Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.938
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537824

RESUMEN

Currently, the world is under a pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). This disease is characterized by a respiratory syndrome that can progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. To date, limited effective therapies are available for the prevention or treatment of COVID­19; therefore, it is necessary to propose novel treatment options with immunomodulatory effects. Vitamin D serves functions in bone health and has been recently reported to exert protective effects against respiratory infections. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and a poor prognosis of COVID­19; this is alarming as vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. In Latin America, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is unknown, and currently, this region is in the top 10 according to the number of confirmed COVID­19 cases. Supplementation with vitamin D may be a useful adjunctive treatment for the prevention of COVID­19 complications. The present review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of COVID­19 and sets out vitamin D recommendations for the Latin American population.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Huesos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , América Latina , Prevalencia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
2.
Popul Health Manag ; 24(S1): S26-S34, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544647

RESUMEN

Laboratory testing is an important component in the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections such as with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, specimen collection not only risks exposure of health care workers and other patients to infection, but also necessitates use of personal protective equipment that may be in short supply during periods of heightened disease activity. Self-collection of nasal or oropharyngeal swabs offers an alternative to address these drawbacks. Although studies in the past decade have demonstrated the utility of this approach for respiratory infections, it has not been widely adopted in routine clinical practice. The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has focused attention on the need for safe, convenient, timely, and scalable methods for collecting upper respiratory specimens for testing. The goals of this article are to highlight the literature regarding self-collected nasal or oropharyngeal specimens for respiratory pathogen testing; discuss the role of self-collection in helping prevent the spread of the COVID-19 disease from infected patients and facilitating a shift toward "virtual" medicine or telemedicine; and describe the current and future state of self-collection for infectious agents, and the impacts these approaches can have on population health management and disease diagnosis and prevention.


Asunto(s)
Gestión de la Salud Poblacional , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /prevención & control , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Autocuidado , Telemedicina , Adulto Joven
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929783, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388738

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate co-infections with common respiratory pathogens and SARS-CoV-2 and laboratory biochemistry findings in patients with COVID-19 in the Zhuzhou area of China, in order to provide a reference for the disease assessment and clinical treatment of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical data of COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital of Zhuzhou City from January 28 to March 15, 2020, as well as laboratory test results for respiratory pathogens and biochemical indicators, were collected to conduct correlation analyses. All patients were diagnosed based on fluorescence-based PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS Eleven of the 78 patients (14.1%) were co-infected with other respiratory pathogens, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n=5, 45.5%) and respiratory syncytial virus (n=4, 36.4%) were the most frequent. There were 8 patients co-infected with 1 other pathogen and 3 patients co-infected with 2 other pathogens. Compared with mono-infected COVID-19 patients, patients with co-infections had significantly higher levels of procalcitonin (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS The findings showed that Mycoplasma pneumonia and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common co-infections in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Increased levels of PCT in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were associated with co-infection.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Pandemias , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , /aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , /diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Creatina Quinasa/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/sangre , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Polipéptido alfa Relacionado con Calcitonina/sangre , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/sangre , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/sangre , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 92: 107365, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440306

RESUMEN

Emerging beta-coronaviruses (ß-CoVs), including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-1 (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID19) are responsible for acute respiratory illnesses in human. The epidemiological features of the SARS, MERS, and new COVID-19 have revealed sex-dependent variations in the infection, frequency, treatment, and fatality rates of these syndromes. Females are likely less susceptible to viral infections, perhaps due to their steroid hormone levels, the impact of X-linked genes, and the sex-based immune responses. Although mostly inactive, the X chromosome makes the female's immune system more robust. The extra immune-regulatory genes of the X chromosome are associated with lower levels of viral load and decreased infection rate. Moreover, a higher titer of the antibodies and their longer blood circulation half-life are involved in a more durable immune protection in females. The activation rate of the immune cells and the production of TLR7 and IFN are more prominent in females. Although the bi-allelic expression of the immune regulatory genes can sometimes lead to autoimmune reactions, the higher titer of TLR7 in females is further associated with a stronger anti-viral immune response. Considering these sex-related differences and the similarities between the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, we will discuss them in immune responses against the ß-CoVs-associated syndromes. We aim to provide information on sex-based disease susceptibility and response. A better understanding of the evasion strategies of pathogens and the host immune responses can provide worthful insights into immunotherapy, and vaccine development approaches.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/inmunología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores Sexuales
5.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477649

