of a community of human destiny, but it is also vital to the realization of sustainable development for human civilization. A dynamic evolutionary game model, which encompasses the interactions among government, enterprises, and the public, was constructed to examine the inherent impact mechanisms of the behavior of three players on the development of a green economy under the context of energy saving and emission reduction subsidies. The results showed that the incentive and punishment mechanisms served as effective tools for harmonizing the interests of system members. Within the mechanisms, the public demonstrated a higher sensitivity to rewards, while enterprises exhibited greater responsiveness to fines. Consequently, the government could influence the behavior of enterprises by incentivizing the public to serve as a third-party inquiry and oversight body. Simultaneously, the government could encourage enterprises to expedite green technology innovation by employing a combination of incentive and punishment mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , China , Humanos , Conservación de los Recursos Energéticos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Desarrollo Económico , Política Ambiental
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297266, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709814

RESUMEN

As the wave of industrial intelligence (AI) swept, the demographic dividend era in the Chinese labor market continued to decrease. This study aimed to explore how AI reshaped the labor employment structure of the floating population. Additionally, it clarified the internal mechanism of AI on the employment structure of the floating population based on the existing AI model and the theoretical model of AI technology. At the same time, the workforce was divided into high-, medium-, and low-skilled groups according to education level. Empirical analysis was conducted using relevant data from 31 Chinese provinces spanning from 2012 to 2018. The aim was to test the impact of AI technology on the employment of different types of floating populations. The results indicated that: (1) industrial robots impacted heterogeneous skilled floating population labor by bipolar promotion and central substitution. (2) The application of industrial robots had a promotion effect on unfinished school and primary school groups, a substitution effect on middle school, high school/technical secondary school, and college specialties, and a promotion effect on college undergraduate and graduate students. (3) Distinguish employment status, industrial robot application had a significant negative impact on low-skilled employees and significant positive effects on high-skilled employers. Hence, it was recommended to put forward corresponding policy suggestions to address this issue.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Empleo , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , China , Industrias
16.
Am J Ind Med ; 67(6): 539-550, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606790

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess workplace segregation in fatal occupational injury from 1992 to 2017 in North Carolina. METHODS: We calculated occupational fatal injury rates within categories of occupation, industry, race, age, and sex; and estimated expected numbers of fatalities among Black and Hispanic male workers had they experienced the rates of White male workers. We also estimated the contribution of workforce segregation to disparities by estimating the expected number of fatalities among Black and Hispanic male workers had they experienced the industry and occupation patterns of White male workers. We assessed person-years of life-lost, using North Carolina life expectancy estimates. RESULTS: Hispanic workers contributed 32% of their worker-years and experienced 58% of their fatalities in construction. Black workers were most overrepresented in the food manufacturing industry. Hispanic males experienced 2.11 (95% CI: 1.86-2.40) times the mortality rate of White males. The Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities were widest among workers aged 45 and older, and segregation into more dangerous industries and occupations played a substantial role in driving disparities. Hispanic workers who suffered occupational fatalities lost a median 47 life-years, compared to 37 among Black workers and 36 among White workers. CONCLUSIONS: If Hispanic and Black workers experienced the workplace safety of their White counterparts, fatal injury rates would be substantially reduced. Workforce segregation reflects structural racism, which also contributes to mortality disparities. Root causes must be addressed to eliminate disparities.


Asunto(s)
Negro o Afroamericano , Hispánicos o Latinos , Traumatismos Ocupacionales , Población Blanca , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/mortalidad , Hispánicos o Latinos/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Blanca/estadística & datos numéricos , Negro o Afroamericano/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Segregación Social , Adulto Joven , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Accidentes de Trabajo/mortalidad , Accidentes de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1338677, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566793

