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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572380

RESUMEN

The management of a controllable production in the manufacturing system is essential to achieve viable advantages, particularly during emergency conditions. Disasters, either man-made or natural, affect production and supply chains negatively with perilous effects. On the other hand, flexibility and resilience to manage the perpetuated risks in a manufacturing system are vital for achieving a controllable production rate. Still, these performances are strongly dependent on the multi-criteria decision making in the working environment with the policies launched during the crisis. Undoubtedly, health stability in a society generates ripple effects in the supply chain due to high demand fluctuation, likewise due to the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Incorporation of dependent demand factors to manage the risk from uncertainty during this pandemic has been a challenge to achieve a viable profit for the supply chain partners. A non-linear supply chain management model is developed with a controllable production rate to provide an economic benefit to the manufacturing firm in terms of the optimized total cost of production and to deal with the different situations under variable demand. The costs in the model are set as fuzzy to cope up with the uncertain conditions created by lasting pandemic. A numerical experiment is performed by utilizing the data set of the multi-stage manufacturing firm. The optimal results provide support for the industrial managers based on the proactive plan by the optimal utilization of the resources and controllable production rate to cope with the emergencies in a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/organización & administración , Industrias/organización & administración , Pandemias , Humanos , Incertidumbre
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236650, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877445

RESUMEN

This study investigates the relationship between supervisory behavior, conflict management strategies, and sustainable employee performance and inquires the mediating effect of conflict management strategies. Data were collected from the SMEs of the manufacturing industry of Pakistan. The significance of the model was assessed using the PLS-SEM (structural equation modeling). The findings of the study revealed a positive and significant relationship between supervisory behavior and sustainable employee behavior. Similarly, conflict management strategies had a positive effect on the relationship between supervisory behavior and sustainable employee behavior. This study adds in the current literature of supervisory behavior as a critical predictor of sustainable employee performance in two ways. Firstly, this study validates Conflict management strategies as an influential mediator between the relationship of supervisory behavior and sustainable employee performance. Secondly, this study provides substantial practical implications for managers at SMEs to enhance sustainable employee performance through supervisory behavior, stimulated by conflict management strategies. This study is based on cross-sectional data; more longitudinal studies can further strengthen the generalizability of relationships between the constructs. The study adds in the current literature of PLS-SEM as an assessment model for direct and mediation relationships.


Asunto(s)
Negociación , Rendimiento Laboral , Adulto , Empleo/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Industrias/organización & administración , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Negociación/métodos , Organización y Administración , Pakistán , Rendimiento Laboral/organización & administración , Adulto Joven
6.
BMJ ; 369: m1505, 2020 05 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461201

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nature and extent of financial relationships between leaders of influential professional medical associations in the United States and pharmaceutical and device companies. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Professional associations for the 10 costliest disease areas in the US according to the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Financial data for association leadership, 2017-19, were obtained from the Open Payments database. POPULATION: 328 leaders, such as board members, of 10 professional medical associations: American College of Cardiology, Orthopaedic Trauma Association, American Psychiatric Association, Endocrine Society, American College of Rheumatology, American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Thoracic Society, North American Spine Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and American College of Physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of leaders with financial ties to industry in the year of leadership, the four years before and the year after board membership, and the nature and extent of these financial relationships. RESULTS: 235 of 328 leaders (72%) had financial ties to industry. Among 293 leaders who were medical doctors or doctors of osteopathy, 235 (80%) had ties. Total payments for 2017-19 leadership were almost $130m (£103m; €119m), with a median amount for each leader of $31 805 (interquartile range $1157 to $254 272). General payments, including those for consultancy and hospitality, were $24.8m and research payments were $104.6m-predominantly payments to academic institutions with association leaders named as principle investigators. Variation was great among the associations: median amounts varied from $212 for the American Psychiatric Association leaders to $518 000 for the American Society of Clinical Oncology. CONCLUSIONS: Financial relationships between the leaders of influential US professional medical associations and industry are extensive, although with variation among the associations. The quantum of payments raises questions about independence and integrity, adding weight to calls for policy reform.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto de Intereses/economía , Industrias/economía , Médicos/economía , Sociedades Científicas/economía , Consultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Equipos y Suministros/economía , Humanos , Industrias/ética , Industrias/organización & administración , Liderazgo , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Médicos/ética , Médicos/organización & administración , Sociedades Científicas/organización & administración , Sociedades Científicas/tendencias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality/organización & administración
7.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306592

