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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 758-768, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926505

RESUMEN

Causes of morbidity and mortality and a survey of infectious disease agents were collated from wild and colony-raised endangered Amargosa voles (Microtus californicus scirpensis). Six voles from the wild and 295 voles in the captive-breeding colony were included in the study upon identification of an infectious agent during screening, identification of clinical signs of disease, or finding a pathological condition or infectious agent on necropsy. Findings included 28 significant or incidental pathological conditions of seven organ systems and 19 parasitic, viral, bacterial, or fungal agents. Several voles captured in the wild had fungal osteomyelitis of the tail that disseminated systemically in a vole brought from the wild to the colony and may have been caused by a Penicillium sp. Three voles reintroduced from the colony to the wild experienced inanition and subsequent severe hepatic and moderate renal tubular lipidosis. The most common significant pathological conditions in colony-reared voles were chronic interstitial nephritis with proteinosis; cardiomyopathy; trichobezoars that, in intestines or cecocolic junctions, sometimes induced local rupture or infarction with peritonitis; multifocal gastrointestinal ulceration and colibacillosis; acute renal tubular necrosis or nephritis; sepsis; hepatic and renal lipidosis; molar apical elongation sometimes progressing to invasion of the calvarium; and mammary tumors. Uncommon diagnoses included intervertebral disc disease; microvascular dysplasia; and multifocal bacterial abscessation. Common or clinically important infectious agents included Demodex sp. mites in hair follicles, Demodex sp. in esophageal mucosa, and an outbreak of tropical rat mites thought to have been introduced via the straw bedding; gastrointestinal Helicobacter sp.; attaching and effacing Escherichia coli; and Citrobacter braakii, a possible zoonotic bacterium. This survey of species-specific diseases and pathogens was possible because the established health surveillance program that is part of the species recovery plan allowed for monitoring of voles throughout the duration of their natural life spans in captivity.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Arvicolinae , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Roedores/etiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Vivienda para Animales , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/patología , Enfermedades de los Roedores/mortalidad , Enfermedades de los Roedores/patología
2.
J Surg Oncol ; 121(1): 25-36, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264724

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This high volume, single center study investigated the prevalence, bacterial epidemiology, and responsiveness to antibiotic therapy of cellulitis in extremity lymphedema. METHODS: From 2003 to 2018, cellulitis events from a cohort of 420 patients with extremity lymphedema were reviewed. Demographics, lymphedema grading, symptoms, inflammatory markers, cultures and antibiotic therapy regimens were compiled from cellulitis episodes data. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for detailed analysis. RESULTS: A total of 131 separate episodes of cellulitis were recorded from 43 (81.1%) lower limb and 10 (19.9%) upper limb lymphedema patients. The prevalence and recurrence rates for cellulitis in lymphedema patients were 12.6% (53 of 420) and 56.6% (30 of 53), respectively. The most common findings were increased limb circumference (127 of 131; 96.9%) and abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) level (86 of 113; 76.1%). Blood cultures were obtained in 79 (60.3%) incidents, with 9 (11.4%) returning positive. Streptococcus agalactiae was the most isolated bacterium (5 of 9; 55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The cellulitis prevalence and recurrence rate in extremity lymphedema were 12.6%, and 56.6%, respectively. Strongest indicators of cellulitis were increased affected limb circumference and elevated CRP level. Empiric antibiotic therapy began with coverage for Steptococcus species before broadening to anti-Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-Gram negatives if needed for effective treatment of extremity lymphedema cellulitis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Celulitis (Flemón)/tratamiento farmacológico , Celulitis (Flemón)/microbiología , Linfedema/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Celulitis (Flemón)/epidemiología , Celulitis (Flemón)/patología , Estudios de Cohortes , Extremidades/microbiología , Extremidades/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Linfedema/epidemiología , Linfedema/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 556: 514-528, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473541

