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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD004406, 2021 03 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics provide only modest benefit in treating sore throat, although their effectiveness increases in people with positive throat swabs for group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS). It is unclear which antibiotic is the best choice if antibiotics are indicated. This is an update of a review first published in 2010, and updated in 2013, 2016, and 2020. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative efficacy of different antibiotics in: (a) alleviating symptoms (pain, fever); (b) shortening the duration of the illness; (c) preventing clinical relapse (i.e. recurrence of symptoms after initial resolution); and (d) preventing complications (suppurative complications, acute rheumatic fever, post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis). To assess the evidence on the comparative incidence of adverse effects and the risk-benefit of antibiotic treatment for streptococcal pharyngitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 3 September 2020: CENTRAL (2020, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946), Embase Elsevier (from 1974), and Web of Science Thomson Reuters (from 2010). We also searched clinical trial registers on 3 September 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind trials comparing different antibiotics, and reporting at least one of the following: clinical cure, clinical relapse, or complications and/or adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened trials for inclusion and extracted data using standard methodological procedures as recommended by Cochrane. We assessed the risk of bias of included studies according to the methods outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, and used the GRADE approach to assess the overall certainty of the evidence for the outcomes. We have reported the intention-to-treat analysis, and also performed an analysis of evaluable participants to explore the robustness of the intention-to-treat results. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 trials reported in 18 publications (5839 randomised participants): six trials compared penicillin with cephalosporins; six compared penicillin with macrolides; three compared penicillin with carbacephem; one compared penicillin with sulphonamides; one compared clindamycin with ampicillin; and one compared azithromycin with amoxicillin in children. All participants had confirmed acute GABHS tonsillopharyngitis, and ages ranged from one month to 80 years. Nine trials included only, or predominantly, children. Most trials were conducted in an outpatient setting. Reporting of randomisation, allocation concealment, and blinding was poor in all trials. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence mainly due to lack of (or poor reporting of) randomisation or blinding, or both; heterogeneity; and wide confidence intervals. Cephalosporins versus penicillin We are uncertain if there is a difference in symptom resolution (at 2 to 15 days) for cephalosporins versus penicillin (odds ratio (OR) for absence of symptom resolution 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.12; 5 trials; 2018 participants; low-certainty evidence). Results of the sensitivity analysis of evaluable participants differed (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; 5 trials; 1660 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if clinical relapse may be lower for cephalosporins compared with penicillin (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.99; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 50; 4 trials; 1386 participants; low-certainty evidence). Very low-certainty evidence showed no difference in reported adverse events. Macrolides versus penicillin We are uncertain if there is a difference between macrolides and penicillin for resolution of symptoms (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.35; 6 trials; 1728 participants; low-certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis of evaluable participants resulted in an OR of 0.79, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.09; 6 trials; 1159 participants). We are uncertain if clinical relapse may be different (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.48 to 3.03; 6 trials; 802 participants; low-certainty evidence).  Azithromycin versus amoxicillin Based on one unpublished trial in children, we are uncertain if resolution of symptoms is better with azithromycin in a single dose versus amoxicillin for 10 days (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.05; 1 trial; 673 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Sensitivity analysis for per-protocol analysis resulted in an OR of 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.73; 1 trial; 482 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are also uncertain if there was a difference in relapse between groups (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.82; 1 trial; 422 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Adverse events were more common with azithromycin compared to amoxicillin (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.99; 1 trial; 673 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Carbacephem versus penicillin There is low-certainty evidence that compared with penicillin, carbacephem may provide better symptom resolution post-treatment in adults and children (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99; NNTB 14.3; 3 trials; 795 participants). Studies did not report on long-term complications, so it was unclear if any class of antibiotics was better in preventing serious but rare complications.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain if there are clinically relevant differences in symptom resolution when comparing cephalosporins and macrolides with penicillin in the treatment of GABHS tonsillopharyngitis. Low-certainty evidence in children suggests that carbacephem may be more effective than penicillin for symptom resolution. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions regarding the other comparisons in this review. Data on complications were too scarce to draw conclusions. These results do not demonstrate that other antibiotics are more effective than penicillin in the treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. All studies were conducted in high-income countries with a low risk of streptococcal complications, so there is a need for trials in low-income countries and Aboriginal communities, where the risk of complications remains high.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Faringitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Amoxicilina/efectos adversos , Amoxicilina/uso terapéutico , Ampicilina/efectos adversos , Ampicilina/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Azitromicina/efectos adversos , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Cefalosporinas/efectos adversos , Cefalosporinas/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Clindamicina/efectos adversos , Clindamicina/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Lactante , Macrólidos/efectos adversos , Macrólidos/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Penicilinas/efectos adversos , Penicilinas/uso terapéutico , Faringitis/microbiología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Sulfonamidas/efectos adversos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750514

