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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1012-1015, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926539

RESUMEN

Adenoviruses have been reported to affect a broad range of host species, tend to be species specific, and often affect the respiratory system. This report describes the isolation of an adenovirus from deep nasal swabs of two wild North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) with respiratory diseases that presented to a wildlife hospital. Partial sequences of the deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase gene of the isolated virus were identical to skunk adenovirus (SkAdV-1), also known as pygmy marmoset adenovirus. Both porcupines survived and were released back to the wild after successful medical treatment and rehabilitation. The significance of the adenovirus isolated from these porcupines is unknown; however, this is the first report of an adenovirus in porcupines, and the first report of SkAdV-1 in a rodent.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Adenoviridae/veterinaria , Adenoviridae/clasificación , Puercoespines , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/virología , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapéutico , Enrofloxacina/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Terbutalina/uso terapéutico
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18504, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914021

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of bacterial coexistence and the coinfection dynamics between bacteria and respiratory viruses among young children. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from children aged < 5 years hospitalized with a community-acquired single respiratory viral infection of influenza, adenovirus, or RSV during 2 recent consecutive influenza seasons. Remnant respiratory specimens were used for bacterial PCR targeting Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus.A total of 102 children were included; median age was 0.8 years and 44.1% had underlying comorbidities. Overall, 6.8% (7/102) of cases were classified as severe diseases requiring intensive care unit admission and/or mechanical ventilation and ranged from 8.8% for a patient with RSV and 7.6% for those with adenovirus to 0% for those with influenza viruses. The overall viral-bacterial codetection rate was 59.8% (61/102); M catarrhalis was the most frequent (33.3%), followed by H influenzae (31.4%). Influenza cases showed higher bacterial codetection rates (80.0%; 8/10) compared with those with adenoviruses (69.2%; 9/13) and RSV (55.7%; 44/79). S pneumoniae and H influenzae codetections were associated with reduced severity (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.89), and reduced risk of wheezing (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13-0.98), respectively.We observed the interactions between respiratory viruses and bacteria and the clinical significance of viral-bacterial coexistence in upper airway on disease severity. Future study will be necessary to elucidate the active interactions between different viruses and bacteria and give clues to risk stratified strategy in the management of respiratory infections among young children.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Haemophilus influenzae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/virología , Bacterias/genética , Preescolar , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/microbiología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/virología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/virología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Ruidos Respiratorios/diagnóstico , Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Streptococcus pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Virus/genética
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20170498, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859936

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We report the results of the active surveillance of influenza infections in hospitalized patients and the evaluation of the seasonality and correlation with temperature and rainfall data. METHODS: During the 2-year study period, 775 patients were tested for 15 respiratory viruses (RVs). RESULTS: Most of the 57% of (n=444) virus-positive samples were human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. However, 10.4% (n=46) were influenza virus (80% FluA; 20% FluB). Age and SARI were significantly associated with influenza. FluB circulation was higher is 2013. CONCLUSIONS: In the post-epidemic period, influenza remains an important cause of hospitalization in SARI patients.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Derivación y Consulta , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Vigilancia de Guardia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1701-1710, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749410

RESUMEN

We conducted this study to describe the dynamics of the acquisition of respiratory pathogens, their potential interactions and risk factors for possible lower respiratory tract infection symptoms (LRTI) among French pilgrims during the 2018 Hajj. Each participant underwent four successive systematic nasopharyngeal swabs before and during their stay in Saudi Arabia. Carriage of the main respiratory pathogens was assessed by PCR. 121 pilgrims were included and 93.4% reported respiratory symptoms during the study period. The acquisition of rhinovirus, coronaviruses and Staphylococcus aureus occurred soon after arrival in Saudi Arabia and rates decreased gradually after days 5 and 6. In contrast, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage increased progressively until the end of the stay in Saudi Arabia. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis carriage increased starting around days 12 and 13, following an initial clearance. Influenza viruses were rarely isolated. We observed an independent positive mutual association between S. aureus and rhinovirus carriage and between H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis carriage. Dual carriage of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was strongly associated with S. pneumoniae carriage (OR = 6.22). Finally, our model showed that M. catarrhalis carriage was negatively associated with K. pneumoniae carriage. Chronic respiratory disease was associated with symptoms of LRTI. K. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis-S. aureus and H. influenzae-rhinovirus dual carriage was associated with LRTI symptoms. Our data suggest that RTIs at the Hajj are a result of complex interactions between a number of respiratory viruses and bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Virosis/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Arabia Saudita , Viaje , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17797, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689857