RESUMEN

Infection is a major obstacle to wound healing. To enhance the healing of infected wounds, dressings with antibacterial activities and multifunctional properties to promote wound healing are highly desirable. Herein, gelatin-grafted-dopamine (GT-DA) and polydopamine-coated carbon nanotubes (CNT-PDA) were used to engineer antibacterial, adhesive, antioxidant and conductive GT-DA/chitosan/CNT composite hydrogels through the oxidative coupling of catechol groups using a H2O2/HRP (horseradish peroxidase) catalytic system. The addition of the antibiotic doxycycline endowed the hydrogels with antimicrobial activity to treat infected full-thickness defect wounds. Additionally, CNT-PDA endowed these hydrogels with an excellent photothermal effect, leading to good in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The catechol group and polydopamine imparted tissue adhesiveness, and the hemostatic and antioxidant abilities of these hydrogels were also investigated. The porosity, degradability, swelling, rheological, mechanical, and conductive behaviors of these hydrogels were finely regulated by changing the concentration of CNT-PDA. Hemolysis and cytocompatibility tests using L929 fibroblast cells confirmed the good biocompatibility of these hydrogels. The wound closure, collagen deposition, histomorphological examination and immunofluorescence staining results demonstrated the excellent effects of these hydrogels in an infected full-thickness mouse skin defect wound. In summary, the adhesive antibacterial and conductive GT-DA/chitosan/CNT hydrogels showed great potential as multifunctional bioactive dressings for the treatment of infected wounds.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Infecciones Bacterianas/terapia , Vendajes , Bacterias Gramnegativas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacterias Grampositivas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hidrogeles , Infección de Heridas/terapia , Animales , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Bivalvos , Línea Celular , Femenino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patología , Hidrogeles/química , Hidrogeles/farmacología , Ensayo de Materiales , Ratones , Infección de Heridas/patología
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5957-5976, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440052

RESUMEN

Background: Efficient localized cervicovaginal antibacterial therapy, enabling the delivery of antibiotic to the site of action at lower doses while escaping systemic drug effects and reducing the risk of developing microbial resistance, is attracting considerable attention. Liposomes have been shown to allow sustained drug release into vaginal mucosa and improve delivery of antibiotics to bacterial cells and biofilms. Azithromycin (AZI), a potent broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic, has not yet been investigated for localized therapy of cervicovaginal infections, although it is administered orally for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Encapsulation of AZI in liposomes could improve its solubility, antibacterial activity, and allow the prolonged drug release in the cervicovaginal tissue, while avoiding systemic side effects. Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop AZI-liposomes and explore their potentials for treating cervicovaginal infections. Methods: AZI-liposomes that differed in bilayer elasticity/rigidity and surface charge were prepared and evaluated under simulated cervicovaginal conditions to yield optimized liposomes, which were assessed for antibacterial activity against several planktonic and biofilm-forming Escherichia coli strains and intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis, ex vivo AZI vaginal deposition/penetration, and in vitro cytotoxicity toward cervical cells. Results: Negatively charged liposomes with rigid bilayers (CL-3), propylene glycol liposomes (PGL-2) and deformable propylene glycol liposomes (DPGL-2) were efficient against planktonic E. coli ATCC 700928 and K-12. CL-3 was superior for preventing the formation of E. coli ATCC 700928 and K-12 biofilms, with IC50 values (concentrations that inhibit biofilm viability by 50%) up to 8-fold lower than those of the control (free AZI). DPGL-2 was the most promising for eradication of already formed E. coli biofilms and for treating C. trachomatis infections. All AZI-liposomes were biocompatible with cervical cells and improved localization of the drug inside vaginal tissue compared with the control. Conclusion: The performed studies confirm the potentials of AZI-liposomes for localized cervicovaginal therapy.


Asunto(s)
Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Cuello del Útero/microbiología , Vagina/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Azitromicina/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Materiales Biocompatibles/farmacología , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Chlamydia trachomatis/efectos de los fármacos , Liberación de Fármacos , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Liposomas , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tamaño de la Partícula , Plancton/efectos de los fármacos , Porcinos
5.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 91(2)2019 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266275

