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1.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 221, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587648

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Fosfomycin has been used more frequently in managing uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to decreased compliance and increased multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this network meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of Fosfomycin compared to Nitrofurantoin, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), and Ciprofloxacin in terms of clinical and microbiological cure alongside with other measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). We included randomized control trials (RCTs) with uncomplicated UTI patients who received Fosfomycin, Nitrofurantoin, TMP-SMX, or Ciprofloxacin and reported the clinical or microbiological cure. We used Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool to assess the included studies' quality. R-software was used for all statistical analysis. We ranked all antibiotics using the netrank function which yielded P scores. Frequentist network meta-analysis was used to assess the efficacy of all outcomes. RESULTS: We included 13 RCTs with a total number of 3856 patients that showed Fosfomycin ranked the highest among the other antibiotics with respect to clinical cure (P-score = 0.99) and microbiological cure (P-score = 0.99) while Ciprofloxacin ranked the lowest (P-score = 0.11 and 0.02, respectively). Moreover, Ciprofloxacin yielded the highest relapse rate (P-score = 1), whereas TMP-SMX had the lowest relapse rate (P-score = 0.07). As for the adverse events, Ciprofloxacin demonstrated the highest adverse events as opposed to Fosfomycin (P-score = 0.98 and 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: The network meta-analysis demonstrated that Fosfomycin is the most effective antibiotic in treating uncomplicated UTIs with respect to clinical cure, microbiological cure, and adverse events profile.


Asunto(s)
Fosfomicina , Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Fosfomicina/uso terapéutico , Nitrofurantoína , Combinación Trimetoprim y Sulfametoxazol , Metaanálisis en Red , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapéutico , Recurrencia
3.
World J Urol ; 42(1): 211, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573354

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a nomogram prediction model to predict the exact probability of urinary infection stones before surgery in order to better deal with the clinical problems caused by infection stones and take effective treatment measures. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the clinical data of 390 patients who were diagnosed with urinary calculi by imaging examination and underwent postoperative stone analysis between August 2018 and August 2023. The patients were randomly divided into training group (n = 312) and validation group (n = 78) using the "caret" R package. The clinical data of the patients were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to screen out the independent influencing factors and construct a nomogram prediction model. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), calibration curves, and decision curve analysis (DCA) and clinical impact curves were used to evaluate the discrimination, accuracy, and clinical application efficacy of the prediction model. RESULTS: Gender, recurrence stones, blood uric acid value, urine pH, and urine bacterial culture (P < 0.05) were independent predictors of infection stones, and a nomogram prediction model ( https://zhaoyshenjh.shinyapps.io/DynNomInfectionStone/ ) was constructed using these five parameters. The area under the ROC curve of the training group was 0.901, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.865-0.936), and the area under the ROC curve of the validation group was 0.960, 95% CI (0.921-0.998). The results of the calibration curve for the training group showed a mean absolute error of 0.015 and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test P > 0.05. DCA and clinical impact curves showed that when the threshold probability value of the model was between 0.01 and 0.85, it had the maximum net clinical benefit. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram developed in this study has good clinical predictive value and clinical application efficiency can help with risk assessment and decision-making for infection stones in diagnosing and treating urolithiasis.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Urinarios , Infecciones Urinarias , Urolitiasis , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Modelos Estadísticos , Nomogramas , Pronóstico , Cálculos Urinarios/diagnóstico , Infecciones Urinarias/diagnóstico , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298319, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558073