RESUMEN

Bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, earlier considered typically animal, currently have also been causing infections in humans. It is necessary to make clinicians aware of the emergence of new species that may cause the development of human diseases. There is an increasing frequency of isolation of streptococci such as S. suis, S. dysgalactiae, S. iniae and S. equi from people. Isolation of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex bacteria has also been reported. The streptococcal species described in this review are gaining new properties and virulence factors by which they can thrive in new environments. It shows the potential of these bacteria to changes in the genome and the settlement of new hosts. Information is presented on clinical cases that concern streptococcus species belonging to the groups Bovis, Pyogenic and Suis. We also present the antibiotic resistance profiles of these bacteria. The emerging resistance to ß-lactams has been reported. In this review, the classification, clinical characteristics and antibiotic resistance of groups and species of streptococci considered as animal pathogens are summarized.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus/fisiología , Streptococcus/patogenicidad , Zoonosis/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/transmisión , Streptococcus/clasificación , Streptococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Virulencia , Zoonosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Zoonosis/transmisión
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526521

RESUMEN

Vertebral osteomyelitis is an infection of the vertebrae that can lead to spinal degeneration, most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus Here, we report an unusual case of pyogenic osteomyelitis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus parasanguinis in a 61-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient presented with a 2-week history of worsening lower back pain and fever and a recent episode of cystitis following re-engagement of sexual activity. Imaging revealed a deterioration of vertebrae discs and spinal canal stenosis at the L3-L4 levels with a formation of abscess in the right psoas muscle. Needle aspiration of the abscess identified G. vaginalis and S. parasanguinis and the patient was successfully treated with a 6-week course of ceftriaxone and metronidazole. This case describes an unusual coinfection of two pathogens that normally reside in the urogenital tract and oral cavity, respectively, and highlights the risk posed when these organisms breach the body's normal barriers.


Asunto(s)
Discitis/microbiología , Gardnerella vaginalis/aislamiento & purificación , Vértebras Lumbares , Osteomielitis/microbiología , Absceso del Psoas/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Técnicas de Cultivo , Discitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Discitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Discitis/fisiopatología , Femenino , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/microbiología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteomielitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteomielitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteomielitis/fisiopatología , Posmenopausia , Absceso del Psoas/diagnóstico por imagen , Absceso del Psoas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estenosis Espinal/fisiopatología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563670

RESUMEN

Cerebral vasculitis is a serious complication of bacterial meningitis that can cause significant morbidity and mortality due to stroke. Currently, there are no treatment guidelines or safety and efficacy studies on the management of cerebral vasculitis in this context. Herein, we report a case of a previously well 11-year-old girl who presented with acute otitis media that progressed to mastoiditis and fulminant meningitis. Group A Streptococcus was found in blood and ear-fluid cultures (lumbar puncture was unsuccessful). Her decreased level of consciousness persisted despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment, and repeat MRI revealed extensive large vessel cerebral vasculitis. Based on expert opinion and a presumed inflammatory mechanism, her cerebral vasculitis was treated with 7 days of pulse intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisone taper. She was also treated with intravenous heparin. Following these therapies, she improved clinically and radiographically with no adverse events. She continues to undergo rehabilitation with improvement.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Heparina/administración & dosificación , Meningitis Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningitis Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vasculitis del Sistema Nervioso Central/diagnóstico , Vasculitis del Sistema Nervioso Central/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico por Imagen , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Meningitis Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus pyogenes , Vasculitis del Sistema Nervioso Central/microbiología
5.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397326