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rapidly progressing disease associated with frequent neurologic sequelae and has poor prognosis. Currently, the diagnosis and treatment of ANE rely on neuroradiologic findings and offering supportive care. Here, we report the successful treatment of a teenager diagnosed with ANE using combination of high-dose methylprednisolone and oseltamivir. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient, a 15-year-old female, presented with impaired consciousness and seizures secondary to acute upper respiratory tract infection. A series of brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were obtained toward establishing a possible diagnosis. DIAGNOSIS: Based on the history of presenting illness and subsequent brain MRI scans, the patient was diagnosed to be suffering from ANE. INTERVENTIONS: Following the diagnosis, the patient was placed on therapy comprising of high-dose methylprednisolone and oseltamivir. OUTCOMES: After treatment with methylprednisolone and oseltamivir for 15 days, the patient recovered nearly completely from ANE as confirmed by subsequent brain MRI scans. No complications or other emerging clinical symptoms were noted for the duration of follow-up that lasted 6 months. LESSONS: Contrary to common reports, ANE can occur beyond pediatric populations and its treatment should not be restricted to supportive care. Our case suggests that the use of high-dose corticosteroids and oseltamivir leads to promising prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encefalitis Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/complicaciones , Convulsiones/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Encéfalo/patología , Encéfalo/virología , China , Encefalitis Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Encefalitis Viral/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Necrosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Necrosis/virología , Oseltamivir/uso terapéutico , Pronóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Convulsiones/patología , Convulsiones/virología
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1088-1093, 2019 Nov 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683392

RESUMEN

Human adenovirus (HAdV) is one of the common pathogens causing human respiratory infections and HAdV infection can result in a variety of diseases. In recent years, outbreaks of HAdV infection have been detected from time to time in China and clustered severe cases have been reported in some regions. This technical guideline has been timely developed to provide technical support on the control and prevention of HAdV respiratory infections. It provides an overview of etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment principles of HAdV infection, determines the definitions of laboratory-confirmed cases, clinically diagnosed cases, severe and critically severe HAdV pneumonia cases. Then the workflow of case detecting and reporting, and the outbreak epidemic disposal has been formulated. Finally, the control and prevention measures in places at high risk for HAdV transmission and individual preventive measures also has been introduced.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/prevención & control , Adenovirus Humanos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/virología , China , Humanos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología
7.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 2919-2930, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520220

RESUMEN

Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been detected primarily in children with acute lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD), but its occurrence, clinical profile, and role as a causative agent of RTD are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the potential clinical relevance of HBoV. Using molecular tests, we tested 1352 nasopharyngeal samples obtained between October 1, 2017 and April 30, 2018 from children up to the age of 16 with RTD for the presence of HBoV DNA and 20 other respiratory pathogens at three different hospitals in Belgium. HBoV was detected in 77 children with a median age of 10.6 months. Consecutive samples were available for 15 HBoV-positive children and showed persistent HBoV positivity in four of them. Monoinfection was observed in six infants. Four of them were born prematurely and were infected during hospitalization at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Only one of these six monoinfected children was diagnosed with recurrent wheezing due to HBoV. This child was carried to term and had a high viral load. Coinfections, most frequently with rhinovirus (52.1%) and adenovirus (49.3%), were observed in 72 patients. In seventeen of them in which HBoV was present at high viral load or higher viral load than its copathogens, bronchi(oli)tis (n = 8), recurrent wheezing (n = 8) or episodic wheezing (n = 1) were diagnosed. Our results suggest that HBoV infection at high viral load in infants is associated with wheezing (P = 0.013, Cramer's V = 0.613).