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adverse birth outcomes are the leading cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. Ethiopia is one of the countries struggling to reduce neonatal mortality through different strategies, but neonatal mortality remains high for many reasons. Despite adverse birth outcomes being a public health problem in Ethiopia, the contribution of Premature rupture of the membrane to the adverse fetal birth outcome is neglected and not well explained in our country. This study aims to assess fetal birth outcomes and associated factors among mothers with all types of PROM at Specialized Hospitals in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study design was applied among 538 mothers with premature rapture of the membrane at Amhara region specialized hospitals. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select the medical charts diagnosed with all types of PROM and giving birth in the hospital within the period from July 8, 2019, to July 7, 2021. The data was collected using a checklist, entered into EPI Data version 3.1, and analyzed using SPSS version 23. A binary logistic regression model was used to see the association between independent and dependent variables. A P-value <0.05 was used to declare the statistical significance. The AOR with 95% CI was used to measure the strength of the association. RESULT: Adverse birth outcome among all types of Premature rupture of membrane mothers was 33.1% [95% CI 29.2-37.2]. Rural residents [AOR = 2.94, 95% CI:1.73-4.97], have a history of urinary tract infection [AOR = 6.87, 95% CI: 2.77-17.01], anemia [AOR = 7.51, 95% CI: 2.88-19.62], previous history of adverse birth outcome [AOR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.32-9.47] and less than two years interpregnancy interval [AOR = 6.07, 95% CI: 2.49-14.77] were positively associated with adverse birth outcome compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSION: The adverse birth outcome was high in the Amhara region as compared to the World Health Organization's estimated figure and target; the target is less than 15%. History of the previous adverse birth outcome, residence, urinary tract infection, Anemia, and interpregnancy interval had an association with adverse birth outcomes. Therefore, strengthening close follow-up for mothers who had previous adverse birth outcomes, screening and treatment of urinary tract infection, anemia prevention, and maximizing birth interval are recommended for reducing adverse birth outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , Infecciones Urinarias , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo , Hospitales Públicos , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1357107, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560437

RESUMEN

Objective: The current study aimed to assess the relation between multi-dimension poverty, treatment-seeking behavior, and antibiotic misuse among urinary tract infection (UTI) patients. Method: A cross-sectional approach was utilized to recruit patients who had a history of UTI in the previous month from two provinces of Pakistan. The treatment-seeking behavior and antibiotic misuse data were collected on a self-developed questionnaire, whereas the poverty data were collected on a modified multi-dimension poverty index (MPI). Descriptive statistics were applied to summarize the data. The logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association of multi-dimension poverty with patient treatment-seeking behavior and antibiotic misuse. Results: A total of 461 participants who had UTI symptoms in the previous month were recruited. Most of the participants in the severely deprived stage treated the UTI (p < 0.001); however, there was a high proportion of the participants who consulted with friends and family for UTI treatment (p < 0.001). The patients with deprivation status (deprived and severely deprived) were less associated with formal consultation. The poorer subgroups were less likely to practice antibiotic course completion. Conclusion: The current study highlighted that poverty plays an important role in antibiotic misuse. Poorer subgroups were associated with informal consultations and the incompletion of the antibiotic course. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of poverty in treatment-seeking behavior and antibiotic misuse.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Pakistán/epidemiología , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología , Infecciones Urinarias/diagnóstico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Pobreza
7.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241240920, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections and reproductive tract infections pose significant health risks, particularly among women living in challenging conditions. Unhygienic menstrual practices can exacerbate these risks, impacting physical and psychological well-being. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association between unhygienic menstrual care and self-reported urinary tract infection/reproductive tract infection symptoms among refugee women. In addition, it explored the association between these symptoms and mental health, specifically depressive symptoms. DESIGN: This study adopted a cross-sectional observational design. METHODS: This study was conducted between January and March 2023, involving 387 reproductive-age refugee women. Data collected included sociodemographic information and urinary tract infection/reproductive tract infection symptoms. In addition, we used the Menstrual Practice Needs Scale to evaluate menstrual hygiene practices and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using Python version 3.9.12. RESULTS: Of 387 refugee women, 92.25% reported having urinary or reproductive tract infection symptoms in the previous 3 months. Factors like older age (odds ratio = 1.764, 95% confidence interval = 1.083-2.873, p-value = 0.023), lower family income (odds ratio = 0.327, 95% confidence interval = 0.138-0.775, p-value = 0.011), lower educational level (odds ratio = 0.222, 95% confidence interval = 0.068-0.718, p-value = 0.012), and being married (odds ratio = 0.328, 95% confidence interval = 0.188-0.574, p-value < 0.001) were significantly associated with urinary or reproductive tract infection risk. Difficulties obtaining menstrual products and thus reusing them increased the odds of urinary or reproductive tract infection diagnosis (odds ratio = 2.452, 95% confidence interval = 1.497-4.015, p-value < 0.001). Women with urinary or reproductive tract infection symptoms exhibited higher Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores than those without (12.14 ± 5.87 vs 9.99 ± 5.86, p-value < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study highlights a high prevalence of urinary or reproductive tract infection symptoms among refugee women residing in camps in Jordan, which was associated with poor menstrual hygiene practices and depressive symptoms. To reduce the urinary tract infection/reproductive tract infection burden in marginalized communities, public health initiatives should enhance healthcare accessibility, provide reproductive education, and promote holistic well-being practices for refugee women.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Genital , Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Femenino , Menstruación/psicología , Higiene , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Jordania/epidemiología , Campos de Refugiados , Infecciones Urinarias/epidemiología
9.
Life Sci Alliance ; 7(6)2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580392