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION/AIM: Although prostatic calculi/calcifications are encountered frequently in the urological practice, little is known about the incidence of such lesions, their mechanism of formation, their relationship to other prostate conditions and their clinical significance. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics and to investigate the clinical significance of prostatic calcifications (PCs) in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted between 01/02/2013 and 20/02/2018. The patient population for this study included subjects with or without PCs and a confirmed diagnosis of NIH category II Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis (CBP). Demographics and clinical history of each assessed patient were reviewed. Eligible patients underwent prostatic ultrasound with post-void residual measurement, and the Meares-Stamey "4-glass" test. Symptom severity was measured using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS). Antimicrobials were administered to confirmed cases of CBP according to the results of susceptibility tests. After four weeks off-therapy, the NIH-CPSI and IPSS tests were repeated. Variables were compared between patients with and without prostatic calcifications. RESULTS: Ninety-five CBP patients were included in the study. According to the presence of PCs detected by ultrasound examination, patients were divided into two groups: 41 had PCs (group 1) and 54 didn't (group 2). No significant between-group baseline differences were found regarding age, marital status, prostate volume, the proportion of common CBP pathogens. Concerning highrisk sexual behavior, a significantly higher number of men with PCs practiced anal penetration. Moreover, a significantly higher number of men with PCs had a history of chronic prostatitis relapsing episodes. Microbiological eradication and the complete resolution of clinical symptoms occurred in similar proportions between the two groups. However, intergroup analysis resulted in significantly higher scores of the NIH-CPSI test in group 1, both at the pre-therapy and at the post-therapy time points. Conversely, no IPSS score differences between groups 1 and 2 were found at both pre- and post-therapy time points. CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic calcifications do not seem to influence the microbiological outcome of antibacterial treatment. However, the CBP symptoms appear to be more severe in carriers of prostatic calcifications, either before or after antibacterial therapy.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Calcinosis/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de la Próstata/diagnóstico , Prostatitis/patología , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Calcinosis/patología , Enfermedad Crónica , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Enfermedades de la Próstata/patología , Prostatitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(30): 26711-26721, 2019 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287648

RESUMEN

The fact that increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria and a lack of new potent broad-spectrum antibiotics call for the development of alternative approaches for treating infectious diseases. With the merits of great efficacy, safety, and facile implementation, antibacterial photodynamic therapy (APDT) represents an attractive modality for this purpose. Here, we report that the newly fabricated photodynamic chitosan nano-assembly, designated CS-Ce6, could synergistically kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria with superior potency to vancomycin. CS-Ce6 nano-assembly, obtained from covalent conjugate of chlorin e6 (Ce6) with chitosan, exhibited strong association with bacteria, thus altering their morphologies and mediating great delivery efficiency of Ce6. Upon light irradiation, localized generation of singlet oxygen by CS-Ce6 nano-assembly has a remarkable bactericidal effect toward both drug-resistance Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii, which was greater than that the free Ce6 and antibiotics had. We also confirmed that APDT-treated MRSA neither developed resistance to APDT nor altered their resistance to methicillin. Our in vivo studies demonstrated that the CS-Ce6 nano-assembly had comparable therapeutic efficacy with vancomycin in MRSA-infected mice. These results suggest that APDT by photodynamic chitosan nano-assembly hold great potential in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria and hopefully in reducing the need of antibiotics in the future.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/terapia , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Fotoquimioterapia , Animales , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Quitosano/química , Quitosano/farmacología , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/patogenicidad , Ratones , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/farmacología , Porfirinas/química , Porfirinas/farmacología , Oxígeno Singlete/química , Vancomicina/efectos adversos , Vancomicina/farmacología
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9617659, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317044

RESUMEN

The yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is an important economic freshwater aquaculture species in Asia. However, little is known about its immune response to bacterial pathogen infection. Here, two cytokines, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), were identified and characterized in the yellow catfish for the first time. We found that the full length of the IL-8 cDNA was 784 bp and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 336 bp, while the IL-10 gene was 973 bp in length with a 549 bp of ORF. In addition, both the IL-8 and the IL-10 had similar tissue-specific expression patterns. They were more abundant in the spleen and lowest expressed in the liver. Furthermore, IL-10 but not IL-8 was significantly upregulated in the intestine of yellow catfish by feed supplementation of Clostridium butyricum (CB). More importantly, the expression levels of intestinal IL-10 and IL-8 were up- and downregulated by pathogen Aeromonas punctata stimuli with the presence of CB, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that IL-10 and IL-8 mediate important roles in the immunity of yellow catfish, and feed supplementation of CB may able to reduce the intestinal inflammation caused by bacteria infections through regulating the expression of IL-10 and IL-8.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/genética , Bagres/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-8/genética , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Bagres/microbiología , Clonación Molecular , Enfermedades de los Peces/genética , Enfermedades de los Peces/microbiología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/genética , Hígado/microbiología , Filogenia , Bazo/microbiología
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(30): 26590-26606, 2019 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264823