Asunto(s)
Bocavirus Humano/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/virología , ADN Viral/genética , Femenino , Bocavirus Humano/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virología , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/virología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
8.
BMJ ; 366: l5021, 2019 09 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506273

RESUMEN

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the recently defined Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. It is a negative sense, single stranded RNA virus that results in epidemics of respiratory infections that typically peak in the winter in temperate climates and during the rainy season in tropical climates. Generally, one of the two genotypes (A and B) predominates in a single season, alternating annually, although regional variation occurs. RSV is a cause of disease and death in children, older people, and immunocompromised patients, and its clinical effect on adults admitted to hospital is clarified with expanded use of multiplex molecular assays. Among adults, RSV produces a wide range of clinical symptoms including upper respiratory tract infections, severe lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of underlying disease. Here we discuss the latest evidence on the burden of RSV related disease in adults, especially in those with immunocompromise or other comorbidities. We review current therapeutic and prevention options, as well as those in development.


Asunto(s)
Carga Global de Enfermedades , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Adulto , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Epidemias , Genotipo , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Inmunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/inmunología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/terapia , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios/patogenicidad , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/inmunología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/terapia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Ribavirina/uso terapéutico , Estaciones del Año
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1222: 55-62, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529287

RESUMEN

In uncomplicated bronchiolitis, chest radiography (CR) is not routinely recommended, yet it is still frequently made. This study seeks to evaluate the use of CR in children with bronchiolitis due to a lower respiratory tract infection (RSV-RTI) with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the influence of CR on patient treatment during the 2010-2017 seasons. There were 581 children included into the study: 459 with bronchiolitis (390 RSV-RTI and 69 non-RSV), 65 with RSV pneumonia and 57 with RSV bronchitis. We found that CR was performed in 28.6% (166/581) patients. CR was much more frequent in patients with RSV than non-RSV infections (61% vs. 31%). CR prognostic sensitivity and specificity in guiding antibiotic treatment was low, 78% and 58%, respectively. Positive and negative predicted values of CR were 78% and 58%, respectively and the number needed to diagnose was 2.777. Children in whom CR was performed (irrespective of the result) were at 22.9-fold higher risk of antibiotic therapy (95%CI: 14.1-37.1; p < 0.01), while those with a positive CR were only at 4.4-fold higher risk of antibiotic therapy (95%CI: 2.2-8.9; p < 0.01). Children with CR required a longer hospital stay than those without it (10 vs. 8 days, respectively; p < 0.01). The percentage of CR decreased from 78% in 2010 to 33% in 2017, with the lowest value of 11% in 2015. The additional cost of CR, which had no influence on treatment, would have been €381 had it been performed in each patient, which amounts to 1% of the total hospitalization cost. We conclude that CR is overused and in most cases it has no influence on the patient management. The recognition of practical meaning of CR is essential to avoid unnecessary radiation of children.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiolitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Radiografía/métodos , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Bronquiolitis/epidemiología , Bronquiolitis/virología , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Tiempo de Internación , Neumonía/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología
10.
Virol J ; 16(1): 111, 2019 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory tract infections are common during early childhood. How they impact cystic fibrosis lung disease history in young children is poorly known. The principal aim of our study was to determinate respiratory tract infections frequency in this cystic fibrosis young population. Secondary outcomes were nature of viral agents recovered and impact of such infections. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 25 children affected by cystic fibrosis and aged less than 2 years. Nasal samplings were taken systematically monthly or bimonthly with additional samples taken during respiratory tract infections episodes. Ten pathogens were tested by a combination of five duplex RT-PCRs or PCRs: influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (MPV), rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV)), coronavirus (HKU1, NL63, 229E and OC43), parainfluenza virus (1-4), adenovirus and bocavirus (Respiratory Multi-Well System MWS r-gene®, BioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France). Cycle thresholds (CTs) were reported for all positive samples and considered positive for values below 40. Quantitative variables were compared using a nonparametric statistical test (Wilcoxon signed rank for paired comparisons). Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess relationships between two variables. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS v9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) or GraphPad Prism V6.00 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA). The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age at inclusion was 9.6 ± 6.7 months. The patients had 3.4 ± 1.7 respiratory tract infections episodes per child per year. Forty-four respiratory tract infections (69%) were associated with virus: rhinovirus and enterovirus (RV/EV) were implied in 61% of them and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 14%. Only one patient required hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections. 86% of the patients were treated by antibiotics for a mean of 13.8 ± 6.2 days. RSV infections (n = 6) were usually of mild severity. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory tract infections in young children with cystic fibrosis were of mild severity, rarely requiring hospitalization. Unsurprisingly, RV/EV were the most frequent agents. RSV-related morbidity seems low in this population. This raises the question of the usefulness of RSV preventive medication in this young population.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección/virología , Fibrosis Quística/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Estaciones del Año , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Fibrosis Quística/complicaciones , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/complicaciones , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Virus/genética , Virus/patogenicidad
11.
Tuberk Toraks ; 67(2): 124-130, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414643