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Co-infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with respiratory viruses, bacteria and fungi have been reported to cause a wide range of illness. OBJECTIVES: We assess the prevalence of co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with seasonal respiratory viruses, document the respiratory viruses detected among individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, and describe characteristics of individuals with respiratory virus co-infection detected. METHODS: Specimens included in this study were submitted as part of routine clinical testing to Public Health Ontario Laboratory from individuals requiring testing for SARS-CoV-2 and/or seasonal respiratory viruses. RESULTS: Co-infection was detected in a smaller proportion (2.5%) of individuals with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 than those with seasonal respiratory viruses (4.3%); this difference was not significant. Individuals with any respiratory virus co-infection were more likely to be younger than 65 years of age and male than those with single infection. Those with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection manifested mostly mild respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study may not support routine testing for seasonal respiratory viruses among all individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, as they were rare during the study period nor associated with severe disease. However, testing for seasonal respiratory viruses should be performed in severely ill individuals, in which detection of other viruses may assist with patient management.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Coinfección/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ontario/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/complicaciones , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Adulto Joven
6.
J Clin Virol ; 135: 104737, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497932

RESUMEN

The GenMark Dx ePlex Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RP) is a multiplexed nucleic acid test for the qualitative detection of common viral and a few bacterial causes of respiratory tract infections. The ePlex RP has received FDA clearance for nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens collected in viral transport media. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the ePlex RP panel in comparison to the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) from Luminex in use in our laboratory, not only for NPS but also for bronchoalveolar lavage specimens (BAL). We also evaluated the impact of implementing the ePlex RP on the test turn-around time (TAT). The newest panel from GenMark Dx, the ePlex Respiratory Pathogen Panel 2 (RP2), which added the SARS-CoV-2 target to the RP was also evaluated for NPS. Verification of the performance of the ePlex RP for both NPS and BAL showed 93.3 % and 84.9 % total agreement with the NxTAG-RPP respectively. An overall comparison of the TAT after implementing the ePlex RP as compared to the NxTAG-RPP assay showed an average decrease of almost seven-fold.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex/métodos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Lavado Broncoalveolar/métodos , Humanos , Nasofaringe/microbiología , Nasofaringe/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , /genética
7.
Rev Mal Respir ; 38(1): 58-73, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461842

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The etiological diagnosis of bronchopulmonary infections cannot be assessed with clinical, radiological and epidemiological data alone. Viruses have been demonstrated to cause a large proportion of these infections, both in children and adults. BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of viral bronchopulmonary infections is based on the analysis of secretions, collected from the lower respiratory tract when possible, by techniques that detect either influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, or a large panel of viruses that can be responsible for respiratory disease. The latter, called multiplex PCR assays, allow a syndromic approach to respiratory infection. Their high cost for the laboratory raises the question of their place in the management of patients in terms of antibiotic economy and isolation. In the absence of clear recommendations, the strategy and equipment are very unevenly distributed in France. OUTLOOK: Medico-economic analyses need to be performed in France to evaluate the place of these tests in the management of patients. The evaluation of the role of the different viruses often detected in co-infection, especially in children, also deserves the attention of virologists and clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of new diagnostic technologies, the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2, together with the availability of new antiviral drugs are likely to impact future recommendations for the management of viral bronchopulmonary infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Virosis/diagnóstico , Antígenos Virales/análisis , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/virología , Coinfección/diagnóstico , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Nasofaringe/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Vigilancia de la Población , Manejo de Especímenes
8.
Food Microbiol ; 95: 103709, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397626