RESUMEN

The article on the basis of analysis of declassified materials of the State Archive of the Russian Federation covers the history of the organization of industrial production of penicillin in the USSR in second half of the 1940s. The analysis of the documents demonstrated that existed huge gap between health needs of the antibiotic and actual quantity of its production by the end of 1945. This raised the question of organizing its large-scale production. The Soviet Government tried to solve the problem in the least expensive way i.e. through using available industrial areas for the development of penicillin production, refusing to buy ready-made penicillin plants abroad, maximal application of resources of international organizations. The problem of mastering advanced technologies of antibiotic production, as well as development of national equipment for penicillin plants was mainly solved through efforts of intelligence service activities. Due to organizational, technological, foreign policy causes, the development of new penicillin plants was delayed for a long time. The amounts of penicillin production by existing enterprises did not cover the needs of health care in the antibiotic.


Asunto(s)
Industrias/organización & administración , Penicilinas/síntesis química , Humanos , Federación de Rusia , U.R.S.S.
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229547, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240201

RESUMEN

The research on core-periphery structure of global trade from a complex-network perspective has shown that the world system is hierarchically organized into blocks and that countries play different roles in the world economy. Yet, little attention has been paid to investigating whether the sectoral international trade networks conform to a core-periphery structure, hence what is the role of different levels of processing in creating and maintaining structural inequality. This issue is of particular importance given the contemporary focus upon global production networks and reshaping of the international division of labor. With this in mind, we propose a model (LARDEG) from network science to reexamine old theories in economics, such as core-periphery structures in sectoral international trade networks and test whether the global value chains have changed structural positions in terms of the level of processing. The economic background of our model permitting a more accurate sorting of countries into structural positions and the general stability of results have provided for a more solid measurements than has hereto been possible. Our algorithm naturally produces networks with hierarchically nested block structure obtained from an iterative decomposition of the network periphery such that each block represents a vertex set of a maximal size sub-graph existing at different levels. The results not only lend support to the previous hierarchical model of the world-system (core, semi-periphery, and periphery) but also find that, depending on particular industry, the number of analytically identifiable blocks could be more than three. We show that 'size effect' is the one that prevails for core block membership at the first hierarchical level, while the GNI per capita is a much poorer proxy for the world-system status. Moreover, the patterns of blocks we label as the second- or third-level 'core' are strongly dependent on distance and geographical proximity. Overall, the various configurations of asymmetrical trade patterns between our blocks and the remarkably stable position of core countries at the top of structure clearly indicate that the rise of global production networks has actually restored a huge and unequal international division of labor splitting the world into 'headquarter' and 'factory' economies.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad , Modelos Económicos , Algoritmos , Comercio/organización & administración , Humanos , Industrias/organización & administración , Factores Socioeconómicos
9.
Work ; 65(3): 607-615, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Employers are required to get expert advice whenever needed to ensure a safe work environment. Providers of Occupational Health Services (OHS) could be such experts, but their services are usually used to provide health-related support to individuals, not preventive Occupational Health and Safety Management (OHSM) or other group-focused interventions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how contracts with OHS providers in Sweden are established and implemented. METHODS: Written OHS contracts were reviewed, and follow-up interviews were conducted with Human Resource (HR) managers, management, safety representatives, and OHS professionals in seven organizations. RESULTS: Generally, the HR departments drew up the contracts with the OHS providers. The contracts were not integrated with the companies' occupational health and safety management. Managers lacked knowledge on how to utilize services offered by their OHS provider. Terms and conditions of contracts were found to be inconsistent with services actually utilized. CONCLUSIONS: The procurement and implementation process promotes reactive rather than preventive interventions. Employers should include managers and safety representatives in procurement- and implementation processes and define relevant and measurable goals regarding the collaboration.


