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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2461-2468, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212242

RESUMEN

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) can be spread by animal activity. Although cattle farming is widespread in Turkey, there are few studies of BCoV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current situation regarding BCoV in Turkey. This is the first study reporting the full-length nucleotide sequences of BCoV spike (S) genes in Turkey. Samples were collected from 119 cattle with clinical signs of respiratory (n = 78) or digestive tract (n = 41) infection on different farms located across widely separated provinces in Turkey. The samples were screened for BCoV using RT-nested PCR targeting the N gene, which identified BCoV in 35 samples (9 faeces and 26 nasal discharge). RT-PCR analysis of the S gene produced partial/full-length S gene sequences from 11 samples (8 faeces and 3 nasal discharge samples). A phylogenetic tree of the S gene sequences was made to analyze the genetic relationships among BCoVs from Turkey and other countries. The results showed that the local strains present in faeces and nasal discharge samples had many different amino acid changes. Some of these changes were shown in previous studies to be critical for tropism. This study provides new data on BCoV in Turkey that will be valuable in designing effective vaccine approaches and control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Diarrea/veterinaria , ARN Viral/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Agricultura , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus Bovino/clasificación , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/virología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico/veterinaria , Evolución Molecular , Heces/virología , Humanos , Mutación , Cavidad Nasal/virología , Filogenia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Turquia/epidemiología
2.
J Small Anim Pract ; 62(8): 662-668, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060088

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of canine infectious respiratory disease pathogens among asymptomatic client-owned dogs, and to compare the risks of asymptomatic pathogen carriage between client-owned dogs and dogs in an animal shelter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pooled tonsillar, conjunctival and nasal cavity swabs from asymptomatic client-owned dogs (n=133) were tested using a real-time polymerase chain reaction canine respiratory panel. Identical samples from asymptomatic dogs in an animal shelter (n=295) were similarly tested for selected pathogens. Risk differences were calculated between client-owned dogs and shelter dogs for each of the respiratory pathogens included in the analyses. RESULTS: A total of 15 of 133 (11.3%) asymptomatic client-owned dogs were positive for at least one pathogen in the complex. Seven dogs (6.1%) were positive for M. cynos, six (5.2%) were positive for B. bronchiseptica, two (1.7%) were positive for canine herpesvirus type 1 and two (1.7%) were positive for canine respiratory coronavirus. For all eight pathogens tested in both groups, the proportion of positive cases was higher among shelter dogs than among client-owned dogs. Shelter dogs had a higher risk for M. cynos (0.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.25), canine respiratory coronavirus (0.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.19), canine distemper virus (0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.09), and canine pneumovirus (0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.08) than client-owned dogs. Odds ratios for M. cynos (0.31, 95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.92) and canine respiratory coronavirus (0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.18) were significantly different between client-owned and shelter dogs. In all cases except for canine herpesvirus type 1, dogs within the shelter population were observed to be at higher risk of exhibiting asymptomatic carriage of a respiratory pathogen as compared to client-owned dogs. The strength of this association was strongest for M. cynos and canine respiratory coronavirus. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The risk of canine infectious respiratory disease pathogen exposure posed by asymptomatic client-owned dogs is poorly defined. This study also corroborates previous reports of high canine infectious respiratory disease prevalence among clinically healthy shelter dogs, and further determined that the overall prevalence of canine infectious respiratory disease pathogen carriage among clinically healthy client-owned dogs is low but is highest for the traditional pathogen B. bronchiseptica and the emerging pathogen M. cynos.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades de los Perros , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Prevalencia , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 470-478, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130389