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Phlegmonous gastritis (PG) is a rare, suppurative bacterial infection of the gastric wall, which may rapidly evolve into fatal septicemia. The etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood; however, multiple risk factors have been cited in current literature. Most cases have been diagnosed at autopsy, and occasionally at laparotomy, as the clinical presentation is often variable. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 67-year-old male presenting with intractable nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain following an uneventful upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Diagnostic workup including contrast tomography (CT) and endoscopic assessment was in keeping with PG. This was subsequently followed by development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and clinical deterioration necessitating surgical resection of the stomach. CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis of this potentially fatal infection that can follow endoscopic procedures and illustrates ACS and septic shock as serious complications. There is currently no consensus on the proper management of PG; however, in this case, a combination of surgery and antibiotics provided a favourable outcome. Limited number of cases of PG have been reported in literature, and to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PG with subsequent ACS as an acute complication.


Asunto(s)
Endoscopía Gastrointestinal/efectos adversos , Gastritis/complicaciones , Hipertensión Intra-Abdominal/etiología , Anciano , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gastritis/diagnóstico , Gastritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gastritis/microbiología , Humanos , Hipertensión Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico , Masculino , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495174

RESUMEN

Constrictive pericarditis is a relatively uncommon form of cardiac failure and presents due to scarring and consequent loss of the normal elasticity of the pericardial sac. This results in abnormal/limited ventricular filling and symptoms of heart failure. The aetiology is varied, from infective causes to idiopathic causes, or can manifest after cardiothoracic surgery. This case involves a 46-year-old man presenting with acute group A beta haemolytic streptococcus infection, and over the subsequent 6 months develops constrictive pericarditis due to what is believed to be a rheumatic aetiology. The patient subsequently underwent pericardiectomy and had restoration of normal filling dynamics confirmed on follow-up echocardiography. This case provides a subject matter for the review of the features of constrictive pericarditis and its investigation and management. This case is that it highlights the fact that pericarditis is not a benign condition. Emerging evidence suggests that pericarditis is due to a failure in inflammatory regulatory mechanisms, and patients suffering this condition have a preponderance to 'autoinflammation'. Pericarditis should be recognised early and treated fully with anti-inflammatory agents.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Pericarditis Constrictiva/diagnóstico , Cardiopatía Reumática/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiestreptolisina/inmunología , Bacteriemia/complicaciones , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Cultivo de Sangre , Proteína C-Reactiva/inmunología , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ceftriaxona/uso terapéutico , Electrocardiografía , Hospitalización , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pericardiectomía , Pericarditis Constrictiva/etiología , Pericarditis Constrictiva/fisiopatología , Pericarditis Constrictiva/cirugía , Combinación Piperacilina y Tazobactam/uso terapéutico , Cardiopatía Reumática/etiología , Cardiopatía Reumática/fisiopatología , Cardiopatía Reumática/cirugía , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/complicaciones , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes , Presión Ventricular
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244450, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382792

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To study Group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates associated with different clinical syndromes: asymptomatic carriage in pregnant women, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), and early onset disease (EOD) in the newborn. METHODS: GBS isolates were collected from asymptomatic pregnant women admitted for labor, IUFD cases, and neonates with EOD. Serotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities were determined. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to assess genetic epidemiology. RESULTS: GBS carriage rate was 26.1% (280/1074). The dominant serotype among asymptomatic pregnant women was VI [98/240 women (40.8%)], followed by serotypes III, V and IV in 42/240 (17.5%), 30/240 (12.5%) and 28/240 (11.7%) women, respectively. The dominant serotype in IUFD cases was serotype VI [10/13 (76.9%)]. In contrast the prevalent serotype among EOD cases was III [16/19 (84.2%)]. ST-1 was associated with IUFD [7/13 (53.8%)], ST-17 was associated with serotype III and EOD in the newborn 14/19 (73.7%)]. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance reached 36.8%, 7.7% and 20.0%among EOD, vaginal carriage and IUFD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Serotypes VI and ST-1 were dominant among asymptomatic pregnant women and in IUFD cases while EOD was associated with serotype III and ST-17. Invasive mechanisms thus may differ between IUFD and EOD in the newborn and virulence may be related to capsule serotype. Resistance rates to erythromycin and clindamycin were high in EOD cases.