RESUMEN

The rapid mutation of drug-resistant bacteria and the serious lag of development of new antibiotics necessitate research on novel antibacterial agents. Nanomaterials with unique size effect and antibacterial mechanism could serve as an alternative for antibiotics, since they showed low possibility to develop drug-resistant bacteria. Here, an enzyme-responsive nanosystem, AA@Ru@HA-MoS2, with a synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy function is proposed to treat bacterial infections. Mesoporous ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) were used as nanocarriers, loading prodrug ascorbic acid (AA) and encapsulated by hyaluronic acid (HA). Then, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) precoated with ciprofloxacin was used as a catalyst with targeting effect binding to the outer surface. When the nanosystem gathered at the infection site, Hyal secreted by bacteria could degrade the HA capping and trigger the release of AA and then generated hydroxyl radicals (•OH) in situ by the catalysis of MoS2. In addition, taking advantage of the good photothermal property of Ru NPs, combined chemo-photothermal antibacterial therapy could be achieved. The nanosystem exhibited potent bactericidal activity against drug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, it could break down the biofilm, inhibit the contained bacteria, and prevent the formation of a new biofilm. The in vivo bacterium-infected model also proved accelerated wound healing. The study showed a high potential of AA@Ru@HA-MoS2 as a novel enzyme-responsive nanosystem for combating drug-resistant bacterial infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/uso terapéutico , Rutenio/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Disulfuros/química , Doxorrubicina/química , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Hialurónico/química , Molibdeno/química , Mutación , Nanopartículas/química , Profármacos/química , Profármacos/farmacología , Rutenio/uso terapéutico
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 7(3)2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152520

RESUMEN

Tissue microbiology allows for the study of bacterial infection in the most clinically relevant microenvironment, the living host. Advancements in techniques and technology have facilitated the development of novel ways of studying infection. Many of these advancements have come from outside the field of microbiology. In this article, we outline the progression from bacteriology through cellular microbiology to tissue microbiology, highlighting seminal studies along the way. We outline the enormous potential but also some of the challenges of the tissue microbiology approach. We focus on the role of emerging technologies in the continual development of infectious disease research and highlight future possibilities in our ongoing quest to understand host-pathogen interaction.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/patogenicidad , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Microambiente Celular , Humanos , Microscopía/métodos
10.
Anaerobe ; 59: 49-53, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103531

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of 276 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera isolated between May 2017 and November 2018 in a tertiary hospital in Granada (Spain) and to describe key clinical features of the patients. Species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF MS. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed against penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic, imipenem, meropenem, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, vancomycin, and piperacillin-tazobactam using the gradient diffusion technique and EUCAST breakpoints (except for moxifloxacin). The most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides (29.7%; n = 82), Clostridioides difficile (15.9%, n = 44), Prevotella (10.8%, n = 30), and Propionibacterium (10.7%, n = 25). Metronidazole was not universally active against all genera tested, and some isolates showed resistance to this drug. Almost all tested anaerobes were susceptible to carbapenems and amoxicillin-clavulanate except for Clostridioides difficile (resistance rate of 94%) and Bacteroides (19%), respectively. High overall resistance rates to clindamycin were observed, especially for genera Finegoldia (54%), Bacteroides (49%), and Prevotella (40%). Resistance rates to carbapenems and amoxicillin-clavulanate were very low for the majority of tested genera but were high for Clostridioides difficile and Bacteroides spp., respectively. Resistance to clindamycin was very high, especially for Bacteroides, Finegoldia magna, Prevotella and Peptoniphilus. Routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing for anaerobes contributes information on the global situation and allows empirical therapies to be selected in accordance with local data on resistant strains.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias Anaerobias/clasificación , Bacterias Anaerobias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bacterias Anaerobias/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , España/epidemiología , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven
11.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 38, 2019 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118094

RESUMEN

Footpad lesions are an important factor in evaluation of animal welfare in broilers regulated by law; however, no legal requirements have been set for the parent birds. Nevertheless, the present study confirms that foot health in broiler breeders declines significantly with increasing age, thus potentially impairing the animal welfare due to pain and discomfort from footpad dermatitis. Furthermore, this is the first report demonstrating a correlation between the presence of footpad lesions and systemic bacterial infections with Gram-positive cocci in broiler breeder birds.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Pie/patología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Factores de Edad , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Pollos/microbiología , Pie/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/patología
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2590563, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119159