RESUMEN

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are host defense effectors with potent neutralizing and immunomodulatory functions against invasive pathogens. The AMPs α-Defensin 1-3/DEFA1A3 participate in innate immune responses and influence patient outcomes in various diseases. DNA copy-number variations in DEFA1A3 have been associated with severity and outcomes in infectious diseases including urinary tract infections (UTIs). Specifically, children with lower DNA copy numbers were more susceptible to UTIs. The mechanism of action by which α-Defensin 1-3/DEFA1A3 copy-number variations lead to UTI susceptibility remains to be explored. In this study, we use a previously characterized transgenic knock-in of the human DEFA1A3 gene mouse to dissect α-Defensin 1-3 gene dose-dependent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory roles during uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) UTI. We elucidate the relationship between kidney neutrophil- and collecting duct intercalated cell-derived α-Defensin 1-3/DEFA1A3 expression and UTI. We further describe cooperative effects between α-Defensin 1-3 and other AMPs that potentiate the neutralizing activity against UPEC. Cumulatively, we demonstrate that DEFA1A3 directly protects against UPEC meanwhile impacting pro-inflammatory innate immune responses in a gene dosage-dependent manner.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Urinarias , alfa-Defensinas , Niño , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , alfa-Defensinas/genética , Infecciones Urinarias/genética , Infecciones Urinarias/metabolismo , Riñón/metabolismo , Dosificación de Gen , Inmunidad Innata/genética , ADN , Péptidos Cíclicos/genética
10.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 10(1): 17, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580624

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Historically, bladder washouts were used to instil therapeutic reagents directly into the bladder. This practice has expanded to include instillation of solutions that deal with catheter issues such as encrustation or formation of bio-film. They appear to provide a promising strategy for people with long term catheters. These products are readily available to purchase, but there is concern that people are using these solutions without a complete understanding of the purpose for the rinse and without clinical guidance to monitor response to treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: These case studies include three people living with spinal cord injury (SCI) who developed severe autonomic dysreflexia (AD) when a catheter rinse was carried out using a particular solution. Each of the cases developed immediate and, in some cases, intractable AD requiring further intervention to resolve symptoms. DISCUSSION: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with SCI. Long-term catheters provide a vector for opportunistic micro-organisms to form bio-film and create an environment that promotes formation of struvite calculi, thus increasing the risk of chronic catheter blockage and urinary tract infection. Whilst these solutions are used to reduce these risks, they also pose additional risks to people susceptible to AD. These cases highlight the need for judicious patient selection and clinical oversight and management of adverse events when using catheter rinse solutions in certain people living with SCI. This is supported by a decision-making algorithm and a response to AD algorithm. This case report was prepared following the CARE Guidelines (supplementary file 1).


