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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47131

RESUMEN

Já discutimos em programas anteriores algumas preocupações em relação ao coronavírus em comunidades indígenas. À medida que o novo vírus se alastra pelo Brasil, crescem os temores de que comunidades indígenas sejam dramaticamente afetadas pela covid-19. Por isso, nesse Policast, Ana Lúcia Pontes, médica sanitarista, pesquisadora da Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca (Ensp/Fiocruz) e coordenadora do Grupo de Trabalho de Saúde Indígena da Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Abrasco), fala sobre o importante papel do Agente Indígena de Saúde (AIS) na prevenção e combate da Covid-19. Ana Lúcia destaca o papel de educação em saúde, busca ativa dos casos suspeitos e identificação e acompanhamento das pessoas com agravos.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Acceso a la Información , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Desinfectantes para las Manos , Coronavirus
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(14): e19532, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pentraxin 3 is an acute inflammatory protein of the long pentraxin subfamily. A meta-analysis was performed to assess diagnostic accuracy of pentraxin 3 for respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We identify studies examining diagnostic value of pentraxin 3 for respiratory tract infections by searching Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library. The sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio (LR), positive LR, and diagnostic odds ratio were pooled. The area under the summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve and Q point value (Q*) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies with 961 individuals were eligible for this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of pentraxin 3 in diagnosis of respiratory tract infections was 0.78, the pooled specificity was 0.73, the area under the SROC curve was 0.84, and the Q* was 0.77. The area under the SROC curve of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) pentraxin 3 was 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Meta-regression analysis revealed that cutoff value was the source of heterogeneity among the included studies. The Deek funnel plot test suggested no evidence of publication bias. Subgroup analyses showed that the area under the SROC curve of pentraxin 3 in diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was 0.89. CONCLUSION: Pentraxin 3 has a moderate accuracy for diagnosing respiratory tract infections and VAP. The overall diagnostic value of BALF level of pentraxin 3 is superior to its serum concentration.


Asunto(s)
Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/sangre , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/análisis , Biomarcadores , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/química , Humanos , Oportunidad Relativa , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/sangre , Neumonía Asociada al Ventilador/diagnóstico , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Curva ROC
4.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(2): 82-88, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268462

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify individual and institutional factors associated with the prescription of systemic steroids in patients with acute respiratory infections and to investigate the role of a policy measure aimed to reduce inappropriate prescriptions. METHODS: We used data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort from 2006 to 2015 and focused on episodes of acute respiratory infection. Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify individual-level and institution-level factors associated with the prescription of systemic steroids. In addition, steroid prescription rates were compared with antibiotic prescription rates to assess their serial trends in relation to Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) Prescription Appropriateness Evaluation policy. RESULTS: Among a total of 9 460 552 episodes of respiratory infection, the steroid prescription rate was 6.8%. Defined daily doses/1000 persons/d of steroid increased gradually until 2009, but rose sharply since 2010. The steroid prescription rate was higher among ear, nose and throat specialties (13.0%) than other specialties, and in hospitals (8.0%) than in tertiary hospitals (3.0%) and other types of institutions. Following a prolonged reduction in the steroid prescription rate, this rate increased since the HIRA Prescription Appropriateness Evaluation dropped steroids from its list of evaluation items in 2009. Such a trend reversal was not observed for the prescription rate of antibiotics, which continue to be on the HIRA Prescription Appropriateness Evaluation list. CONCLUSIONS: Specialty and type of institution are important correlates of steroid prescriptions in cases of acute respiratory infection. Steroid prescriptions can also be influenced by policy measures, such as the HIRA Prescription Appropriateness Evaluation policy.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Política de Salud , Prescripción Inadecuada/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea , Adulto Joven
5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(2): 210-217, 2020 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314790