RESUMEN

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) not only bring additional medical cost to the patients but also prolong the length of stay (LOS). 2119 HAI case-patients and 2119 matched control-patients were identified in 68 hospitals in 14 primary sampling provinces of 7 major regions of China. The HAI caused an increase in stay of 10.4 days. The LOS due to HAI increased from 9.7 to 10.9 days in different levels of hospitals. There was no statistically significant difference in the increased LOS between different hospital levels. The increased LOS due to HAI in different regions was 8.2 to 12.6 days. Comparing between regions, we found that the increased LOS due to HAI in South China is longer than other regions except the Northeast. The gastrointestinal infection (GI) caused the shortest extra LOS of 6.7 days while the BSI caused the longest extra LOS of 12.8 days. The increased LOS for GI was significantly shorter than that of other sites. Among 2119 case-patients, the non-multidrug-resistant pathogens were detected in 365 cases. The average increased LOS due to these bacterial infections was 12.2 days. E. coli infection caused significantly shorter LOS. The studied MDROs, namely, MRSA, VRE, ESBLs-E. coli, ESBLs-KP, CR-E. coli, CR-KP, CR-AB, and CR-PA were detected in 381 cases (18.0%). The average increased LOS due to these MDRO infections was 14 days. Comparing between different MDRO infections, we found that the increased LOS due to HAI caused by CR-PA (26.5 days) is longer than other MDRO infections (shorter than 19.8 days).


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/patogenicidad , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Tiempo de Internación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/patología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Hospitales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(47): 6629-6671, 2019 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119257

RESUMEN

In the past few years, the preparation of novel small-molecule fluorescent probes for specific detection and imaging of chemical species inside lysosomes has attracted considerable attention because of their wide applications in chemistry, biology, and medical science. This feature article summarizes the recent advances in the design and preparation of small-molecule fluorescent probes for specific detection of chemical species inside lysosomes. In addition, their properties and applications for the detection and imaging of pH, H2O2, HOCl, O2˙-, lipid peroxidation, H2S, HSO3-, thiols, NO, ONOO-, HNO, Zn2+, Cu2+, enzymes, etc. in lysosomes are discussed as well.


Asunto(s)
Colorantes Fluorescentes/química , Lisosomas/química , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Línea Celular , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Peroxidación de Lípido , Lisosomas/metabolismo , Ratones , Microscopía Confocal , Ratas , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/química
14.
Semin Diagn Pathol ; 36(3): 187-192, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036328

RESUMEN

Knowledge of the pathogenic roles of certain bacterial agents in gastroenteritis has been growing over the past few decades. With the increasing use of multiplex molecular-based syndromic stool pathogen panels, the roles of Plesiomonas shigelloides and some of the diarrheagenic pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC], enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC], enteroinvasive E. coli [EIEC], and enteroaggregative E. coli [EAEC]) have been better understood. Although not currently targeted on Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared commercial multiplex stool panels, Aeromonas has also emerged as a possible cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. The clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic approaches to these pathogens in stool specimens are reviewed. Variability in inclusion of these pathogens on multiplex molecular panels and difficulties in detection by stool culture techniques utilized by clinical microbiology laboratories have contributed to an unclear understanding of the pathogenic role of several of these pathogens. Nonetheless, most evidence points towards a clear pathogenic role for P. shigelloides and ETEC, and possibly EPEC and EIEC. The contribution of Aeromonas spp. and EAEC to bacterial gastroenteritis has not been fully established. Further studies of pathogenicity of these pathogens are needed.


Asunto(s)
Aeromonas/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/patología , Diarrea/patología , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Gastroenteritis/patología , Plesiomonas/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/microbiología , Diarrea/diagnóstico , Diarrea/microbiología , Heces/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/diagnóstico , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Humanos
15.
Nanoscale ; 11(19): 9468-9477, 2019 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044197