Asunto(s)
Portador Sano/diagnóstico , Muerte Fetal , Sepsis Neonatal/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Portador Sano/tratamiento farmacológico , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Portador Sano/microbiología , Clindamicina/farmacología , Clindamicina/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Eritromicina/farmacología , Eritromicina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Sepsis Neonatal/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis Neonatal/epidemiología , Sepsis Neonatal/microbiología , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/genética , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/microbiología , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidad , Virulencia/genética , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244283, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347487

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The selective impact of strategies for prevention of PD-related peritonitis (PDrP) may have modified, in the long term, the causal spectrum, clinical presentation and outcomes of these infections. OBJECTIVES: To compare trends in the incidence of PDrP by different microorganisms during a 30-year period, with a particular focus on streptococcal infections. To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of these infections. Secondarily, to investigate how the isolation of different species of streptococci can influence the clinical course of PDrP by this genus of bacteria. METHOD: Following a retrospective, observational design we investigated 1061 PDrP (1990-2019). We used joinpoint regression analysis to explore trends in the incidence of PDrP by different microorganisms, and compared the risk profile (Cox), clinical presentation and outcomes (logistic regression) of these infections. MAIN RESULTS: Our data showed a progressive decline in the incidence of PDrP by staphylococci and Gram negative bacteria, while the absolute rates of streptococcal (average annual percent change +1.6%, 95% CI -0.1/+3.2) and polymicrobial (+1.8%, +0.1/+3.5) infections tended to increase, during the same period. Remarkably, streptococci were isolated in 58.6% of polymicrobial infections, and patients who suffered a streptococcal PDrP had a 35.8% chance of presenting at least one other infection by the same genus. The risk profile for streptococcal infections was comparable to that observed for PDrP overall. Streptococcal PDrP were associated with a severe initial inflammatory response, but their clinical course was generally nonaggressive thereafter. We did not observe a differential effect of different groups of streptococci on the clinical presentation or outcome of PDrP. CONCLUSIONS: Time trends in the incidence of PDrP by different microorganisms have granted streptococci an increasing relevance as causative agents of these infections, during the last three decades. This behaviour suggests that current measures of prevention of PDrP may not be sufficiently effective, in the case of this genus of microorganisms.


Asunto(s)
Diálisis Peritoneal/efectos adversos , Peritonitis/epidemiología , Peritonitis/etiología , Adulto , Anciano , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diálisis Peritoneal/tendencias , Peritonitis/microbiología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Streptococcus
9.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(5): 57-60, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140935

RESUMEN

Acute respiratory infections (ORI) consistently occupy one of the leading places among infectious and inflammatory diseases in children. Most often, antibacterial drugs are used to stop the inflammatory process in the pharynx. Cationic peptides have an extremely broad antimicrobial spectrum, rendering the effect not only in bacterial infections and mycoses, and protozoans. THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To demonstrate that the test drug is effective and safe for the treatment of acute viral pharyngitis in childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from September 2019 to January 2020, 120 patients aged 6 to 18 years were treated with the drug «Doritricin¼ for viral pharyngitis. RESULTS: According to the research results it can be concluded that «Diretrizes¼ provides fast and high effect in pediatric practice.