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses contribute to the burden of respiratory diseases in children, frequently manifesting in upper respiratory symptoms considered to be part of the "common cold." Recent epidemics of novel coronaviruses recognized in the 21st century have highlighted issues of zoonotic origins of transmissible respiratory viruses and potential transmission, disease, and mortality related to these viruses. In this review, we discuss what is known about the virology, epidemiology, and disease associated with pediatric infection with the common community-acquired human coronaviruses, including species 229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1, and the coronaviruses responsible for past world-wide epidemics due to severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Niño , Comorbilidad , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Pediatría , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Esparcimiento de Virus
6.
Arch Virol ; 165(5): 1191-1196, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232675

RESUMEN

Acute respiratory tract infections frequently occur in children and represent one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Quick and accurate pathogen detection can lead to a more appropriate use of antimicrobial treatment as well as timely implementation of isolation precautions. In the last decade, several commercial assays have been developed for the simultaneous diagnosis of respiratory pathogens, which substantially vary in formulation and performance characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the "AllplexTM Respiratory Panel Assays" (Seegene) with that of the automated "Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21" assay (Siemens) for the diagnosis of pediatric respiratory viral infections. One hundred forty-five nasopharyngeal wash samples, collected at the Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital in Rome during the fall-winter 2017-2018 season, were processed and analyzed with both workflows. Our results suggest a high concordance between the two methods for positive and negative samples. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with both tests as a reference method. For the AllplexTM Respiratory Panel Assays, they were 98% and 100%, respectively, and for the Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory pathogens 21 assay, they were both 100%. This comparative study allowed us to highlight the characteristics of the two assays to evaluate the best solution, on the basis of diagnostic routine and laboratory workflows, keeping in mind local epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Virosis/diagnóstico , Automatización de Laboratorios/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Hospitales Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactante , Nasofaringe/virología , Roma , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
7.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-04-05. (PAHO/PHE/IHM/COVID-19-20-0012).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52136

RESUMEN

These technical recommendations outline how to set up the emergency medical team within hospitals to provide safe care to COVID-19 patients and others with severe acute respiratory infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-04-12. (OPS/PHE/IM/Covid-19/20-004).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52030

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Brindar recomendaciones sobre la atención inicial de personas con enfermedad respiratoria aguda (ERA) en el contexto de la infección por coronavirus (COVID-19) en establecimientos de salud basado en flujograma de toma de decisiones. Estas recomendaciones son preliminares y están sujetas a revisión a medida que se tengan nuevas evidencias.* Las recomendaciones proporcionadas en este documento se aplican a adultos mayores de 18 años. Audiencias específicas, como los bebés, los niños y las mujeres embarazadas, se abordarán en un documento separado.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Salud del Adulto , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio
10.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47110

RESUMEN

O guia foi montado para prover orientações a população sobre medidas que ajudam a impedir a propagação da doença para outras pessoas da casa e a desafogar os serviços do Sistema de Único de Saúde, que só devem ser procurados em casos mais graves.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Prevención y Mitigación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio
11.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47099

RESUMEN

The HIV community and response have much to offer to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preparedness and resiliency. Having community-led organizations, such as people living with HIV (PLHIV) networks, engaged at the planning and response tables early on is key to build trust, ensure productive exchange of information, and lay the foundations for joint problem-solving measures. The following key actions addressing issues that may arise for the HIV response amid COVID-19 outbreak should be taken by governments, civil society organizations (CSOs) and networks, and PLWVIH to ensure that the response to COVID-19 is aligned with human rights principles.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , VIH , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio
12.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 26: 56-78, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139349