RESUMEN

Orangutans are noteworthy among great apes in their predilection for chronic, insidious, and ultimately fatal respiratory disease. Termed Orangutan Respiratory Disease Syndrome (ORDS), this cystic fibrosis-like disease is characterized by comorbid conditions of sinusitis, mastoiditis, airsacculitis, bronchiectasis, and recurrent pneumonia. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the sensitivity of clinical signs in the diagnosis of ORDS in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) compared with the gold standard for diagnosis via computed tomography (CT). We retrospectively compared observed clinical signs with CT imaging in a population of clinically affected animals at an orangutan rescue center in southeastern Borneo. From August 2017 to 2019, this center housed 21 ORDS-affected animals, all of which underwent CT imaging to delineate which areas of the respiratory tract were affected. We reviewed clinical signs recorded in medical records and keeper observation notes for each individual for the period of 2 years prior to the date of the CT scan. A chi-square test of association was used to assess whether the observed clinical signs could predict the results of CT imaging. Results show that clinical signs may not be sensitive indicators in predicting respiratory disease identified by CT imaging. Based on the results of this study, clinical signs appear to be very poor predictors of underlying respiratory pathology in orangutans, based on high P-values, low sensitivity, and low specificity. This result is observed even with clinical signs data gathered over a full 24-mo period prior to CT scan performance. The findings of this study suggest the need for advanced imaging to properly diagnose and manage the most common health issue of captive orangutans.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Simio Antropoideo/diagnóstico por imagen , Pongo pygmaeus , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/veterinaria , Animales , Enfermedades del Simio Antropoideo/diagnóstico , Femenino , Masculino , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 170-173, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991889

RESUMEN

Lactococcus (L.) garvieae is a zoonotic fish pathogen that can also cause bacteraemia and endocarditis in humans and has been isolated from healthy or diseased domestic animals. Nevertheless L. garvieae is more an opportunistic, than a primary pathogen since most affected humans have predisposing conditions and comorbidities. L. garvieae is also present in other animal species, most frequently cattle, but also sheep, goats, water buffaloes, and pigs, and much more rarely dogs, cats, horses, camel, turtle, snake and crocodile. The purpose of this study was to genomically (i) confirm the identification by MALDI-TOF MS® of a L. garvieae from the nasal discharge of a dog with chronic respiratory disorders and (ii) compare this canine isolate with human and animal L. garvieae isolates. According to the BLAST analysis after Whole Genome Sequencing, this canine isolate was more than 99% identical to 3 L. garvieae and belonged to a new Multi-Locus Sequence Type (ST45). MLST and whole genomes-based phylogenetic analysis were performed on the canine isolate and the 40 genomes available in Genbank. The canine L. garvieae was most closely related to an Australian camel and an Indian fish L. garvieae and more distantly to human L. garvieae. Twenty-five of the 29 putative virulence-associated genes searched for were detected, but not the 16 capsule-encoding genes. The heterogeneity of the L. garvieae species is reflected by the diversity of the MLSTypes and virulotypes identified and by the phylogenetic analysis.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Microbiología Ambiental , Lactococcus/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Animales , Perros , Genómica , Humanos , Lactococcus/clasificación , Lactococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Masculino , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus/veterinaria , Filogenia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología
5.
N Z Vet J ; 69(4): 224-233, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840356

RESUMEN

AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease syndrome (CIRDS) among a population of New Zealand dogs. METHODS: Convenience samples of oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 116 dogs, including 56 CIRDS-affected and 60 healthy dogs from various locations in New Zealand between March 2014 and February 2016. Pooled samples from CIRDS-affected (n = 50) and from healthy (n = 50) dogs were tested for the presence of canine respiratory viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS). Individual samples (n = 116) were then tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcriptase qPCR (RT-qPCR) for specific viruses. Groups were compared using Fisher's exact or χ2 tests. The effect of explanatory variables (age, sex, type of household, presence of viral infection) on the response variable (CIRDS-affected or not) was tested using RR. RESULTS: Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1), canine picornavirus and influenza C virus sequences were identified by NGS in the pooled sample from CIRDS-affected but not healthy dogs. At least one virus was detected by qPCR/RT-qPCR in 20/56 (36%) samples from CIRDS dogs and in 23/60 (38%) samples from healthy dogs (p = 0.84). CIRDS-affected dogs were most commonly positive for CnPnV (14/56, 25%) followed by canine adenovirus-2 (CAdV-2, 5/56, 9%), canine parainfluenza virus (CpiV) and CHV-1 (2/56, 4% each), and CRCoV (1/56, 2%). Only CnPnV (17/60, 28%) and CAdV-2 (14/60, 23%) were identified in samples from healthy dogs, and CAdV-2 was more likely to be detected healthy than diseased dogs (RR 0.38; 95% CI = 0.15-0.99; p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of detection of viruses traditionally linked to CIRDS (CAdV-2 and CPiV) among diseased dogs was low. This suggests that other pathogens are likely to have contributed to development of CIRDS among sampled dogs. Our data represent the first detection of CnPnV in New Zealand, but the role of this virus in CIRDS remains unclear. On-going monitoring of canine respiratory pathogens by NGS would be beneficial, as it allows rapid detection of novel viruses that may be introduced to the New Zealand canine population in the future. Such monitoring could be done using pooled samples to minimise costs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Testing for novel respiratory viruses such as CnPnV and CRCoV should be considered in all routine laboratory investigations of CIRDS cases, particularly in dogs vaccinated with currently available kennel cough vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Virosis/veterinaria , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Femenino , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Masculino , Epidemiología Molecular , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Virosis/epidemiología
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009436, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740012

RESUMEN

Opportunistic pathogens frequently cause volatile infections in hosts with compromised immune systems or a disrupted normal microbiota. The commensalism of diverse microorganisms contributes to colonization resistance, which prevents the expansion of opportunistic pathogens. Following microbiota disruption, pathogens promptly adapt to altered niches and obtain growth advantages. Nevertheless, whether and how resident bacteria modulate the growth dynamics of invasive pathogens and the eventual outcome of such infections are still unclear. Here, we utilized birds as a model animal and observed a resident bacterium exacerbating the invasion of Avibacterium paragallinarum (previously Haemophilus paragallinarum) in the respiratory tract. We first found that negligibly abundant Staphylococcus chromogenes, rather than Staphylococcus aureus, played a dominant role in Av. paragallinarum-associated infectious coryza in poultry based on epidemic investigations and in vitro analyses. Furthermore, we determined that S. chromogenes not only directly provides the necessary nutrition factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) but also accelerates its biosynthesis and release from host cells to promote the survival and growth of Av. paragallinarum. Last, we successfully intervened in Av. paragallinarum-associated infections in animal models using antibiotics that specifically target S. chromogenes. Our findings show that opportunistic pathogens can hijack commensal bacteria to initiate infection and expansion and suggest a new paradigm to ameliorate opportunistic infections by modulating the dynamics of resident bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Oportunistas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Pollos , Infecciones por Haemophilus/microbiología , Haemophilus paragallinarum/efectos de los fármacos , Haemophilus paragallinarum/patogenicidad , Microbiota , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Staphylococcus/efectos de los fármacos
7.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(3): 1542-1546, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755251

RESUMEN

An 18-month-old intact male Schnauzer dog was evaluated for chronic, lifelong respiratory tract infections that were unresponsive to administration of a variety of antibiotics and corticosteroids. The dog developed persistent vomiting and diarrhea around 1 year of age that was minimally responsive to diet change, antibiotics, and corticosteroids. Despite supportive care, the dog was ultimately euthanized at 20 months of age due to persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. Whole genome sequencing discovered a deleterious missense A/C mutation within the NAT10 gene, a gene essential for microtubule acetylation, appropriate ciliary development, and cytokinesis. Pipeline analysis of the genomes of 579 dogs from 55 breeds did not detect this mutation. Though never described in veterinary medicine, NAT10 mutation occurs in humans with ciliary aplasia, suggesting a pathophysiological mechanism for this dog and highlighting an associated mutation or possible novel genetic cause of chronic respiratory infections in dogs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/genética , Perros , Masculino , Mutación , Mutación Missense , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/veterinaria
8.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(2): 967-975, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566323

RESUMEN

Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) migrate to the continental shelf of southern-southeastern Brazil during austral winter. Stranded penguins are directed to rehabilitation centers, where they occasionally develop fungal diseases. Aspergillosis, a mycosis caused by Aspergillus spp., is one of the most important diseases of captive penguins, while Candida sp. has been detected in penguins undergoing rehabilitation. Nevertheless, their occurrence in the wild is poorly understood. This study surveyed the occurrence of mycoses in free-ranging Magellanic penguins wintering in southeastern Brazil. These penguins were either found dead or stranded alive and died during transport to a rehabilitation center. Overall, 61 fresh to moderate autolyzed carcasses were necropsied. Upon necropsy, three juvenile males (4.9%) presented mycotic-consistent gross lesions. Histopathology and panfungal PCRs confirmed the mycoses. Major microscopic findings were marked chronic necrotizing multifocal to coalescent pneumonia, airsacculitis, and esophageal/gastric serositis with two types of intralesional fungal structures: (a) septated acute-angled branching hyphae (n = 2) and (b) yeast structures (n = 1), both PAS- and Grocott-positive. Sequences identical to Aspergillus sp. were retrieved in two cases, while the third had sequences identical to Candida palmioleophila. This study describes two cases of aspergillosis and one of candidiasis in free-ranging Magellanic penguins, confirming the species' susceptibility in the wild. These mycoses could be associated with the animals' poor body condition, and/or impaired immunity, and natural and anthropogenic challenges related to migration. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of aspergillosis in free-ranging Magellanic penguins in the Atlantic Ocean and of candidiasis in penguins worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves/microbiología , Candidiasis/veterinaria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Spheniscidae/microbiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Aspergilosis/microbiología , Aspergilosis/patología , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves/patología , Brasil , Candida/genética , Candida/aislamiento & purificación , Candidiasis/microbiología , Candidiasis/patología , ADN de Hongos/genética , Masculino , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/patología
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1093-1097, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518068

RESUMEN

Florfenicol, apramycin, and danofloxacin are antibiotics approved only for veterinary use and that have good therapeutic effects on chicken respiratory infections caused by Escherichia coli. We established epidemiological cutoff values (ECV) for these antibiotics using 363 E. coli isolates from tracheal samples of chickens in 5 veterinary clinics in Guangdong Province, China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the agar dilution method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institution guidelines. The ECV were then calculated using the statistical method and verified by normalized resistance interpretation and ECOFFinder software programs. The ECV of florfenicol, apramycin, and danofloxacin against E. coli were 16, 16, and 0.125 µg/mL, respectively. Susceptibility tests indicated that these isolates were resistant to florfenicol (66.7%), apramycin (22.3%), and danofloxacin (92.3%). Strains carrying floR were distributed in the range of MIC ≥32 µg/mL for florfenicol. Apramycin resistance was found in 77 strains (77/363, 21.1%), and isolates that carried aac(3)-IV were all in the range of MIC ≥512 µg/mL. Danofloxacin resistance was found in the range of MIC ≤0.125 µg/mL, but there were no mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, aac-(6')-Ib-cr, qep, and oqxB. The presence of the qnrS gene was verified in a few of the strains with an MIC of 0.06 µg/mL. The establishment of ECV was significant for monitoring of resistance development and therapy guidance.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pollos , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , China/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria , Nebramicina/análogos & derivados , Nebramicina/farmacología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Tianfenicol/farmacología
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 1069-1074, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926568

RESUMEN

HoBi-like pestivirus is an emerging atypical pestivirus in cattle and small ruminants, causing clinical signs similar to those observed in bovine viral diarrhoea virus infections. Natural infection of HoBi-like pestivirus has been reported in cattle herds and small ruminants in multiple countries in South America, Europe and Asia. However, HoBi-like pestiviruses were only identified from contaminated bovine serum and small ruminants in China. So far, no clinical cases induced by HoBi-like pestivirus infection were reported in Chinese cattle herds. Here, for the first time, we reported natural infection of HoBi-like pestivirus in a cattle herd in China. Sick cattle with severe respiratory and diarrhoea and high fatality rate were found in a beef cattle herd in Shandong province in November 2017. RT-PCR, viral isolation, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the primary causative agent was HoBi-like pestivirus. The isolated HoBi-like pestivirus strain, SDJN-China-2019, shared 94.1%-97.5% homology with the LV168-20_16RN strain from Brazil in nucleotide of 5'UTR, Npro and E2 while it shared only 88.5%-92.1% homology with Asian HoBi-like virus strain Th/04-Khonkaen. Multiple unique mutations of amino acid were observed in Npro and E2 proteins of SDJN-China-2019, which were different from that of other reference strains. In summary, this study provides the first evidence of HoBi-like pestivirus infection in Chinese cattle herds, raising potential threat to the cattle industry in China.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Infecciones por Pestivirus/veterinaria , Pestivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , China , Pestivirus/clasificación , Infecciones por Pestivirus/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología
11.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(3): 602-614, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232513

RESUMEN

The dynamics of directly transmitted pathogens in natural populations are likely to result from the combined effects of host traits, pathogen biology, and interactions among pathogens within a host. Discovering how these factors work in concert to shape variation in pathogen dynamics in natural host-multi-pathogen systems is fundamental to understanding population health. Here, we describe temporal variation in incidence and then elucidate the effect of hosts trait, season and pathogen co-occurrence on host infection risk using one of the most comprehensive studies of co-infection in a wild population: a suite of seven directly transmitted viral and bacterial respiratory infections from a 4-year study of 200 free-ranging African buffalo Syncerus caffer. Incidence of upper respiratory infections was common throughout the study-five out of the seven pathogens appeared to be consistently circulating throughout our study population. One pathogen exhibited clear outbreak dynamics in our final study year and another was rarely detected. Co-infection was also common in this system: The strongest indicator of pathogen occurrence for respiratory viruses was in fact the presence of other viral respiratory infections. Host traits had minimal effects on odds of pathogen occurrence but did modify pathogen-pathogen associations. In contrast, only season predicted bacterial pathogen occurrence. Though a combination of environmental, behavioural, and physiological factors work together to shape disease dynamics, we found pathogen associations best determined infection risk. Our study demonstrates that, in the absence of very fine-scale data, the intricate changes among these factors are best represented by co-infection.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Virosis , Animales , Búfalos , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/veterinaria , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/veterinaria
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 186: 105208, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310195

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the relationship between quantitative assessments of clinical signs of respiratory disease (recorded manually and automatically) and the prevalence of lung lesions at slaughter to validate the use of both in the management of respiratory disease on farm. This was an observational study where pigs (n = 1573) were monitored from 25 ± 5.3 kg (week 12) to slaughter at 114 ± 15.4 kg (week 24). Pigs were housed in eight rooms divided into six pens on a wean-to-finish farm. A manual pen-based coughing (CF) and sneezing (SF) frequency was recorded weekly, for ten consecutive weeks, and a SOMO box (SoundTalks®) was installed in each room, issuing a daily respiratory distress index (RDI) for 13 weeks. Lungs were individually scored for pneumonia, scarring and dorsocaudal (DC) and cranial (CP) pleurisy lesions at slaughter. Relationship between prevalence of lung lesions and weekly RDI and CF and SF was assessed using Spearman's rank correlations and multivariable linear and logit-normal models. Both coughing and lung lesions were largely pen-specific, which fit the disease presentation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Results showed agreement between RDI and CF (rs = 0.5, P < 0.001), measuring higher levels of coughing at the beginning (weeks 13-14) and end (weeks 21-24, and weeks 21-22, respectively) of the finisher period. Positive associations were found between the prevalence of pneumonia and CF on week 21 and 22 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively) and RDI on week 21-24 (rs > 0.70; P < 0.050); the prevalence of DC and CP, and CF on week 22 (P < 0.001); and prevalence of scar lesions and CF on week 17 and 21 (P = 0.013 and P = 0.004, respectively), and RDI on week 21-24 (rs > 0.70; P < 0.050). In the earlier weeks of the finisher stage, coughing was recorded but was not reflected in a higher prevalence of lung lesions at slaughter. These findings highlight the benefit of including measurements of coughing frequency to complement post mortem findings, to improve the management of respiratory disease on farm.


Asunto(s)
Tos/veterinaria , Pulmón/patología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Tos/epidemiología , Tos/terapia , Irlanda/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/terapia , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/terapia
13.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 257(9): 929-932, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064607

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of UV germicidal irradiation of the air on the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) in kittens in a nursery. ANIMALS: 4- to 8-week-old kittens admitted to a kitten nursery in 2016 and 2018. PROCEDURES: 2 UV germicidal irradiation systems (1 within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system and 1 attached to the ceiling) were installed in a kitten nursery. Data were collected on the number of kittens in which a URI was diagnosed by means of a physical examination. The incidence of URIs was compared between 2016, when no UV systems were used, and 2018, when the UV systems were used. RESULTS: The overall incidence of URIs in 2016 was 12.4 cases/100 kitten admissions and in 2018 was 1.6 cases/100 kitten admissions, a significant decrease of 87.1% between the years. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A significant reduction in the incidence of URIs in kittens in a nursery was noted when the UV germicidal irradiation systems were used. Therefore, airborne transmission of feline respiratory pathogens may be more important than has been previously recognized. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation systems that disinfect the air may be an effective adjunct to standard infection prevention and control protocols in reducing the risk of the transmission of respiratory pathogens among kittens in nurseries and shelters. However, additional studies are needed to confirm the findings reported here.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/prevención & control , Gatos , Desinfección , Femenino , Incidencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Ventilación
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 324, 2020 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883288

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae are significant pathogens for the porcine industry worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of six key antimicrobials (tylosin, tilmicosin, tylvalosin, lincomycin, tiamulin and valnemulin) routinely used for treating infections caused by these pathogens. Twenty-seven M. hyopneumoniae, 48 M. hyorhinis and 40 M. hyosynoviae field strains isolated from clinical samples from different Southern European countries between 2013 and 2018 using broth microdilution method were evaluated. RESULTS: Tylvalosin exhibited the highest in vitro activity among the macrolides assayed, with MIC90 values 4 to 5 two-fold dilutions lower than those of tylosin and tilmicosin. The pleuromutilin valnemulin showed one of the highest in vitro activities against the three mycoplasma species. On the contrary, lincomycin exhibited the highest MIC values of the antimicrobials tested. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained in the present study supports the use of pleuromutilins and macrolides for the control of infections caused by porcine mycoplasmas. The use of lincomycin for the treatment of porcine mycoplasma infections should be carefully evaluated due to the presence of circulating field isolates with decreased susceptibility to this antimicrobial.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/efectos de los fármacos , Mycoplasma hyosynoviae/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Porcinos/microbiología , Animales , Artritis Infecciosa/epidemiología , Artritis Infecciosa/microbiología , Artritis Infecciosa/veterinaria , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(11): 5734-5739, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941130

RESUMEN

Novel catalase-negative, Gram-stain-positive, beta-haemolytic, coccus-shaped organisms were isolated from Chacoan peccaries that died from respiratory disease. The initial API 20 Strep profiles suggested Streptococcus agalactiae with acceptable identification scores, but the 16S rRNA gene similarity (1548 bp) to available sequences of streptococci was below 98 %. Next taxa of the genus Streptococcus, displaying highest similarities to the strains from this study, were S. bovimastitidis NZ1587T (97.5 %), S. iniae ATCC 29178T (97.5 %), S. hongkongensis HKU30T (97.4 %), S. parauberis DSM 6631T (97.1 %), S. penaeicida CAIM 1838T (97.1 %), S. pseudoporcinus DSM 18513T (97.0 %), S. didelphis DSM 15616T (96.6 %), S. ictaluri 707-05T (96.6 %), S. uberis JCM 5709T (96.5 %) and S. porcinus NCTC 10999T (96.4 %). All other Streptococcus species had sequence similarities of below 96.4 %. A sodA gene as well as whole genome-based core genome phylogeny of three representative strains and 145 available Streptococcus genomes confirmed the unique taxonomic position. Interstrain average nucleotide identity (ANI) and amino acid identity (AAI) values were high (ANI >96 %; AAI 100%), but for other streptococci clearly below the proposed species boundary of 95-96 % (ANI <75 %; AAI <83 %). Results were confirmed by genome-to-genome distance calculations. Pairwise digital DNA-DNA hybridization estimates were high (>90 %) between the novel strains, but well below the species boundary of 70 % for closely related Streptococcus type strains (23.5-19.7 %). Phenotypic properties as obtained from extended biochemical profiles and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry supported the outstanding rank. Based on the presented molecular and physiological data of the six strains, we propose a novel taxon for which we suggest the name Streptococcus catagoni sp. nov. with the type strain 99-1/2017T (=DSM 110457T=CCUG 74072T) and five reference strains.


Asunto(s)
Artiodáctilos/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Filogenia , Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Streptococcus/clasificación , Animales , Animales de Zoológico/microbiología , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Femenino , Genes Bacterianos , Alemania , Masculino , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación
16.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 09 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992674

RESUMEN

Viral pathogens are being increasingly described in association with mass morbidity and mortality events in reptiles. However, our knowledge of reptile viruses remains limited. Herein, we describe the meta-transcriptomic investigation of a mass morbidity and mortality event in a colony of central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) in 2014. Severe, extensive proliferation of the respiratory epithelium was consistently found in affected dragons. Similar proliferative lung lesions were identified in bearded dragons from the same colony in 2020 in association with increased intermittent mortality. Total RNA sequencing identified two divergent DNA viruses: a reptile-infecting circovirus, denoted bearded dragon circovirus (BDCV), and the first exogeneous reptilian chaphamaparvovirus-bearded dragon chaphamaparvovirus (BDchPV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BDCV was most closely related to bat-associated circoviruses, exhibiting 70% amino acid sequence identity in the Replicase (Rep) protein. In contrast, in the nonstructural (NS) protein, the newly discovered BDchPV showed approximately 31%-35% identity to parvoviruses obtained from tilapia fish and crocodiles in China. Subsequent specific PCR assays revealed BDCV and BDchPV in both diseased and apparently normal captive reptiles, although only BDCV was found in those animals with proliferative pulmonary lesions and respiratory disease. This study expands our understanding of viral diversity in captive reptiles.


Asunto(s)
Circovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Parvoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Reptiles/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Animales , China/epidemiología , Circovirus/clasificación , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/patogenicidad , Genoma Viral/genética , Lagartos/virología , Pulmón/patología , Parvoviridae/clasificación , Parvoviridae/genética , Parvoviridae/patogenicidad , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/patología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Proteínas Virales/genética
17.
Vet J ; 263: 105532, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928493

RESUMEN

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI3V) are major causes of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in newborn calves worldwide. Vaccination is widely used to prevent BRD, and intranasal vaccines for BRSV and bPI3V were developed to overcome interference from BRSV and bPI3V-specific maternally derived antibodies. Many experimental challenge trials have demonstrated that intranasal vaccines for BRSV and bPI3V are efficacious, but effectiveness under field conditions has been demonstrated less often, especially for newborn beef calves. The objective of this field trial was to compare the effectiveness of a newly available commercial BRSV-bPI3V intranasal vaccine with that of a benchmarked one in newborn beef calves reared in a cow-calf system. A total of 935 calves from 39 farms were randomized into two vaccine groups (Bovalto Respi Intranasal [Vaccine A], n=468; Rispoval RS+PI3 Intranasal [Vaccine B], n=467), and monitored during the in-house risk period up to three months after vaccination. Non-inferiority analysis was performed by calculating the difference in BRD prevalence between the two vaccine groups. No significant differences were observed between vaccines regarding clinical outcomes of morbidity, mortality, duration between vaccination and BRD occurrence, or treatments required. Because the upper limit of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval of the difference in BRD prevalence between the two treatment groups (0.8%) was less than the margin of non-inferiority (δ=5%), a non-inferiority of Vaccine A was concluded. In conclusion, Vaccine A is at least as effective as Vaccine B for the prevention of BRD in newborn beef cattle in a cow-calf system under field conditions.


Asunto(s)
Animales Recién Nacidos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Virus de la Parainfluenza 3 Bovina/inmunología , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Bovino/inmunología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Administración Intranasal/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Masculino , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/veterinaria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones por Respirovirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Respirovirus/veterinaria , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 229: 110114, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905850

RESUMEN

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the main component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC), which strongly impact the pig production. Although PRRSV is often considered as a primary infection that eases subsequent respiratory coinfections, the possibility that other PRDC components may facilitate PRRSV infection has been largely overlooked. The main cellular targets of PRRSV are respiratory macrophages among them alveolar macrophages (AM) and pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIM). AM, contrarily to PIM, are directly exposed to the external respiratory environment, among them co-infectious agents. In order to explore the possibility of a co-infections impact on the capacity of respiratory macrophages to replicate PRRSV, we proceed to in vitro infection of AM and PIM sampled from animals presenting different sanitary status, and tested the presence in the respiratory tract of these animals of the most common porcine respiratory pathogens (PCV2, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Mycoplasma floculare, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptoccocus suis). In this exploratory study with a limited number of animals, no statistic differences were observed between AM and PIM susceptibility to in vitro PRRSV infection, nor between AM coming from animals presenting very contrasting respiratory coinfection loads.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección/veterinaria , Macrófagos Alveolares/virología , Macrófagos/virología , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/virología , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/veterinaria , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/virología , Femenino , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/inmunología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/inmunología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología
19.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(9): 554-560, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734615

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe infection in companion animals with the zoonotic pathogen Corynebacterium ulcerans and to determine its prevalence in clinically-affected and healthy animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical presentation and treatment of three cases of C. ulcerans infection is described. Two studies to determine C. ulcerans prevalence rates were undertaken: (a) a prospective study of nasal samples from healthy animals, 479 dogs and 72 cats; (b) a retrospective analysis of records of nasal samples collected over a 10-year period from 189 dogs and 64 cats affected by respiratory signs. RESULTS: Toxigenic C. ulcerans was isolated from four cats with nasal discharge while concurrent C. ulcerans and mecC methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection was detected in a dog suffering from chronic nasal discharge. Clinical features were not distinctive and all cases recovered following antimicrobial treatment. Multilocus sequence typing supported a common source for isolates from the shelter cats. Carriage rates of C. ulcerans in healthy animals were 0.42% (2/479) in dogs and 0.00% (0/72) in cats whereas in animals with signs of upper respiratory tract infection prevalence rates were 0.53% (1/189) in dogs and 6.25% (4/64) in cats. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinicians should be aware that dogs and cats can be infected with (or carriers of) toxigenic C. ulcerans Considering the potential zoonotic risk, assistance from medical and public health colleagues should be sought in confirmed cases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Infecciones por Corynebacterium , Enfermedades de los Perros , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Gatos , Corynebacterium , Infecciones por Corynebacterium/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Corynebacterium/epidemiología , Infecciones por Corynebacterium/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 285: 109215, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862125

RESUMEN

Feline lungworms such as Aerulostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are snail-borne pathogens causing respiratory disease in domestic cats. Paratenic hosts such as rodents and reptiles have also been implicated in the epidemiology of these parasites. Although A. abstrusus has been recognized for a long time as the most prevalent lungworm among cats worldwide, T. brevior is of major concern in kittens. Bearing in mind that disease due to T. brevior occurs mainly in pediatric patients younger than 6 months of age, the diagnosis of this parasite in two kittens presenting severe respiratory disease from the garden of one of the authors inspired us to investigate the potential routes of transmission for T. brevior in domestic cats. Of the three queens (A, B and C) that delivered kittens (n = 8), only cat A was positive for T. brevior, presenting her two kittens severe respiratory clinical signs, which lead to the exitus in one of them, 18 days of age. In addition, three kittens, the offspring of queen B, turned to be positive at the coprological examination after suckling from queen A, whereas those from queen C (that suckled only on their own mother) remained negative. A series of coprological, histological and molecular tests were conducted to confirm the presence of T. brevior in the patients as well as in the other cats cohabiting the same garden. Adult nematodes were retrieved from the trachea and bronchi of the dead kitten (kitten 1A), and larvae at the histology of the lung and liver parenchyma associated with bronco pneumonitis and lymphocytic pericholangitis, respectively. Cornu aspersum (n = 60), Eobania vermiculata (n = 30) snails (intermediate hosts) as well as lizards and rats (potential paratenic hosts) were collected from the same garden and processed through tissue digestion and molecular detection. Troglostrongylus brevior larvae were recovered through tissue digestion from two C. aspersum (3.33 %) and it was confirmed by PCR-sequencing approach, which also detected T. brevior DNA in the liver and lungs of one rat and in the coelomatic cavity of one gecko lizard. During the COVID-19 lockdown, when scientists spent more time at home, we grasp the opportunity to decipher T. brevior biology and ecology starting in a small ecological niche, such as the garden of our house. Data herein presented led us to suggest: i) the transmammary transmission of T. brevior in domestic cats; ii) the role of intermediate and paratenic hosts (including reptiles) in the epidemiology of the infection which they transmit; as well as iii) the importance of observational parasitology in studying any event that certainly occurs in small ecological niches, as it could be in our home gardens.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Infecciones por Strongylida/veterinaria , Estrongílidos , Animales , Gatos , Femenino , Masculino , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/parasitología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/patología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/transmisión , Infecciones por Strongylida/parasitología , Infecciones por Strongylida/transmisión
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