Asunto(s)
Disreflexia Autónoma , Biguanidas , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal , Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Disreflexia Autónoma/etiología , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/complicaciones , Infecciones Urinarias/complicaciones , Infecciones Urinarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Catéteres de Permanencia/efectos adversos
11.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2333890, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557236

RESUMEN

Medical security support for rehabilitation therapy in China is different from that in other countries. We investigated whether the discharge plan to continue rehabilitation therapy in tertiary hospitals for patients after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) was influenced by payment sources or other conditions. This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Information was collected on the general condition, caregiver, types of payment sources for continued rehabilitation, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) scores, and discharge plans. In total, 135 patients with TSCI (107 male, mean age 41.00 ± 13.73 years, mean spinal cord injury duration 238.43 ± 345.54 days) were enrolled. Medical insurance (43%) and out-of-pocket payments (27.4%) were the primary payment sources. Although most patients were beyond the acute phase, 40% continued rehabilitation therapy at other tertiary hospitals. The caregiver, payment sources, injury level, AIS level, and complete urinary tract infection (UTI) were different due to discharge plans (p > .05). Patients seemingly consider a higher AIS level and co-UTI as the requirement for tertiary hospital therapy. In non-medical insurance payment source patients, the discharge plan also differed due to the AIS level and co-UTI (p > .05). However, in medical insurance patients, the discharge plan differed only in terms of TSCI duration (p > .05). The restricted duration of medical coverage restricted the continuation of rehabilitation therapy and influenced the discharge plan of most patients with TSCI.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal , Traumatismos Vertebrales , Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Alta del Paciente , Estudios Transversales , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/rehabilitación , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2333413, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561312

RESUMEN

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common late-onset infections in preterm infants, characterized by nonspecific symptoms and a pathogenic spectrum that diverges from that of term infants and older children, which present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Existing data on the role of gut microbiota in UTI pathogenesis in this demographic are limited. This study aims to investigate alterations in gut microbiota and fecal calprotectin levels and their association with the development of UTIs in hospitalized preterm infants. A longitudinal case-control study was conducted involving preterm infants admitted between January 2018 and October 2020. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed for microbial profiles and calprotectin levels. Propensity score matching, accounting for key perinatal factors including age and antibiotic use, was utilized to match samples from UTI-diagnosed infants to those from non-UTI counterparts. Among the 151 preterm infants studied, 53 were diagnosed with a UTI, predominantly caused by Enterobacteriaceae (79.3%) and Enterococcaceae (19.0%). Infants with UTIs showed a significantly higher abundance of these families compared to non-UTI infants, for both Gram-negative and positive pathogens, respectively. Notably, there was a significant pre-UTI increase in the abundance of pathogen-specific taxa in infants later diagnosed with UTIs, offering high predictive value for early detection. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing further confirmed the dominance of specific pathogenic species pre-UTI and revealed altered virulence factor profiles associated with Klebsiella aerogenes and Escherichia coli infections. Additionally, a decline in fecal calprotectin levels was observed preceding UTI onset, particularly in cases involving Enterobacteriaceae. The observed pathogen-specific alterations in the gut microbiota preceding UTI onset offer novel insight into the UTI pathogenesis and promising early biomarkers for UTIs in preterm infants, potentially enhancing the timely management of this common infection. However, further validation in larger cohorts is essential to confirm these findings.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecciones Urinarias , Lactante , Niño , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Escherichia coli , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Enterobacteriaceae , Complejo de Antígeno L1 de Leucocito
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 322, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of elderly individuals worldwide, a greater number of people aged 80 years and older sustain fragility fracture due to osteopenia and osteoporosis. METHODS: This retrospective study included 158 older adults, with a median age of 85 (range: 80-99) years, who sustained hip fragility fracture and who underwent surgery. The patients were divided into two groups, one including patients who joined the post-acute care (PAC) program after surgery and another comprising patients who did not. The mortality, complication, comorbidity, re-fracture, secondary fracture, and readmission rates and functional status (based on the Barthel index score, numerical rating scale score, and Harris Hip Scale score) between the two groups were compared. RESULTS: The patients who presented with fragility hip fracture and who joined the PAC rehabilitation program after the surgery had a lower rate of mortality, readmission rate, fracture (re-fracture and secondary fracture), and complications associated with fragility fracture, such as urinary tract infection, cerebrovascular accident, and pneumonia (acute coronary syndrome, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, or in-hospital cardiac arrest. CONCLUSIONS: PAC is associated with a lower rate of mortality and complications such as urinary tract infection, bed sore, and pneumonia in octogenarian and nonagenarian patients with hip fragility fracture.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas de Cadera , Neumonía , Infecciones Urinarias , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Atención Subaguda , Octogenarios , Nonagenarios , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fracturas de Cadera/cirugía
14.
BJS Open ; 8(2)2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593027