Asunto(s)
Contratos , Industrias/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador/organización & administración , Administración de la Seguridad/organización & administración , Humanos , Salud Laboral , Suecia
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1889, 2020 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024883

RESUMEN

Understanding factors preventing populations of endangered species from being self-sustaining is vital for successful conservation, but we often lack sufficient data to understand dynamics. The global Asian elephant population has halved since the 1950s, however >25% currently live in captivity and effective management is essential to maintain viable populations. Here, we study the largest semi-captive Asian elephant population, those of the Myanma timber industry (~20% global captive population), whose population growth is heavily limited by juvenile mortality. We assess factors associated with increased mortality of calves aged 4.0-5.5 years, the taming age in Myanmar, a process affecting ~15,000 captive elephants to varying degrees worldwide. Using longitudinal survival data of 1,947 taming-aged calves spanning 43 years, we showed that calf mortality risk increased by >50% at the taming age of four, a peak not seen in previous studies on wild African elephants. Calves tamed at younger ages experienced higher mortality risk, as did calves with less experienced mothers. Taming-age survival greatly improved after 2000, tripling since the 1970's. Management should focus on reducing risks faced by vulnerable individuals such as young and first-born calves to further improve survival. Changes associated with reduced mortality here are important targets for improving the sustainability of captive populations.


Asunto(s)
Domesticación , Elefantes , Especies en Peligro de Extinción/tendencias , Mortalidad/tendencias , Desarrollo Sostenible , Factores de Edad , Animales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Bosques , Industrias/organización & administración , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Mianmar , Dinámica Poblacional , Crecimiento Demográfico , Factores Sexuales , Análisis de Supervivencia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1693, 2019 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a concern in ferry shipping as it has a negative impact on crew members health and plays a major role in marine incidents and accidents. Research within land-based occupational settings has found that work-family conflict is an important risk factor for fatigue and that support from leaders constitutes a possible resource with the potential to buffer a negative impact from work-family conflict. Though, the working conditions of ferry shipping are likely to interfere with employee's family life those two factors have received little attention in research on seafarers' health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the direct associations between work-family conflict as well as leaders' support with fatigue in employees of the Danish ferry shipping industry. Further, the study aimed at testing whether support could buffer potential detrimental associations between work-family conflict and fatigue. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional, and 193 respondents answered to a self-administered questionnaire. Fatigue was measured with the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory. Perceived work-family conflict and perceived supervisor support were assessed with two subscales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. The association of potential risk factors with fatigue was determined using hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: After controlling for confounding, work-family conflict was found to be positively associated with four of the five subdimensions of fatigue; lack of energy, physical discomfort, lack of motivation and sleepiness, while more support from supervisors was related to less lack of energy, physical exhaustion and lack of motivation. Further, supervisor support was found to moderate the effect from work-family conflict on the physical subdimensions of fatigue. CONCLUSION: Although restricted by its cross-sectional design and a limited sample, this study provides support for the independent relevance of work family conflict and support from nearest superior for employee fatigue in ferry shipping. Further, there was evidence for a moderating role of such support on the negative impact of work-family conflict on the physical aspects of fatigue. Shipping companies may consider commencing initiatives which reduce conflicts between family life and work obligations, and that leader support may be a relevant component in such initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto Psicológico , Familia/psicología , Fatiga/psicología , Industrias/organización & administración , Navíos , Apoyo Social , Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Dinamarca , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0223405, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747414

RESUMEN

The relationship between open innovation and company's competitive advantage, and organisational capabilities required remains to be explained. This study was conducted to answer the following questions. Does open innovation create organisation's competitive advantage? What types of capabilities are needed in the process of open innovation reaching competitive advantage, and what kind of relationship do they have? This study extends the scope of theoretical discussion about open innovation from the point of dynamic capability view. The results confirmed the statistical significance of the path linking open innovation to competitive advantage through product innovation. From the viewpoint of capabilities, transforming capability plays a role of significant prerequisite of sensing capability and seizing capability, having a direct or indirect significant effect on product innovation performance and competitive advantage sequentially. The results suggest that the linkages between the needed capabilities of organisation must be considered for performing open innovation to secure competitive advantage.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Económica , Innovación Organizacional , Industrias/organización & administración , Modelos Teóricos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779182