RESUMEN

Introduction: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often caused by respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and computed tomography features of patients with hospitalized COPD exacerbations in which respiratory viruses were detected using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: This retrospectively planned study included patients hospitalized in the chest diseases clinic due to exacerbation of COPD between November 2018-February 2019. The study included patients who had virus-specific real-time PCR, and computed tomography scans of the chest. Result: A total of 110 patients were included in the study. Respiratory viruses were identified in the nasopharyngeal swabs of 50 patients (45.5%) using the real-time PCR method, with rhinovirus (25%), influenza A (13.1%) and coronavirus (11.8%) being the most commonly isolated agents. The mean age of the patients was 68.28 ± 9.59 years in the virus-positive group and 68.20 ± 8.27 years in the virus-negative group (p= 0.963). Gender distribution, rate of smokers, exposure to biofuels, blood leukocyte count, neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, FEV1/FVC ratio did not significantly differ between the two groups (p> 0.05). Procalcitonin (PCT) and FEV1 values were significantly lower (p= 0.001 and p= 0.028, respectively) and the number of exacerbations was significantly higher in the virus-positive group (p= 0.001). The length of hospital stay was longer in the virus-positive group than in the virus-negative group (p= 0.012). Among the findings of computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchial wall thickening, cystic bronchiectasis, and emphysema did not differ significantly (p> 0.05). The rate of infiltrative lesions (tree-in-bud opacity, ground-glass opacity, atypical pneumonia) was significantly higher in the virus-positive group (p= 0.020). Conclusions: Viral respiratory tract infections should be considered in hospitalized patients with an exacerbation of COPD who have a history of frequent exacerbations, normal PCT value, and the absence of consolidation in CT scan of the chest. The use of broadspectrum antibiotic therapy should be avoided in patients with these features.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/complicaciones , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/complicaciones , Virosis/complicaciones , Anciano , Bronquiectasia , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Humanos , Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Humana/complicaciones , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nasofaringe/virología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/virología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rhinovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Virosis/virología
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 681, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are important pathogens of pediatric respiratory tract infections in Taiwan. There were two major HAdV epidemics in southern Taiwan in 2011 and 2014, respectively. METHODS: The demographic, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for hospitalization of pediatric patients with HAdV infection in the two outbreaks were retrospectively compared. The epidemic was defined as > 7% HAdV detection rate for six consecutive weeks. HAdV infection was defined as positive HAdV isolates from respiratory tract specimens. HAdV genotype was determined by PCR-based hexon gene sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 1145 pediatric patients were identified (635 cases in 2011; 510 cases in 2014). HAdV genotype 3 and 7 contributed to both epidemics, although the proportion of HAdV3 decreased significantly (64.7% in 2011 to 25.5% in 2014, p < 0.001) and was replaced by other genotypes (type 1, 4, and 6) in the 2014 epidemic. Among the hospitalized patients, there were more patients hospitalized with bronchopneumonia/or pneumonia in the 2011 epidemic (10.6% vs 5.1%, p < 0.001), while more patients hospitalized with acute pharyngitis/pharyngoconjunctival fever (63.9% vs. 38.6%, p < 0.001) in the 2014 epidemic. In both epidemics, hospitalized patients had higher WBC and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels than non-hospitalized patients. Using multivariate regression analysis, underlying disease and elevated CRP levels were independent risk factors for hospitalization in both epidemics. CONCLUSION: There were significant differences in clinical, viral characteristics and risk factors of hospitalization between the 2011 and 2014 epidemics. Understanding changes in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HAdV epidemics is important from a public health perspective.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/etiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Adenovirus Humanos/genética , Adenovirus Humanos/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades , Epidemias , Femenino , Genotipo , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Taiwán/epidemiología
13.
Virus Genes ; 55(5): 673-681, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372920