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Postoperative complication rates are often assessed through administrative data, although this method has proven to be imprecise. Recently, new developments in natural language processing have shown promise in detecting specific phenotypes from free medical text. Using the clinical challenge of extracting four specific and frequently undercoded postoperative complications (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, and septic shock), it was hypothesized that natural language processing would capture postoperative complications on a par with human-level curation from electronic health record free medical text. METHODS: Electronic health record data were extracted for surgical cases (across 11 surgical sub-specialties) from 18 hospitals in the Capital and Zealand regions of Denmark that were performed between May 2016 and November 2021. The data set was split into training/validation/test sets (30.0%/48.0%/22.0%). Model performance was compared with administrative data and manual extraction of the test data set. RESULTS: Data were obtained for 17 486 surgical cases. Natural language processing achieved a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.989 for urinary tract infection, 0.993 for pneumonia, 0.992 for sepsis, and 0.998 for septic shock, whereas administrative data achieved a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.595 for urinary tract infection, 0.624 for pneumonia, 0.571 for sepsis, and 0.625 for septic shock. CONCLUSION: The natural language processing approach was able to capture complications with acceptable performance, which was superior to administrative data. In addition, the model performance approached that of manual curation and thereby offers a potential pathway for complete real-time coverage of postoperative complications across surgical procedures based on natural language processing assessment of electronic health record free medical text.


Asunto(s)
Neumonía , Sepsis , Choque Séptico , Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Sepsis/diagnóstico , Sepsis/epidemiología , Infecciones Urinarias/diagnóstico , Neumonía/diagnóstico , Neumonía/epidemiología
20.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 74, 2024 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454332

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) has notably increased in community acquired uropathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs), predominantly Escherichia coli. Uropathogenic E. coli causes 80% of uncomplicated community acquired UTIs, particularly in pre-menopausal women. Considering this high prevalence and the potential to spread antimicrobial resistant genes, the current study was conducted to investigate the presence of clinically important strains of E. coli in Pakistani women having uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis. Women belonging to low-income groups were exclusively included in the study. Seventy-four isolates from urine samples were processed, phylotyped, and screened for the presence of two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) particularly associated with a clinically important clonal group A of E. coli (CgA) followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing and genome sequence analysis. RESULTS: Phylogroup B2 was most prevalent in patients and 44% of isolates were positive for the presence of CgA specific SNPs in Fumarate hydratase and DNA gyrase subunit B genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed widespread resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production. The infection analysis revealed the phylogroup B2 to be more pathogenic as compared to the other groups. The genome sequence of E. coli strain U17 revealed genes encoding virulence, multidrug resistance, and host colonization mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Our research findings not only validate the significant occurrence of multidrug-resistant clonal group A E. coli (CgA) in premenopausal Pakistani women suffering from cystitis and pyelonephritis but also reveal the presence of genes associated withvirulence, and drug efflux pumps. The detection of highly pathogenic, antimicrobial-resistant phylogroup B2 and CgA E. coli strains is likely to help in understanding the epidemiology of the pathogen and may ultimately help to reduce the impact of these strains on human health. Furthermore, the findings of this study will particularly help to reduce the prevalence of uncomplicated UTIs and the cost associated with their treatment in women belonging to low-income groups.


Asunto(s)
Cistitis , Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Pielonefritis , Infecciones Urinarias , Escherichia coli Uropatógena , Humanos , Femenino , Escherichia coli , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Pakistán/epidemiología , Infecciones Urinarias/diagnóstico , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos , Cistitis/tratamiento farmacológico
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