Asunto(s)
Faringitis , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Humanos , Péptidos , Faringitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Faringe , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 763, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066738

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A lower level of consciousness is a common presentation in critical care, with many different causes and contributory factors, of which more than one may be present concurrently. CASE PRESENTATION: We described a woman with poorly controlled diabetes and steroid-dependent asthma who presented in a deep coma. She was found to have Streptococcus intermedius bacteremia and pyogenic ventriculitis that originated from right middle lobe pneumonia. Also, multiple small parenchymal lesions were observed on brain magnetic resonance imaging and increased protein concentration was noted in cerebral spinal fluid. Initially, her coma was thought to be due to diabetic ketoacidosis and septic encephalopathy. However, her lowered level of consciousness was disproportionate to either diabetic ketoacidosis or septic encephalopathy, and her clinical course was not as expected for these two conditions. Treatment with antibiotic, corticosteroid and antihelminthic drugs was administered resulting in improving consciousness. The Streptococcus intermedius pneumonia progressed to form a large cavity that needed an early surgical lobectomy and resulted in the unexpected diagnosis of chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosus. CONCLUSIONS: In critical care, a lowered level of consciousness may have many etiologies, and critical care clinicians should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of all possible causes to enable prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Asunto(s)
Aspergillus/aislamiento & purificación , Encefalopatías/diagnóstico , Coma/diagnóstico , Cuidados Críticos , Neumonía Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Streptococcus intermedius/aislamiento & purificación , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Anciano , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Neumonía Bacteriana/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Bacteriana/microbiología , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22938, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126360

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis is an unusual disease in healthy adults, and Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative pathogen. The current treatment of choice is surgery with sternoclavicular joint resection and pectoralis flap closure, especially when the disease is complicated by osteomyelitis and abscess. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report a 76-year-old woman without risk factors who visited our hospital for pain and redness, swelling on the left anterior chest wall. DIAGNOSIS: Magnetic resonance imaging showed infectious arthritis in the left SCJ, with multiple abscess pockets at the subcutaneous layer of anterior chest wall communicating with the joint cavity. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from blood culture. INTERVENTION: She was treated with 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy. OUTCOMES: After antibiotic treatment, she was successfully treated without recurrence. LESSONS: Besides surgery, medical treatment should also be considered for sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis, depending on patient status and the causative pathogen. Physicians should be aware of this rare disease to facilitate its prompt diagnosis and management.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Artritis Infecciosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Articulación Esternoclavicular , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus agalactiae , Anciano , Artritis Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Artritis Infecciosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Artritis Infecciosa/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Articulación Esternoclavicular/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Streptococcus agalactiae/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(3): 128-133, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086854

RESUMEN

Úvod: Biomarkery jsou u septických pacientů využívány jak k diagnostice sepse, tak k antibiotickému stewardshipu. Sepse vyvolaná gramnegativními bakteriemi mívá odlišné charakteristiky, především vysoký prokalcitonin vs C-reaktivní protein v porovnání se sepsí vyvolanou grampozitivními bakteriemi. Avšak jednotlivá infekční agens, především Streptococcus pyogenes, nemusí do tohoto schématu zapadat, což může vest k nesprávné iniciální volbě antibiotika. Metody: Retrospektivní analýza biomarkerů, iniciální volby antibiotické léčby a výsledků léčby u pacientů se sepsí vyvolanou S. pyogenes, Escherichia coli a Staphylococcus aureus. Hodnoty biomarkerů byly porovnány pomocí Kruskal-Wallis testu s následným Dunn post-Hoc testem s prahem p < 0,05. Výsledky: Hodnoty prokalcitoninu byly nejvyšší u sepse vyvolané S. pyogenes (12,51 ng/ml, IQR: 6,26-48,38 ng/ml) oproti sepsi vyvolaná E. coli (4,30 ng/ml, IQR: 1,50-10,00 ng/ml, p < 0,001) a S. aureus (0,75 ng/ml, QR: 0,34-1,62 ng/ml, p < 0,001). Poměr neutrofilů a lymfocytů vykazoval stejné charakteristiky jako prokalcitonin. Správná iniciální antibiotická léčba byla v souboru S. pyogenes 11,29 % v porovnání s 99,3 % a 100 % u S. aureus a E. coli skupin. Závěr: Oproti předchozím studiím byly v našem souboru pozorovány nejvyšší hodnoty prokalcitoninu u pacientů se sepsí vyvolanou S. pyogenes spíše než gramnegativními bakteriemi. Vysoké hodnoty prokalcitoninu imitující gramnegativní zánětlivou odpověď přispěli k ovlivnění výběru iniciální antibiotické léčby (bez znalosti původce), což mohlo vést k vyšší mortalitě u této skupiny pacientů. Proto doporučujeme přehodnocení významu prokalcitoninu v diagnostice sepse pro zlepšení přežití i kvality života pacientů.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus pyogenes , Biomarcadores , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 756-764, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925625