RESUMEN

Astroviruses (AstV) are associated with enteric and systemic disease in mammals and birds. Astroviruses have received increased attention recently as they have been found to be associated with sporadic neurologic disease in mammals including humans. In pigs, porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) can be widely detected and has been grouped in five genotypes (PoAstV1 to PoAstV5). In the present study, we detected multiple PoAstVs in serum samples, nasal swabs, and fecal swabs collected from pigs suffering from respiratory disease or diarrhea but also from asymptomatic pigs, indicating a wide tissue tropism of the identified PoAstV genotypes. Coinfection of different genotypes in the same pig was commonly observed, and within an individual pig a high genetic diversity was observed for viruses belonging to the same PoAstV genotype. Two complete genomes of PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 and PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 were successfully obtained and characterized, with genome sizes of 6396 and 6643 nucleotides, respectively. The PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 genome showed identities of 67.2-77.4% to other known PoAstV2 genomes, and the PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 genome showed identities of 72.8-80.5% to other known PoAstV4 genomes. The predicted spike domain of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of these strains showed the highest genetic heterogeneity, with amino acid identities of 13.7-70.9% for PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 to other known PoAstV2 strains, and identities of 24.4-63.3% for the PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 to other known PoAstV4 strains. Possible recombination events were identified in each of the two sequences. Two subclades of PoAstV2 and three subclades of PoAstV4 were defined in the present analyses. The obtained data provide further evidence for extraintestinal infectivity of PoAstVs, and confirmed the high genetic diversity of PoAstVs and the coinfection potential of different PoAstV types in a single pig.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Astroviridae/veterinaria , Variación Genética , Mamastrovirus/clasificación , Mamastrovirus/genética , Recombinación Genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Astroviridae/virología , Portador Sano/veterinaria , Portador Sano/virología , China , Coinfección/veterinaria , Coinfección/virología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Diarrea/virología , Heces/virología , Genotipo , Mamastrovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Mucosa Nasal/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Suero/virología , Porcinos
14.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(11): 1136-1145, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455974

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are six human pathogenic coronaviruses (CoV), which mainly cause infections of the respiratory system. In everyday clinical practice, it is helpful to know the relevance and characteristics of these pathogens. OBJECTIVE: To present the epidemiology, clinical picture and differences of human pathogenic CoV and to provide information on the diagnostics and treatment of patients suspected of having CoV infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Selective literature search, presentation of results and discussion of fundamental works and expert recommendations, including publications by the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Robert Koch Institute. RESULTS: The four endemic human CoVs (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1) mainly cause mild respiratory tract infections. In addition to these four endemic HCoV, the two epidemic CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV can cause severe pneumonia. The SARS-CoV has not been detected in humans in the last 15 years and MERS-CoV has been circulating mainly on the Arabian Peninsula since 2012; however, neither a specific treatment nor approved vaccines exist for any of the six human pathogenic CoVs. CONCLUSION: All six human CoVs can be diagnosed using RT-PCR on respiratory specimens but this is rarely necessary for the four endemic strains. In current clinical practice SARS-CoV has no importance as it has not been detected in humans for 15 years; however, a possible MERS-CoV infection should be taken into account in patients with typical symptoms and travel history to endemic regions. In this case, rapid diagnostic and general hygiene practices are important to prevent further transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Humano 229E , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus Humano NL63 , Coronavirus Humano OC43 , Humanos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 729, 2019 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: No comparison data have been reported on viral and epidemiological profiles of hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in Beijing or Shanghai, China. METHODS: We collected 700 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) from hospitalized children with SARI in Beijing (northern China) and Shanghai (southern China). Multiple respiratory viruses (including 15 common viruses) were screened by validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays and confirmed by sequencing. Demographic data and the distribution of viral infections were also examined. RESULTS: Of 700 samples, 547 (78.1%) tested positive for viral infections. The picornaviruses (PIC), which included rhinovirus (RV) and enterovirus (EV), were the most common (34.0%), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (28.3%), human bocavirus (HBoV) (19.1%), adenovirus (ADV) (13.7%), human coronaviruses (HCoV) (10.7%), influenza A and B (8.9%), parainfluenza virus (PIV 1-3) (7.9%), and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) (5.0%). PIC (RV/EV) and RSV were the most prevalent etiological agents of SARI in both cities. The total and age-matched prevalence of RSV, HCoV, and hMPV among SARI children under 5 years old were significantly higher in Beijing than in Shanghai. Different age and seasonal distribution patterns of the viral infections were found between Beijing and Shanghai. CONCLUSIONS: Viral infection was tested and shown to be the most prevalent etiological agent among children with SARI in either the Beijing or the Shanghai area, while showing different patterns of viral and epidemiological profiles. Our findings provide a better understanding of the roles of geographic location and climate in respiratory viral infections in hospitalized children with SARI.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/virología , Beijing/epidemiología , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Masculino , Infecciones por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Paramyxoviridae/virología , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/virología , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/virología , Prevalencia , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones por Respirovirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Respirovirus/virología
16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 37(1): 105-108, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424019