RESUMEN

Numerous infectious diseases that cause clinical failures and relapses after antibiotic therapy have been confirmed to be induced by pathogenic intracellular bacteria. The existing therapeutic strategies fail to eliminate intracellular bacteria mainly due to a guard reservoir provided by the cell membrane, which can deactivate antibiotics. Herein, we have reported the design of a pH-responsive metal organic framework (MOF)/antibiotic synergistic system for the targeted highly efficient elimination of intracellular bacteria. The obtained tetracycline (Tet)@ZIF-8@ hyaluronic acid (HA) system (abbreviated to TZH) can be taken up by cells owing to the presence of CD44 receptors on the cell surface via an HA-mediated pathway. Zinc ions and antibiotics, released from TZH under acidic conditions caused by bacteria, have a synergistic antibacterial effect both in vitro and in vivo. The clearance rate of TZH to the intracellular bacteria reached over 98% within the limits of biotoxicity, which indicated that this delivery system can pass the cell membrane "barriers" and restore the efficacy of endangered antibiotics. This synergistic strategy shows potential in optimizing the efficacy-dosage correlation of antibiotics for related infection treatments and constructing versatile controlled release delivery systems for a broad range of applications.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Estructuras Metalorgánicas/química , Animales , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Liberación de Fármacos , Ácido Hialurónico/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Ratones , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Tetraciclina/química , Tetraciclina/metabolismo , Tetraciclina/farmacología , Tetraciclina/uso terapéutico
16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 66: 87-91, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126848

RESUMEN

Recent evidence into an infectious etiology of discogenic back pain/leg pain are ongoing with contradictory data in literature. We sought to validate the clinical relevance of histopathological evidence of inflammation through a previously proposed histological grading system. In this prospective cohort study, 124 consecutive patients undergoing an elective spinal decompression and/or fusion procedure involving discectomy were selected with intraoperative tissue sampling of intervertebral disc and paraspinal tissue at a single institution. The histological domains were correlated with positive disc cultures to assist in identifying relevant positive infections. Inter-observer analysis of the scoring system was also performed. There were 124 samples (36 cervical and 88 lumbar) obtained. 29 (23.4%) disc specimens and 37 (29.8%) of ligament samples demonstrated growth of C. acnes. In total, 38/124 (30.6%) of disc specimens were positive for growth of any species. There was poor association between positive disc culture and the presence of neutrophilia (p = 0.123) or chronic inflammatory changes (p = 0.092) on histopathological assessment. There was no statistical significance noted across all histological domains examined within the finalised scoring system and positive culture across disc specimens. There was moderate agreement in between observers (kappa range: 0.41-0.60) in the assessment of inflammatory changes using the proposed scoring system. The current study suggests poor correlation between histopathological evidence of chronic or acute inflammation and positive disc cultures questioning the idea that disc infection is the root cause of acute or chronic back pain/leg pain.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/patología , Disco Intervertebral/patología , Adulto , Infecciones Bacterianas/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación/patología , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/etiología , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(9): 708-713, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982727

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Controversy exists over whether bacterial flora within the appendix differs between patients with and without appendicitis. To examine these potential differences, we cultured the appendiceal luminal microbiota of patients with and without acute appendicitis, and identified the bacterial species therein. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with acute appendicitis and 37 patients without acute appendicitis who underwent curative resection of colorectal cancer and prophylactic appendectomies (control group) were included. Appendicitis patients were classified into the phlegmonous group or the gangrenous appendicitis group histopathologically. There was no patient with perforated appendicitis. Aerobic isolates were identified using standard identification schemata, and anaerobic isolates were identified according to the Japanese guidelines. RESULTS: There were no significant differences among the three groups in the median number aerobe species present per patient. However, the median number anaerobe species in the gangrenous appendicitis group was significantly higher than that of the control group and the phlegmonous appendicitis group. In addition, the incidence of patients with Bacillus species, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Bilophila wadsworthia increased as the disease progressed from phlegmonous to gangrenous appendicitis. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that increased diversity of anaerobes and the translocation of Bacillus species, F. nucleatum, and B. wadsworthia are associated with the progression of acute appendicitis.


Asunto(s)
Apendicitis/microbiología , Apéndice/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Apendicectomía , Apendicitis/patología , Apendicitis/cirugía , Bacillus/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias Aerobias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias Anaerobias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Infecciones Bacterianas/cirugía , Bilophila/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Fusobacterium nucleatum/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
J Immunol ; 202(9): 2690-2699, 2019 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944162