RESUMEN

The ongoing pandemic involving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised the question whether this virus, which is known to be spread primarily though respiratory droplets, could be spread through the fecal-oral route or via contaminated food. In this article, we present a critical review of the literature exploring the potential foodborne transmission of several respiratory viruses including human coronaviruses, avian influenza virus (AVI), parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and Nipah virus. Multiple lines of evidence, including documented expression of receptor proteins on gastrointestinal epithelial cells, in vivo viral replication in gastrointestinal epithelial cell lines, extended fecal shedding of respiratory viruses, and the ability to remain infectious in food environments for extended periods of time raises the theoretical ability of some human respiratory viruses, particularly human coronaviruses and AVI, to spread via food. However, to date, neither epidemiological data nor case reports of clear foodborne transmission of either viruses exist. Thus, foodborne transmission of human respiratory viruses remains only a theoretical possibility.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/transmisión , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Animales , Aves , /virología , Heces/virología , Humanos , /aislamiento & purificación
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a worldwide public health problem. It is estimated that up to 80% of cases of ARIs are caused by viruses. In Central America, however, we identified few epidemiologic studies on the main ARI-related viruses in hospitalized children. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical charts of patients ages 29 days to 14 years admitted with diagnoses of ARIs in a pediatric reference hospital in central Panama during 2016. The variables analyzed were age, sex, signs, symptoms, and diagnosis at admission. Samples of patients to whom a viral panel was indicated were analyzed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, qPCR. RESULTS: The most common virus was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 25.9%), followed by influenza A virus (10.6%), rhinovirus (10.6%), parainfluenza type 3 (PIV-3; 8.2%) and adenovirus (5.9%). However, virus detection varied with patient age and season. RSV and Influenza virus were respectively identified mainly during July-November and May-July. All cases of viral co-infection occurred in children < 5-years-old. Both influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and rhinovirus were detected in all pediatric ages analyzed in this study, unlike RSV and PIV-3, which were only present in children < 5-years-old. CONCLUSIONS: This study analyzed the epidemiological patterns of different respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with ARI from central Panama and found that the prevalence of the specific respiratory viruses identified varied with season and age. The most common viruses were RSV, influenza A, and rhinovirus. There were no reports of human metapneumovirus associated with ARI, which may be explained by the time and geographic location of the study. Knowledge of the local epidemiology of respiratory viruses in tropical countries is helpful in forecasting the peaks of hospitalizations due to ARIs and may help improve prevention efforts aiming at respiratory disease control in these settings.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Virosis/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/virología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/genética , Panamá/epidemiología , Pediatría , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año , Virosis/epidemiología , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2035281, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492377

RESUMEN

Importance: Public health initiatives that include shelter-in-place orders are expensive and unpopular. Demonstrating the success of these initiatives is essential to justify their systemic or individual cost. Objective: To examine the association of a shelter-in-place order with lower rates of seasonal respiratory viral activity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study with interrupted time series analysis obtained monthly counts of respiratory virus testing results at UC Davis Health from August 1, 2014, to July 31, 2020. Patients of all ages underwent testing conducted by the laboratory at UC Davis Health, a referral center for a 65 000-square-mile area that includes 33 counties and more than 6 million Northern California residents. Exposures: A statewide shelter-in-place order was instituted on March 19, 2020, restricting residents to their homes except for traveling for essential activities. Large social gatherings were prohibited, schools were closed, and nonessential personnel worked remotely. Those who had to leave their homes were mandated to wear face masks, engage in frequent handwashing, and maintain physical distancing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Positivity rates of common respiratory viruses within the community served by UC Davis Health. Results: A total of 46 128 tests for viral respiratory pathogens over a 6-year period were included in the analysis. For the postexposure period (March 25-July 31), approximately 168 positive test results occurred for the studied organisms in the 2020 virus year, a positivity rate of 9.88 positive results per 100 tests that was much lower than the positivity rate of 29.90 positive results per 100 tests observed for this date range in the previous 5 virus years. In contrast, the positivity rates were similar for the preexposure time frame (August 1-March 24) in the 2020 virus year and for the same time periods in the 5 previous years (30.40 vs 33.68 positive results per 100 tests). In the regression analyses, statistically significant decreases in viral activity were observed in the postexposure period for influenza (93% decrease; incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.07; 95% CI, 0.02-0.33) and for rhinovirus or enterovirus (81% decrease; IRR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.39) infections. Lower rates of postexposure viral activity were seen for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenzavirus, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses; however, these associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: Using interrupted time series analysis of testing for viral respiratory pathogens, this study found that statistically significant lower rates of common community respiratory viruses appeared to be associated with a shelter-in-place order during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Cuarentena/normas , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Estaciones del Año , Adolescente , Adulto , California/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e36-e39, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044434