RESUMEN

Historical specimens collected from hospitalized children were tested for the following 13 viruses: influenza A and B; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); parainfluenza viruses 1-3; human metapneumovirus; rhinovirus; coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1 and Adenovirus using monoplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). They were retested using TaqMan Array Card (TAC), a micro-fluidic system, capable of simultaneous multi-pathogen testing, to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity against monoplex rRT-PCR. TAC showed high sensitivity (71%-100%) and specificity (98%-100%) for these viruses in comparison to monoplex rRT-PCR. Multi-specimen detection with high sensitivity and specificity makes TAC a potentially useful tool for both surveillance and outbreak investigations.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivos Laboratorio en un Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Preescolar , Humanos , India , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Virus/aislamiento & purificación
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 300, 2019 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426794

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Canine pneumovirus (CPV) is a pathogen that causes respiratory disease in dogs, and recent outbreaks in shelters in America and Europe have been reported. However, based on published data and documents, the identification of CPV and its variant in clinically symptomatic individual dogs in Thailand through Asia is limited. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the emergence of CPV and to consequently establish the genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the CPV strains from 209 dogs showing respiratory distress in Thailand. RESULTS: This study identified and described the full-length CPV genome from three strains, designated herein as CPV_CP13 TH/2015, CPV_CP82 TH/2016 and CPV_SR1 TH/2016, that were isolated from six dogs out of 209 dogs (2.9%) with respiratory illness in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these three Thai CPV strains (CPV TH strains) belong to the CPV subgroup A and form a novel lineage; proposed as the Asian prototype. Specific mutations in the deduced amino acids of these CPV TH strains were found in the G/glycoprotein sequence, suggesting potential substitution sites for subtype classification. Results of intragenic recombination analysis revealed that CPV_CP82 TH/2016 is a recombinant strain, where the recombination event occurred in the L gene with the Italian prototype CPV Bari/100-12 as the putative major parent. Selective pressure analysis demonstrated that the majority of the nucleotides in the G/glycoprotein were under purifying selection with evidence of positive selection sites. CONCLUSIONS: This collective information on the CPV TH strains is the first evidence of CPV emergence with genetic characterization in Thailand and as first report in Asia, where homologous recombination acts as a potential force driving the genetic diversity and shaping the evolution of canine pneumovirus.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Filogenia , Infecciones por Pneumovirus/veterinaria , Pneumovirus/clasificación , Virus Reordenados/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Genoma Viral , Mutación , Pneumovirus/genética , Infecciones por Pneumovirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Pneumovirus/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Tailandia/epidemiología , Proteínas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo
18.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180249, 2019 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365620

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of influenza A virus (Flu-A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was assessed in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates and throat swabs were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect RSV and Flu-A and to conventional PCR to detect hMPV. RESULTS: Of the 156 children assessed, 93 (59.6%) carried at least one virus, with 35.9% positive for RSV, 14.1% for hMPV, and 9.6% for Flu-A. The prevalence of co-infections was 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The high detection rate may reflect increased sensitivity of real-time PCR compared to traditional PCR and viral culture.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Infecciones por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/genética , Nasofaringe/virología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007963, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381610