RESUMEN

Objective: To quantitatively assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on public health, as well as its economic and social consequences in major economies, which is an international public health concern. The objective is to provide a scientific basis for policy interventions. Subject and methods: This study utilizes a multi-country, multi-sector CGE-COVID-19 model to analyze the repercussions of the pandemic in 2022. The re-search focuses on quantifying the effects of COVID-19 on the macroeconomy and various industry sectors within six economies: the United States, China, the EU, the United Kingdom, Japan, and South Korea. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic shock had the most significant impact on China and the EU, followed by notable effects observed in the United States and the United Kingdom. In contrast, South Korea and Japan experienced relatively minimal effects. The reduction in output caused by the pandemic has affected major economies in multiple sectors, including real industries such as forestry and fisheries, and the services such as hotels and restaurants. Conclusion: The overall negative macroeconomic impact of the epidemic on major economies has been significant. Strategic interventions encompassing initiatives like augmenting capital supply, diminishing corporate taxes and fees, offering individual subsidies, and nurturing international cooperation held the potential to mitigate the detrimental economic consequences and enhance the global-economic amid the pan-demic. Consequently, this study contributes to the advancement of global anti-epidemic policies targeting economic recovery. Moreover, using the CGE-COVID-19 model has enriched the exploration of general equilibrium models in PHEIC events.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , China , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Industrias
18.
Am J Ind Med ; 67(6): 532-538, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583075

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Work-related asthma (WRA), a preventable occupational disease, can result in adverse health outcomes and employment disability, including decreased productivity, lost workdays, and job loss. Early identification of WRA cases and avoidance of further exposures is crucial for optimal management. OBJECTIVE: We estimate WRA prevalence among US workers by selected sociodemographic characteristics, industry, and occupation groups and assess the differences in adverse health outcomes, preventive care, and lost workdays between persons with WRA and those with non-WRA. METHODS: The 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for working adults aged ≥18 years employed in the 12 months before the survey were analyzed. Prevalence, and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the estimated 170 million US adults working in the past year, 13.0 million (7.6%) had asthma. Among workers with asthma, an estimated 896,000 (6.9%) had WRA. WRA prevalence was highest among males, workers aged ≥55 years, those with no health insurance, those living in the Midwest, and those employed in the accommodation, food, and other services industry, and in production, installation, transportation, and material moving occupations. Workers with WRA were significantly more likely to use preventive medication and rescue inhalers, and to experience adverse health outcomes and lost workdays than workers with non-WRA. CONCLUSION: Early identification of WRA cases, assessment of workplace exposures, and implementation of targeted interventions that consider the hierarchy of controls are critical to preventing future WRA cases and associated adverse health consequences.


Asunto(s)
Asma Ocupacional , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Asma Ocupacional/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Asma/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301364, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630681

RESUMEN

Although a rich academic literature examines the use of fake news by foreign actors for political manipulation, there is limited research on potential foreign intervention in capital markets. To address this gap, we construct a comprehensive database of (negative) fake news regarding U.S. firms by scraping prominent fact-checking sites. We identify the accounts that spread the news on Twitter (now X) and use machine-learning techniques to infer the geographic locations of these fake news spreaders. Our analysis reveals that corporate fake news is more likely than corporate non-fake news to be spread by foreign accounts. At the country level, corporate fake news is more likely to originate from African and Middle Eastern countries and tends to increase during periods of high geopolitical tension. At the firm level, firms operating in uncertain information environments and strategic industries are more likely to be targeted by foreign accounts. Overall, our findings provide initial evidence of foreign-originating misinformation in capital markets and thus have important policy implications.


Asunto(s)
Desinformación , Geografía , Bases de Datos Factuales , Industrias
20.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(2): 14, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605283

RESUMEN

Two Boeing 737-MAX passenger planes crashed in October 2018 and March 2019, suspending all 737-MAX aircraft. The crashes put Boeing's corporate practices and culture under the spotlight. The main objective of this paper is to use the case of Boeing to highlight the importance of efficient employee grievance redressal mechanisms and an independent external regulator. The methodology adopted is a qualitative analysis of statements of various whistleblowers and Boeing and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) stakeholders. It suggests that employee feedback flowing up the chain of command should be more flexible and dealt with more seriousness. It recommends that companies adopt a cooling-off period or a lifetime restriction for employees who have gone through the revolving door between regulators and the industry. The Boeing 737-MAX case, which emphasizes the ethical obligations of the job, can offer value to engineers, engineering educators, managers, ombudsmen, and human resource professionals.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Reivindicaciones Laborales , Humanos , Aeronaves , Organizaciones , Industrias
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