RESUMEN

The clinical presentation of human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in children varies strongly. We show that children with an HCoV-associated lower respiratory tract infection more frequently had respiratory syncytial virus codetected and higher abundance of Haemophilus influenzae/haemolyticus than asymptomatic HCoV carriers as well as children with a non-HCoV-associated lower respiratory tract infection. Viral and bacterial cooccurrence may drive symptomatology of HCoV-associated infections including coronavirus disease 2019.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/patología , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Preescolar , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/patología , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/microbiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Haemophilus/clasificación , Haemophilus/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Estaciones del Año , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e12-e17, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165274

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are a significant cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children; however, the role of HCoVs in ARI among hospitalized children in the Middle East is not well defined. METHODS: Children under 2 years admitted with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were enrolled from 2010 to 2013 in Amman, Jordan. Nasal/throat swabs were collected and stored for testing. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected through parent/guardian interviews and medical chart abstractions. Prior stored specimens were tested for HCoVs (HKU1, OC43, 229E and NL63) by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Of the 3168 children enrolled, 6.7% were HCoVs-positive. Among HCoV-positive children, the median age was 3.8 (1.9-8.4) months, 59% were male, 14% were premature, 11% had underlying medical conditions and 76% had viral-codetection. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, fever, wheezing and shortness of breath. HCoVs were detected year-round, peaking in winter-spring months. Overall, 56%, 22%, 13% and 6% were OC43, NL63, HKU1 and 229E, respectively. There was no difference in disease severity between the species, except higher intensive care unit admission frequency in NL63-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: HCoVs were detected in around 7% of children enrolled in our study. Despite HCoV detection in children with ARI with highest peaks in respiratory seasons, the actual burden and pathogenic role of HCoVs in ARI merits further evaluation given the high frequency of viral codetection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad Aguda , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/patología , Coinfección/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Jordania/epidemiología , Masculino , Vigilancia de la Población , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/patología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética , Virus/aislamiento & purificación
13.
Nanoscale ; 13(1): 388-396, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351018

RESUMEN

Inspired by the self-assembly approach, in this work, the chromogen, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), was successfully co-precipitated in aqueous solution to form collective nanoparticles (NPs) of signal molecules (TMB-NPs). Utilizing poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) in the molecular delivery approach, the formed emulsion nanovesicle (TMB-NPs@PLGA) exhibits an enrichment of the collective signal molecules in a single antibody-antigen conjugation. A specific antibody-conjugated TMB-NPs@PLGA forms an immunocomplex sandwich structure upon the addition of influenza virus (IV)/A. The addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dissolves the PLGA nanovesicles, releasing the encapsulated TMB-NPs. Sequentially, the TMB-NPs release TMB molecules upon the addition of DMSO. The released TMB is catalytically oxidized by H2O2 with self-assembled protein-inorganic nanoflowers, where copper nanoflowers (CuNFs) acted as the nanozyme. The developed immunoassay demonstrates high sensitivity for IV/A with a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 32.37 fg mL-1 and 54.97 fg mL-1 in buffer and serum, respectively. For practical needs, a clinically isolated IV/A/H3N2 and spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 were detected with the LODs of 17 pfu mL-1 and 143 fg mL-1, respectively. These results show the applicability of the advanced TMB-NPs@PLGA-based colorimetric sensor for the highly sensitive detection of airborne respiratory viruses.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Compuestos Cromogénicos/química , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , /aislamiento & purificación , Bencidinas/química , /virología , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Inmunoensayo/métodos , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/virología , Límite de Detección , Nanopartículas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico-Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus
14.
APMIS ; 129(1): 23-31, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015856