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare maternal and cord blood penicillin concentrations in women with and without obesity who are receiving intrapartum group B streptococcus (GBS) prophylaxis. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of term women receiving intrapartum penicillin prophylaxis for GBS colonization (determined by antenatal rectovaginal culture). The following outcomes were compared between obese (body mass index [BMI] 35 or higher at delivery) and nonobese (BMI less than 30 at delivery) groups: penicillin concentration in maternal blood (after two penicillin doses) and umbilical cord blood, GBS rectovaginal colonization status on admission and after two completed doses, and neonatal GBS colonization (using a postnatal ear swab). Fifty-five women were needed to detect a 0.75 SD difference in cord blood penicillin concentrations. RESULTS: Fifty-five women were enrolled and had all specimens collected; 49 had complete data for analysis (obese n=25, nonobese n=24). There was no difference in the median maternal penicillin concentration between groups (obese 4.2 micrograms/mL vs nonobese 4.0 micrograms/mL, P=.58). There was, however, a 60% lower median cord blood penicillin concentration in the obese compared with the nonobese group (2.7 micrograms/mL vs 6.7 micrograms/mL, respectively, P<.01), with no significant difference in time from last penicillin dose to delivery (obese 2.9 hours vs nonobese 1.7 hours, P=.07). The difference in cord blood concentrations remained significant after adjustment for nulliparity, hypertensive disorders, and time from last penicillin dose to delivery. Only 59.6% of women tested positive for GBS by rectovaginal culture on admission (obese 60.9% vs nonobese 58.3%, P=.86). CONCLUSION: The median cord blood penicillin concentration was 60% lower in neonates born to women with obesity compared with those born to women without obesity. However, all concentrations exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration. Maternal penicillin levels were not significantly different between groups. More than 40% of women who previously tested positive for GBS by antenatal culture tested negative for GBS on admission for delivery.


Asunto(s)
Sangre Fetal/química , Tamizaje Neonatal/métodos , Obesidad , Penicilinas , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Antibacterianos/sangre , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Profilaxis Antibiótica/métodos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Monitoreo de Drogas/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Penicilinas/sangre , Penicilinas/uso terapéutico , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/sangre , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Recto/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/sangre , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/complicaciones , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vagina/microbiología
14.
S D Med ; 73(7): 318-322, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805782

RESUMEN

Cellulitis is an infection of the dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin. One challenge in treating the disease is that it is often difficult to identify the causative agent; although ß-hemolytic Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common causes. In addition, patients who recover from the disease are susceptible to recurrent infections. Here, we briefly review cellulitis and describe a patient's 24-year struggle with recurrent streptococcal cellulitis noting how the patient was negatively affected by changes in care.


Asunto(s)
Celulitis (Flemón) , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Celulitis (Flemón)/diagnóstico , Celulitis (Flemón)/microbiología , Humanos , Piel , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747473