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Habitual intense exercise may increase the incidence of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in elite athletes. This study investigated whether immune gene expression could identify gene markers that discriminate athletes with a higher prevalence of URS. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of elite Australian athletes from various sports investigated whether athletes retrospectively reporting URS for two days or more in a month (n=38), had an altered immune gene expression profile compared with asymptomatic athletes (n=33). Peripheral blood samples were collected during Olympic selection events with corresponding URS data collected for the one-month period before sampling. Digital immune gene expression analysis was undertaken using the NanoString PanCancer Immune Profiling panel. RESULTS: Fifty immune genes were differentially expressed between the groups (p<0.05) and approximately 78% of these genes were more highly expressed in athletes reporting URS. Many of these genes were interferon-stimulated genes or genes involved in the Jak/Stat signalling pathway. Only interferon alpha inducible protein 27 (IFI27), an interferon stimulated gene involved in viral response, remained significantly higher in athletes reporting URS (log2 fold-difference=2.49, odds ratio 1.02 per unit increase; p<0.01) post-adjustment and discriminated athletes reporting URS from asymptomatic athletes with 78% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of IFI27 could differentiate athletes reporting URS from asymptomatic athletes, a gene that is upregulated in the immune response to viral infection. Upregulation of viral signalling pathways provides novel information on the potential aetiology of URS in elite Olympic athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/genética , Transcriptoma , Australia , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Proteínas de la Membrana/genética , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5262, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130328

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of respiratory tract infections in children treated with OM-85 BV and placebo during the 3-month therapy period, and observation for a further 3 months after treatment. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 54 children (6 months to 5 years old) with no past history of recurrent respiratory infections attending daycare center. Family members were instructed to administer one capsule per day for 10 consecutive days, for 3 months of OM-85 BV or placebo. Telephone interviews were conducted every 30 days. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the number of respiratory infections between the groups. The mean number of respiratory tract infection in the OM-85 BV Group in the first 3 months was 0.92±0.87, and in the Placebo Group was 0.74±1.02, and at 6 months it was 1.62±1.47 and 1.03±1.34, respectively. CONCLUSION: OM-85 BV was not effective in the primary prevention of respiratory tract infections. Although most authors recommend the use of this immunostimulant in children with a history of recurrent respiratory infections, more studies are needed to define its usefulness in the primary prevention of respiratory infections in healthy children exposed to few risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Celulares/uso terapéutico , Prevención Primaria/métodos , Lactancia Materna , Jardines Infantiles , Preescolar , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
J Integr Med ; 18(2): 152-158, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113846

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In this study we execute a rational screen to identify Chinese medical herbs that are commonly used in treating viral respiratory infections and also contain compounds that might directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), an ongoing novel coronavirus that causes pneumonia. METHODS: There were two main steps in the screening process. In the first step we conducted a literature search for natural compounds that had been biologically confirmed as against sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Resulting compounds were cross-checked for listing in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database. Compounds meeting both requirements were subjected to absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) evaluation to verify that oral administration would be effective. Next, a docking analysis was used to test whether the compound had the potential for direct 2019-nCoV protein interaction. In the second step we searched Chinese herbal databases to identify plants containing the selected compounds. Plants containing 2 or more of the compounds identified in our screen were then checked against the catalogue for classic herbal usage. Finally, network pharmacology analysis was used to predict the general in vivo effects of each selected herb. RESULTS: Of the natural compounds screened, 13 that exist in traditional Chinese medicines were also found to have potential anti-2019-nCoV activity. Further, 125 Chinese herbs were found to contain 2 or more of these 13 compounds. Of these 125 herbs, 26 are classically catalogued as treating viral respiratory infections. Network pharmacology analysis predicted that the general in vivo roles of these 26 herbal plants were related to regulating viral infection, immune/inflammation reactions and hypoxia response. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal treatments classically used for treating viral respiratory infection might contain direct anti-2019-nCoV compounds.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Humanos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Virosis/tratamiento farmacológico
16.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(1): 87-103, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145836

RESUMEN

Indications for bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal wash, and thoracocentesis for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases are discussed. Each technique is described in detail and illustrated by videos. Sample handling, preparation and evaluation are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of bronchoalveolar lavage and tracheal wash procedures as well as a critical comparison between the 2 techniques for equine asthma diagnosis are presented. Finally, validated cut-off values for equine asthma diagnosis are reviewed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Respiratorias/veterinaria , Animales , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/patología , Asma/veterinaria , Lavado Broncoalveolar/veterinaria , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/citología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/patología , Caballos , Derrame Pleural/patología , Derrame Pleural/veterinaria , Enfermedades Respiratorias/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Respiratorias/patología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/patología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria
17.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(3): 427-435, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118531

RESUMEN

Introduction. Diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) can be facilitated by the Panther Fusion (PF) automatic, random access PCR system for the detection of influenzavirus A (Flu A) and B (Flu B), parainfluenzavirus (Paraflu), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus (RV) and human adenovirus (AdV) in nasopharyngeal swabs.Aim. To evaluate the performance of PF in comparison with established methods, including subsets of (1) lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens and (2) upper respiratory tract (URT) hygiene screening specimens of patients without ARI symptoms.Methodology. The performance characteristics of PF were compared with bioMérieux R-Gene and laboratory-developed PCR tests (LDTs). Overall, 1544 specimens with 6658 individual diagnostic requests were analysed.Results. The overall concordances of PF and LDTs for Flu A, Flu B and AdV were 98.4, 99.9 and 96.1%, respectively; by re-testing of discrepant specimens concordances increased to 99.4, 99.9 and 98.0%, respectively. Initial concordances of PF and R-Gene assays for RSV, Paraflu, hMPV and RV were 98.4, 96.3, 99.3 and 96.0%, respectively, and retest concordances were 99.7, 97.9, 99.9 and 98.9%, respectively. No differences to the overall performance were found for the subgroups of LRT and hygiene screening specimens. PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values correlated very well between methods, indicating that a semi-quantitative diagnostic approach using Ct values (e.g. highly vs. weakly positive) could augment the diagnostic information.Conclusion. PF performed similar to R-Gene and LDTs not only for its intended use but also for LRT and hygiene screening specimens with shorter hands-on and turnaround times.


Asunto(s)
Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad Aguda , Humanos , Higiene , Nasofaringe/virología , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Virus/genética
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(1): 18-24, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130376

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare two combinations of olfactory agents for olfactory training therapy of olfactory dysfunction after upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and investigate the influencing factors on clinical effects. METHODS: 125 patients with olfactory dysfunction were randomly divided into two groups: test and control. During the olfactory training, four odors were used in both groups. The olfactory training lasted for 24 weeks. Then, participants were tested using Sniffin' Sticks and threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) composite scoring before treatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The TDI scores were compared at different time points between the groups and within them, and influence factors were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in TDI scores between both groups. Furthermore, TDI scores did not significantly change after one month of treatment in either of the groups. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, TDI scores both significantly increased, and the odor discrimination and identification abilities significantly strengthened in both groups; however, the odor thresholds did not improve. The course of the disease was a significant influencing factor on the therapeutic effect of olfactory training for both groups. CONCLUSION: The combination of essential balm, vinegar, alcohol, and rose perfume for olfactory training, which are scents commonly found in daily life, can effectively cure URTI-induced olfactory dysfunction, and significantly improve the odor discrimination and identification abilities. Furthermore, prolonging the treatment time can help with the recovery of olfactory functions, and earlier olfactory training can improve the therapeutic effect.


Asunto(s)
Odorantes , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Trastornos del Olfato/terapia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/complicaciones , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Olfatometría , Estudios Prospectivos , Recuperación de la Función/fisiología , Valores de Referencia , Análisis de Regresión , Umbral Sensorial , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
20.
Euro Surveill ; 25(8)2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127123

RESUMEN

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causative pathogen of an ongoing outbreak of respiratory disease, now named COVID-19. Most cases and sustained transmission occurred in China, but travel-associated cases have been reported in other countries, including Europe and Italy. Since the symptoms are similar to other respiratory infections, differential diagnosis in travellers arriving from countries with wide-spread COVID-19 must include other more common infections such as influenza and other respiratory tract diseases.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Italia/epidemiología , Tamizaje Masivo , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Viaje
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