RESUMEN

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are responsible for various clinical diseases. Molecular epidemiological studies of respiratory HAdVs are limited in Turkey. To determine the main genotypes and epidemiological characteristics of HAdVs in patients with respiratory symptoms. HAdV PCR-positive extracts of nasal/nasopharyngeal specimens sent to the Turkish Public Health Institution from various cities of Turkey in 2015-2016 were investigated by seminested PCR. Partial sequence analysis of the hexon gene of HAdVs was performed. SPSSv.24.0 was used. A total of 23/68 (33.82%) HAdV-positive samples were amplified. Mastadenovirus B, C, D, and F were detected and mastadenovirus B (10/23; 43.5%) and C (10/23; 43.5%) were predominant strains. Interestingly, HAdV-F known to have gastrointestinal system tropism was detected in two patients with respiratory symptoms. HAdV-B3 was the most prevalent genotype (9/23; 39.1%). Also, HAdV-B7 is defined as a reemerging pathogen. It is noteworthy that there is a cluster of four HAdV-C strains showing a close paraphyletic relationship with HAdV-2/6 intertypic recombination. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that HAdV-B7 reemerging pathogen circulating in patients with respiratory infections in our country. It is also necessary to emphasize that HAdV-2/6 recombinant strains were detected in this study for the first time in Turkey.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/virología , Adenovirus Humanos/clasificación , Adenovirus Humanos/genética , Variación Genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiología , Adenovirus Humanos/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epidemiología Molecular , Nasofaringe/virología , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Turquia/epidemiología
16.
Orv Hetil ; 161(52): 2179-2187, 2020 12 27.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361503

RESUMEN

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés, célkituzés: Az influenzaszezonban fellépo, elsosorban virális megbetegedések jelentos morbiditási és mortalitási teherrel rendelkeznek. Célunk volt az influenzaszeru betegséggel (ILI) és akut légúti betegséggel (ARI) kórházba felvett felnott betegek mikrobiológiai és klinikai karakterisztikájának leírása. Módszerek: Egycentrumos, obszervációs kohorszvizsgálatunk során a 2018/2019. évi légúti szezonban a Dél-pesti Centrumkórház - Országos Hematológiai és Infektológiai Intézet Infektológiai Osztályára ILI/ARI diagnózissal felvett betegek eseteit dolgoztuk fel a kórház elektronikus adatbázisának segítségével. Bevonásra azon betegek kerültek, akiknél légúti PCR-vizsgálat történt. A bevont betegeket alcsoportokra osztottuk: klinikai ILI/ARI, PCR-pozitív ILI/ARI influezavírussal, PCR-pozitív ILI/ARI más vírussal. Elsodleges kimenetelnek a komplikált betegséglefolyást, másodlagos kimenetelnek a kórházi összhalálozást, az intenzív osztályos (ICU-) felvételt, az osztályos ápolás hosszát (LOS) és az ICU LOS-t választottuk. Statisztikai összehasonlításra a Mann-Whitney-féle U-próbát, a Fisher-féle egzakt tesztet használtuk. Eredmények: A bevont 112 eset 42,8%-ában igazolódott influenza A- vagy B-vírus, 7,1%-ban egyéb légúti vírus, második leggyakrabban az RSV etiológiai szerepe. Megelozo kórházi ellátás szignifikánsan gyakrabban fordult elo PCR-pozitív ILI/ARI esetekben (23,2% vs. 42,8%; p = 0,04); ugyanezen betegek körében a panaszok kezdetétol a diagnózisig eltelt ido kb. 1 nappal rövidebb volt (3,0 ± 4,0 vs. 4,0 ± 5,0 nap; p = 0,02). A komplikációk gyakoriságát hasonló nagyságúnak találtuk (46,4% vs. 51,8%; p = 0,72), a leggyakoribb szövodmény a tüdogyulladás volt (45,5%). ICU-felvételre az esetek 5,4%-ában volt szükség, a kórházi összhalálozás 3,6%-nak adódott. A medián LOS 8,5 ± 8,0 nap, a medián ICU LOS ideje 20,5 ± 30,5 nap volt. Következtetés: A vizsgált légúti szezonban ILI/ARI diagnózissal felvett betegek jelentos részében influenza-, kisebb hányadban egyéb légúti vírusok voltak felelosek a klinikumért. A leggyakoribb szövodmény a pneumonia volt. A légúti PCR-vizsgálat lehetoséget nyújthat az etiológia tisztázására. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(52): 2179-2187. SUMMARY: Introduction, objectives: A significant burden of morbidity and mortality is caused by seasonal outbreaks of respiratory viruses. Our aim was to identify clinical and microbiological differences among adult patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infection (ARI) or influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: A single-center observational cohort study was conducted at South Pest Central Hospital, National Institute of Hematology and Infectious Diseases during the 2018/2019 influenza season. Patients were identified using the hospital database, and included in the study if respiratory PCR sampling was done during hospital stay. Subgroups were created according to the identified etiology: clinical ILI/ARI (no PCR positivity), PCR positive ILI/ARI with influenza, PCR positive ILI/ARI with other virus(es). Primary outcome was the occurrence of any complication, secondary outcomes were in-hospital all-cause mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay (LOS) and ICU LOS. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney and Fisher's tests were used. RESULTS: From 112 identified cases, 42.8% were caused by influenza A or B, 7.1% by other viruses, notably RSV. PCR positivity frequently associated with prior hospitalization (23.2% vs. 42.8%; p = 0.04), and shorter time from symptom onset to diagnosis (3.0 ± 4.0 vs. 4.0 ±5.0 days, p = 0.02). Complication rates were similar among subgroups (46.4% vs. 51.8%; p = 0.72), with pneumonia as a leading complication (45.5%). ICU admission was necessary in 5.4%, in-hospital all-cause mortality was 3.6%. Median LOS and ICU LOS were 8.5 ± 8.0 and 20.5 ± 30.5 days, respectively. CONCLUSION: During the 2018/2019 season, most ILI/ARI cases were caused by influenza, but other respiratory viruses could also be detected in lower rates. Pneumonia was the most common complication. Respiratory PCR sampling might provide a feasible way of etiology identification. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(52): 2179-2187.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/terapia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estaciones del Año
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242901, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320847