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One-third of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are inappropriate. We evaluated a distance learning program's effectiveness for reducing outpatient antibiotic prescribing for ARTI visits. METHODS: In this stepped-wedge clinical trial run from November 2015 to June 2018, we randomly assigned 19 pediatric practices belonging to the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network or the NorthShore University HealthSystem to 4 wedges. Visits for acute otitis media, bronchitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory infection for children 6 months to <11 years old without recent antibiotic use were included. Clinicians received the intervention as 3 program modules containing online tutorials and webinars on evidence-based communication strategies and antibioti c prescribing, booster video vignettes, and individualized antibiotic prescribing feedback reports over 11 months. The primary outcome was overall antibiotic prescribing rates for all ARTI visits. Mixed-effects logistic regression compared prescribing rates during each program module and a postintervention period to a baseline control period. Odds ratios were converted to adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for interpretability. RESULTS: Among 72 723 ARTI visits by 29 762 patients, intention-to-treat analyses revealed a 7% decrease in the probability of antibiotic prescribing for ARTI overall between the baseline and postintervention periods (aRR 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.96). Second-line antibiotic prescribing decreased for streptococcal pharyngitis (aRR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.87) and sinusitis (aRR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.77) but not for acute otitis media (aRR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.03). Any antibiotic prescribing decreased for viral ARTIs (aRR 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70). CONCLUSIONS: This program reduced antibiotic prescribing during outpatient ARTI visits; broader dissemination may be beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Educación a Distancia/organización & administración , Prescripción Inadecuada/prevención & control , Atención Primaria de Salud , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Aguda , Bronquitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Bronquitis/virología , Chicago , Niño , Preescolar , Comunicación , Intervalos de Confianza , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Otitis Media/tratamiento farmacológico , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Enfermería Pediátrica/educación , Enfermería Pediátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Pediatras/educación , Pediatras/estadística & datos numéricos , Faringitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Faringitis/microbiología , Faringitis/virología , Desarrollo de Programa , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Sinusitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico
16.
Am J Nurs ; 120(8): 32-37, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665509

RESUMEN

If undiagnosed and untreated, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) can suddenly and drastically disrupt the lives of previously healthy children and their families. The key to prompt diagnosis of PANDAS and its appropriate treatment is provider awareness that streptococcal infection may present with neuropsychiatric symptoms. The authors discuss the signs and symptoms that characterize PANDAS, as well as its presumed pathogenesis, and illustrate, through a composite case history, a symptom presentation, diagnostic journey, treatment course, and recovery that is representative of many PANDAS cases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes/diagnóstico , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/epidemiología , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/fisiopatología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/epidemiología , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/fisiopatología , Padres/educación , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/fisiopatología
17.
Am Heart J ; 227: 40-46, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673830

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The optimal antibiotic treatment length for infective endocarditis (IE) is uncertain. International guidelines recommend treatment duration of up to 6 weeks for patients with left-sided IE but are primarily based on historical data and expert opinion. Efficacies of modern therapies, fast recovery seen in many patients with IE, and complications to long hospital stays challenge the rationale for fixed treatment durations in all patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to conduct a noninferiority randomized controlled trial (acronym POET II) investigating the safety of accelerated (shortened) antibiotic therapy as compared to standard duration in patients with left-sided IE. METHODS: The POET II trial is a multicenter, multinational, open-label, noninferiority randomized controlled trial. Patients with definite left-sided IE due to Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, or Enterococcus faecalis will be eligible for enrolment. Each patient will be randomized to accelerated antibiotic treatment or standard-length treatment (1:1) following clinical stabilization as defined by clinical parameters, laboratory values, and transesophageal echocardiography findings. Accelerated treatment will be between 2 and 4 weeks, whereas standard-length treatment will be between 4 and 6 weeks, depending on microbiologic etiology, complications, need for valve surgery, and prosthetic versus native valve endocarditis. The primary outcome is a composite of all-cause mortality, unplanned cardiac surgery, relapse of bacteremia, or embolization within 6 months of randomization. CONCLUSIONS: The POET II trial will investigate the safety of accelerated antibiotic therapy for patients with left-sided IE caused by Streptococcus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, or Enterococcus faecalis. The results of the POET II trial will improve the evidence base of treatment recommendations, and clinical practice may be altered.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Endocarditis Bacteriana/tratamiento farmacológico , Enterococcus faecalis , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios de Equivalencia como Asunto , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(8): 2269-2277, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535791

RESUMEN

Finding an effective alternative way to aid defense cells to fight Streptococcus mutans was the main goal of this study. The effect of plant extracts from Curcuma longa L. (turmeric), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), and Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) was evaluated on murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) infected by S. mutans. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was determined. Macrophages were infected by S. mutans and treated with each extract. From the supernatants, it was measured nitric oxide (NO) level. Posteriorly, RAW 264.7 were lysed to expose living and phagocytosed bacteria. Cytotoxicity was checked by lysosomal activity analysis, using neutral red assay. Each extract helped RAW 264.7 to eliminate S. mutans during infection, as observed by a significant bacterial reduction. Significant cell viability was also found. Besides, an increased production of NO was verified using R. officinalis L. and T. vulgaris L. extracts. The evaluated extracts demonstrated an effective action to assist RAW 264.7 to fight S. mutans during infection.


Asunto(s)
Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans , Animales , Curcuma/química , Ratones , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Fagocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Rosmarinus/química , Thymus (Planta)/química
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(6): 783-791, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525112

RESUMEN

Background: Microorganisms in the mouth are protected from negative environmental conditions by forming biofilms; however, the use of anti-plaque agents in children is not preferred due to toxic side effects. Green tea has been reported to have anti-microbial and anti-dental caries properties. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of green tea extract to prevent the formation of biofilm on the teeth of children using space maintainers. Methods: Bacteria were isolated from samples obtained from children aged between 8 and 10 years. The micro-titer plate method and Congo red agar were used to assay biofilm formation. Green tea leaves were obtained from Rize, Turkey. Methanol, hexane and distilled water were used for preparing the extracts. The effects of green tea extract and chlorhexidine on biofilm formation were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results: Presence of S. mutans 3,3, S. anginosus 2.1.b, S. dysgalactie 6.1.4.1, and E. faecium 10.2. was measured in the biofilm samples. The extracts showed a bacteriostatic effect on the test bacteria, and among the green tea extracts, the methanol extract was found to exhibit the highest efficacy against biofilm formation by S. mutans 3.3. Conclusion: Green tea extract showed good efficacy in controlling bacterial growth, and is recommended as a better-tasting alternative for daily oral hygiene due to a lack of known side effects.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Caries Dental/microbiología , Soportes Ortodóncicos/microbiología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Té/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Carga Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Niño , Caries Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Boca , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Solventes/química , Streptococcus mutans/aislamiento & purificación , Streptococcus mutans/fisiología , Turquia
20.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(6): 707-713, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) may be present in the female cervical canal without any symptoms of infection. Chronic chlamydial infections lead to many serious complications and perinatal infections, while the presence of GBS is a reservoir for infections of newborns or invasive streptococcal infection in adults. OBJECTIVES: To examine healthy women for C. trachomatis without symptoms from the reproductive system, assess the frequency of asymptomatic infections, detect GBS in the cervical canal, demonstrate differences in drug susceptibility, and determine the serotype of S. agalactiae strains and correlations among the ones present in the cervical canal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 315 cervical swabs were collected for genetic and microbiological analysis for the presence of C. trachomatis and S. agalactiae. Latex and diffusion-disk methods were used to determine the serotype and susceptibility of streptococci. RESULTS: Ten out of 315 women (3.2%) were C. trachomatis-positive. Using traditional methods of microscopy, culture and serology, 42 strains (13.3% of the subjects) obtained from patients were identified as S. agalactiae and further analyzed. The most common serotypes identified were II (18/42, 42.9%), V (11/42, 26.2%) and III (10/42, 23.8%). The less common serotypes found were VII (2/10, 4.8%), and Ib (1/10, 2.4%); no Ia, IV or VII serotypes were found. All the strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 71.4% of them were susceptible to erythromycin and 81.0% were susceptible to clindamycin. Seven isolates (16.7%) were concomitantly resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia trachomatis was confirmed in 3.2% of the respondents, and GBS was found in 13.3%, despite a lack of symptoms of infection. The incidence of C. trachomatis infections and GBS colonization in Poland is similar to those in other European countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Polonia/epidemiología , Embarazo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación
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