RESUMEN

Periodontitis (PD) is a common dysbiotic inflammatory disease that leads to local bone deterioration and tooth loss. PD patients experience low-grade bacteremias with oral microbes implicated in the risk of heart disease, cancer, and kidney failure. Although Th17 effectors are vital to fighting infection, functional imbalance of Th17 effectors and regulatory T cells (Tregs) promote inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated, in a small pilot randomized clinical trial, whether expansion of inflammatory blood myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) and conversion of Tregs to Th17 cells could be modulated with antibiotics (AB) as part of initial therapy in PD patients. PD patients were randomly assigned to either 7 d of peroral metronidazole/amoxicillin AB treatment or no AB, along with standard care debridement and chlorhexidine mouthwash. 16s ribosomal RNA analysis of keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and its consortium members Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus gordonii confirmed the presence of all three species in the reservoirs (subgingival pockets and blood DCs) of PD patients before treatment. Of the three species, P. gingivalis was reduced in both reservoirs 4-6 wk after therapy. Further, the frequency of CD1C+CCR6+ myeloid DCs and IL-1R1 expression on IL-17A+FOXP3+CD4+ T cells in PD patients were reduced to healthy control levels. The latter led to decreased IL-1ß-stimulated Treg plasticity in PD patients and improvement in clinical measures of PD. Overall, we identified an important, albeit short-term, beneficial role of AB therapy in reducing inflammatory DCs and Treg-Th17 plasticity in humans with PD.


Asunto(s)
Amoxicilina/administración & dosificación , Bacterias , Infecciones Bacterianas , Células Dendríticas , Metronidazol/administración & dosificación , Periodontitis , Linfocitos T Reguladores , Células Th17 , Bacterias/inmunología , Bacterias/metabolismo , Infecciones Bacterianas/sangre , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/inmunología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Células Dendríticas/inmunología , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Periodontitis/sangre , Periodontitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Periodontitis/inmunología , Periodontitis/patología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfocitos T Reguladores/parasitología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/patología , Células Th17/inmunología , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th17/patología
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995806

RESUMEN

The intestinal epithelium constitutes an indispensable single-layered barrier to protect the body from invading pathogens, antigens or toxins. At the same time, beneficial nutrients and water have to be absorbed by the epithelium. To prevent development of intestinal inflammation or tumour formation, intestinal homeostasis has to be tightly controlled and therefore a strict balance between cell death and proliferation has to be maintained. The proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was shown to play a striking role for the regulation of this balance in the gut. Depending on the cellular conditions, on the one hand TNFα is able to mediate cell survival by activating NFκB signalling. On the other hand, TNFα might trigger cell death, in particular caspase-dependent apoptosis but also caspase-independent programmed necrosis. By regulating these cell death and survival mechanisms, TNFα exerts a variety of beneficial functions in the intestine. However, TNFα signalling is also supposed to play a critical role for the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), infectious diseases, intestinal wound healing and tumour formation. Here we review the literature about the physiological and pathophysiological role of TNFα signalling for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and the benefits and difficulties of anti-TNFα treatment during IBD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/inmunología , Homeostasis , Intestinos/inmunología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/inmunología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/patología , Homeostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/inmunología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/patología , Mucosa Intestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/patología , Intestinos/efectos de los fármacos , Intestinos/patología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/análisis , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Virosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Virosis/inmunología , Virosis/patología
20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(3): 343-349, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973088

RESUMEN

Free-roaming chickens on Caribbean islands are important sentinels for local avian diseases and those introduced by birds migrating through the Americas. We studied 81 apparently healthy unvaccinated free-roaming chickens from 9 parishes on St. Kitts, an eastern Caribbean island. Using commercial ELISAs, no chickens had antibodies against avian influenza virus, West Nile virus, or Salmonella Enteritidis, although seropositivity was high to infectious bursal disease virus (86%), infectious bronchitis virus (84%), Mycoplasma (37%), and avian avulavirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus, 31%). Examination of small and large intestinal contents revealed cestodes in 79% and nematodes in 75% of the chickens. Although ectoparasites and endoparasites were common (74% and 79%, respectively), only a few chickens had lesions at postmortem examination, mainly intestinal serosal nodules (12%) and feather loss (6%). Histologic examination of 18 organs from each bird revealed lesions in high percentages of organs, mainly the liver (86%), lung (75%), spleen (60%), small intestine (56%), skin (42%), and kidney (40%). Lesions included degenerative, reactive, inflammatory, and neoplastic, and were not correlated with the serologic status of the chickens except in one case of infectious bursal disease. Microscopically, Paratanaisia bragai was seen in the kidneys of 3 chickens and intestinal coccidiasis in 1 chicken. Pulmonary silicate aggregates were common, were present in intestinal serosal nodules, and were suggestive of environmental exposure.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Pollos , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Virosis/veterinaria , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Femenino , Parasitosis Intestinales/microbiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/patología , Masculino , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/patología , Prevalencia , San Kitts y Nevis/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/patología , Virosis/virología
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