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recently, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the effect of N95 respirators compared with medical masks to protect against acute respiratory infections. However, these studies are limited by modest sample sizes and inconclusive results. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to review the relevant and available published RCTs with the aid of the increased power of meta-analytic methods in order to assess the effectiveness of medical masks and N95 respirators in reducing the risk of respiratory infections. METHODS: This meta-analysis follows the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for conducting and reporting results. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases from inception through April 1, 2020 to identify potentially relevant studies. Two authors (LS and JS) independently searched the titles and abstracts of the potentially eligible articles. They independently retrieved required data from the eligible trials; the data were initially tabulated for statistical analysis. Two authors (JRL and LS) independently assessed the methodological quality of the included RCTs using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. RESULTS: Six articles met the inclusion criteria. The pooled analysis showed that N95 respirators did not reduce the risk of infection with respiratory viruses compared with medical/surgical masks (5.7% vs. 7.9%; RR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.88-1.41; p = 0.36); however, there was no statistically significant difference in laboratory-confirmed influenza between N95 and medical masks (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.77-1.07; p = 0.26). Medical masks provided similar protection against other viruses, including coronavirus (RR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.32-1.73; p = 0.49). Respiratory illness, as well as influenza-like illness were less frequently observed with N95 respirators. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggests that there are insufficient data to definitively determine whether N95 respirators are superior to medical masks in protection against transmissible acute respiratory infections. Further randomized trials are necessary to compare the above methods of respiratory protection in the context of COVID-19 incidence.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , /epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Pandemias , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , /patogenicidad
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243735, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315873

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Wheezing is a major problem in children, and respiratory viruses are often believed to be the causative agent. While molecular detection tools enable identification of respiratory viruses in wheezing children, it remains unclear if and how these viruses are associated with wheezing. The objective of this systematic review is to clarify the prevalence of different respiratory viruses in children with wheezing. METHODS: We performed an electronic in Pubmed and Global Index Medicus on 01 July 2019 and manual search. We performed search of studies that have detected common respiratory viruses in children ≤18 years with wheezing. We included only studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Study data were extracted and the quality of articles assessed. We conducted sensitivity, subgroup, publication bias, and heterogeneity analyses using a random effects model. RESULTS: The systematic review included 33 studies. Rhinovirus, with a prevalence of 35.6% (95% CI 24.6-47.3, I2 98.4%), and respiratory syncytial virus, at 31.0% (95% CI 19.9-43.3, I2 96.4%), were the most common viruses detected. The prevalence of other respiratory viruses was as follows: human bocavirus 8.1% (95% CI 5.3-11.3, I2 84.6%), human adenovirus 7.7% (95% CI 2.6-15.0, I2 91.0%), influenza virus6.5% (95% CI 2.2-12.6, I2 92.4%), human metapneumovirus5.8% (95% CI 3.4-8.8, I2 89.0%), enterovirus 4.3% (95% CI 0.1-12.9, I2 96.2%), human parainfluenza virus 3.8% (95% CI 1.5-6.9, I2 79.1%), and human coronavirus 2.2% (95% CI 0.6-4.4, I2 79.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus may contribute to the etiology of wheezing in children. While the clinical implications of molecular detection of respiratory viruses remains an interesting question, this study helps to illuminate the potential of role respiratory viruses in pediatric wheezing. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018115128.