RESUMEN

With the awakening of environmental consciousness, more and more firms desire to go "green" by shifting their focus of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from charitable contributions to environmental actions called corporate environmental responsibility (CER). We develop a monopoly differential game to depict optimal corporate strategies of product price, quality, and CER. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, we analyze optimal feedback equilibrium strategies for pricing and investing in both quality and CER with/without government subsidies. Numerical simulations show that government subsidy can improve CER and profit.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Industrias/organización & administración , Control de Calidad , Responsabilidad Social , Teoría del Juego , Humanos , Industrias/normas
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698789

RESUMEN

This study focuses on visible and invisible air pollutants and their impacts on China's hotel industry. Overall, visible air pollutants may block the sights and sceneries and worsen the quality of visitors' sensory experiences, and invisible air pollutants are unlikely to result in the same perceptions and sensations. Hence, different types of air pollutants may have various impacts on the hotel industry's operational performance. We employed a bootstrapped truncated regression model to investigate whether different types of air pollutants had distinctive impacts on the hotel industry. The dataset consisted of 31 provinces of China for the period 2012-2015. Empirical results indicate that visible air pollutants significantly decrease the operational efficiency of China's hotel industry, while invisible air pollutants insignificantly affect the hotel industry.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Eficiencia Organizacional , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Industrias/organización & administración , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente/legislación & jurisprudencia
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671628

RESUMEN

The water industry in every country aims to effectively and efficiently provide water with satisfactory quality in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. To this end, it is critical to achieve effective communication among the partners in water supply chain networks. In this paper, we focus on one of the UK's largest water utility companies and its eight main contractors and analyze the factors influencing partner and network communication in a managed programme of their asset supply chain. We employ social network analysis to conduct the cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of partner communication. Factors found to influence the communication network are grouping of projects within the programme, individual's organisational affiliation, status, tenure, elapsed time through the programme lifecycle, and co-location. Our contributions to practice include demonstrating water programme management factors that influence communication and trust and how social network analysis can better inform them about intra- and interorganisational relationships. Moreover, the methodology introduced in this study may be applied to water management in other parts of the world.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Industrias/organización & administración , Red Social , Abastecimiento de Agua , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Reino Unido
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491886

RESUMEN

Industrial chemicals differ in their treatment methods and types, depending on their physicochemical properties. Highly volatile chemicals are emitted despite installation of preventive facilities, such as scrubbers and adsorption towers. Some countries release a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), which is a mandatory report on the amount of chemicals emitted annually. This report is released to the citizens to ensure their right to knowledge and life. Numerous methods have been devised to investigate the amount of chemical emissions. There are four methods to estimate TRI emissions (Emission Factor Method; Material Balance Method; Source Testing Method; Emission Model Method). Moreover, efforts have been made to increase awareness and formulate plans to reduce chemical emissions. Despite this, the TRI method tends to underestimate and overestimate, especially due to volatile compounds. If the results of the TRI emissions are underestimated, toxic chemicals can have a negative impact on citizens. Volatile compounds are commonly used in chemical manufacturing plants, such as paint plants. In this study, a suitable method for each industrial process was suggested based on conservative estimates of multiple toxic chemical inventory method, focusing on the paint manufacturing process. In the paint manufacturing plant, storage, weighing, and mixing processes should be used emission model method to estimate TRI. In the reaction process, TRI must be estimated by the source test method. In the transfer process, the emission factor method should be used to estimate TRI. In the atmosphere prevention process, the emission factor method or source testing method should be used depending on the physical and chemical properties such as vapor pressure of the chemical.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Industrias/organización & administración , Instalaciones Industriales y de Fabricación/organización & administración , Pintura , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis
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