RESUMEN

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral cause of acute pediatric lower respiratory tract infections worldwide, with no available vaccine or effective antiviral drug. To gain insight into virus-host interactions, we performed a genome-wide siRNA screen. The expression of over 20,000 cellular genes was individually knocked down in human airway epithelial A549 cells, followed by infection with RSV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Knockdown of expression of the cellular ATP1A1 protein, which is the major subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase of the plasma membrane, had one of the strongest inhibitory effects on GFP expression and viral titer. Inhibition was not observed for vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating that it was RSV-specific rather than a general effect. ATP1A1 formed clusters in the plasma membrane very early following RSV infection, which was independent of replication but dependent on the attachment glycoprotein G. RSV also triggered activation of ATP1A1, resulting in signaling by c-Src-kinase activity that transactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by Tyr845 phosphorylation. ATP1A1 signaling and activation of both c-Src and EGFR were found to be required for efficient RSV uptake. Signaling events downstream of EGFR culminated in the formation of macropinosomes. There was extensive uptake of RSV virions into macropinosomes at the beginning of infection, suggesting that this is a major route of RSV uptake, with fusion presumably occurring in the macropinosomes rather than at the plasma membrane. Important findings were validated in primary human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEC). In A549 cells and HSAEC, RSV uptake could be inhibited by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain and the digitoxigenin derivative PST2238 (rostafuroxin) that bind specifically to the ATP1A1 extracellular domain and block RSV-triggered EGFR Tyr845 phosphorylation. In conclusion, we identified ATP1A1 as a host protein essential for macropinocytic entry of RSV into respiratory epithelial cells, and identified PST2238 as a potential anti-RSV drug.


Asunto(s)
Pinocitosis , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/complicaciones , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano/patogenicidad , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo , Internalización del Virus , Células A549 , Cardiotónicos/farmacología , Digitoxigenina/química , Digitoxigenina/farmacología , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Epiteliales/enzimología , Células Epiteliales/virología , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Ensayos Analíticos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Ouabaína/farmacología , ARN Interferente Pequeño/genética , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Sistema Respiratorio/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema Respiratorio/enzimología , Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Transducción de Señal , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , Proteínas Virales/genética
20.
Virol J ; 16(1): 91, 2019 07 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324259

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Influenza A and B viruses mainly cause respiratory infectious disease. Till now, few tests are able to simultaneously detect both, especially in primary medical establishments. METHODS: This study was designed to compare the performance of two different one-step-combined test strips for the detection of influenza A and B: one strip with fluorescent microspheres for tracers (FMT); and the other strip with colored microspheres for tracers (CMT). To test the strips, cultures of influenza A, B, and other pathogenic viruses were used, in addition to 1085 clinical specimens from symptomatic patients with respiratory infections. Real-time RT-PCR was also considered as a reference method used to detect the different results of FMT and CTM. RESULTS: Detection thresholds for influenza A and B cultures using serial dilutions revealed that the sensitivity of FMT was higher than that of CMT (both P < 0.05). With the culture mixtures of Coxsackie virus (A16), enteric cytopathic human orphan virus (ECHO type30), enterovirus (EV71), rotavirus (LLR strain), and enteric adenovirus (AdV 41), specificity assessment demonstrated that there was no cross reaction during the usage of the two test strips as shown by the results which were negative. In the detection of influenza A in 1085 clinical specimens, the total coincidence rate was 96.7%, the positive coincidence rate was 97.1%, and the negative coincidence rate was 96.7%. In the case of influenza B detection, the total coincidence rate was 99.1%, the positive coincidence rate was 92.6%, and the negative coincidence rate was 98.5%. In addition, with influenza A or B real-time RT-PCR detection method, the results showed that, for influenza A, 26 of the 33 specimens that negative with CMT but positive with FMT, showed positive results, and none of the 3 specimens that positive with CMT but negative with FMT showed a positive result; For influenza B, 12 of the 15 specimens that negative with CMT but positive with FMT, showed positive results, and none of the 5 specimens that positive with CMT but negative with FMT showed a positive result. CONCLUSIONS: FMT performed better than CMT in the combined detection of influenza A and B viruses.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Influenza B/aislamiento & purificación , Microesferas , Tiras Reactivas/normas , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Color , Fluorescencia , Humanos , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/virología
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