Asunto(s)
Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología , Ruidos Respiratorios/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Bocavirus/genética , Bocavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Bocavirus/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Orthomyxoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidad , Virus de la Parainfluenza 1 Humana/genética , Virus de la Parainfluenza 1 Humana/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Parainfluenza 1 Humana/patogenicidad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Ruidos Respiratorios/fisiopatología , Sistema Respiratorio/patología , Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168521

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses (RVs) is a common cause of illness in people of all ages, at present, different types of sampling methods are available for respiratory viral diagnosis. However, the diversity of available sampling methods and the limited direct comparisons in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) make decision-making difficult. We did a network meta-analysis, which accounted for both direct and indirect comparisons, to determine the detection rate of different sampling methods for RVs. METHODS: Relevant articles were retrieved comprehensively by searching the online databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane published before 25 March 2020. With the help of R V.3.6.3 software and 'GeMTC V.0.8.2' package, network meta-analysis was performed within a Bayesian framework. Node-splitting method and I 2 test combined leverage graphs and Gelman-Rubin-Brooks plots were conducted to evaluate the model's accuracy. The rank probabilities in direct and cumulative rank plots were also incorporated to rank the corresponding sampling methods for overall and specific virus. RESULTS: 16 sampling methods with 54 438 samples from 57 literatures were ultimately involved in this study. The model indicated good consistency and convergence but high heterogeneity, hence, random-effect analysis was applied. The top three sampling methods for RVs were nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), mid-turbinate swab (MTS) and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS). Despite certain differences, the results of virus-specific subanalysis were basically consistent with RVs: MTS, NPW and NPS for influenza; MTS, NPS and NPW for influenza-a and b; saliva, NPW and NPS for rhinovirus and parainfluenza; NPW, MTS and nasopharyngeal aspirate for respiratory syncytial virus; saliva, NPW and MTS for adenovirus and sputum; MTS and NPS for coronavirus. CONCLUSION: This network meta-analysis provides supporting evidences that NPW, MTS and NPS have higher diagnostic value regarding RVs infection, moreover, particular preferred methods should be considered in terms of specific virus pandemic. Of course, subsequent RCTs with larger samples are required to validate our findings.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Metaanálisis en Red
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 820, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections are a serious threat to human health. So, rapid detection of all respiratory pathogens can facilitate prompt treatment and prevent the deterioration of respiratory disease. Previously published primers and probes of the TaqMan array card (TAC) for respiratory pathogens are not sensitive to Chinese clinical specimens. This study aimed to develop and improve the TAC assay to detect 28 respiratory viral and bacterial pathogens in a Chinese population. METHODS: To improve the sensitivity, we redesigned the primers and probes, and labeled the probes with minor groove binders. The amplification efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the primers and probes were determined using target-gene containing standard plasmids. The detection performance of the TAC was evaluated on 754 clinical specimens and the results were compared with those from conventional methods. RESULTS: The performance of the TAC assay was evaluated using 754 clinical throat swab samples and the results were compared with those from gold-standard methods. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.4 and 96.6%, respectively. The lowest detection limit of the TAC was 10 to 100 copies/µL. CONCLUSIONS: TAC is an efficient, accurate, and high-throughput approach to detecting multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously and is a promising tool for the identification of pathogen outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Virus/genética , China/epidemiología , Cartilla de ADN , Exactitud de los Datos , Humanos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA