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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333868

RESUMEN

In many countries, community pharmacies provide sexual-health-related services to limit the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including chlamydia testing. To identify suitable target groups for pharmacy-based chlamydia testing in Switzerland, we aimed to assess chlamydia prevalence, identify risk groups, and delineate screening strategies. We conducted a systematic literature search up to December 2019 in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, according to the PRISMA guidelines, using as keywords "chlamydia", "screening", and "Switzerland". Two researchers screened the title, abstract, and full-text article and assessed the methodological quality. The literature search generated 108 hits, and nine studies were included. Chlamydia prevalence ranged between 0.8 and 12.8%. Most frequently affected were undocumented women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy (12.8%, 95% CI: 8.4-18.9), HIV-positive men who have sex with men (10.9%, 95% CI: 9.2-17.6), and adult offenders (6.5%, 95% CI: 3.2-9.0). Systematic screening was suggested for the first two risk groups and women suffering a miscarriage. To conclude, chlamydia infections are prevalent in Switzerland, but the identified risk groups are difficult to reach for a pharmacy-based testing service. More studies are needed to identify suitable target groups, including customers seeking sexual health services, particularly emergency contraception users who already receive counselling for STIs at community pharmacies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Adulto , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Suiza/epidemiología
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 795, 2020 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109139

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some patients who test positive for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) fail to return for results and treatment. To target improvement actions, we need to find out who these patients are. This study aimed to explore factors associated with failure to return within 30 days (FTR30) after testing among patients with positive results in a free STI testing centre in Paris. METHODS: All patients with at least one positive result between October 2016 and May 2017 and who completed a self-administered questionnaire were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 214). The questionnaire included sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviour and history of testing. Factors associated with FTR30 were assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of patients were men (72%), and the median age of patients was 27 years. Most patients were born in metropolitan France (56%) or in sub-Saharan Africa (22%). Men who had sex with men represented 36% of the study population. The FTR30 rate was 14% (95% CI [10-19%]). In multivariate analysis, previous HIV testing in younger persons (aOR: 3.36, 95% CI [1.27-8.84]), being accompanied by another person at the pretest consultation (aOR: 3.45, 95% CI [1.36-8.91]), and lower self-perceived risk of HIV infection (aOR: 2.79, 95% CI [1.07-7.30]) were associated with a higher FTR30. Testing for chlamydia/gonorrhoea without presumptive treatment was associated with a lower FTR30 (aOR: 0.21, 95% CI [0.07-0.59]). CONCLUSIONS: These factors that affect failure to return are related to the patient's representations and involvement in the STI screening process. Increasing health literacy and patient empowerment could help to decrease failure to return after being tested positive for HIV/STI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Tamizaje Masivo/economía , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Pacientes Desistentes del Tratamiento , Adulto , Chlamydia/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Gonorrea/microbiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Paris/epidemiología , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
4.
Pediatr Rev ; 41(10): 522-537, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004664

RESUMEN

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect young people, with more than half of the infections occurring in youth aged 15 to 25 years. (1)(2) This review, the second in a 2-part series on STIs, focuses on infections that may cause abnormal vaginal or penile discharge, including trichomonas, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Most infected persons, however, are asymptomatic. Nucleic acid amplification tests are the most sensitive and specific for the detection of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and they can be performed on provider- or patient-collected swabs. Providers should have a low threshold for diagnosing and treating PID because untreated PID can have serious long-term complications for young women. Indications for hospitalization for PID include the presence of a tubo-ovarian abscess, severe illness with systemic symptoms, pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and failure to respond to outpatient oral treatment (within 48-72 hours) or inability to tolerate the oral treatment.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Inflamatoria Pélvica/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Excreción Vaginal/microbiología , Adolescente , Candidiasis/complicaciones , Candidiasis/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/complicaciones , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Femenino , Gonorrea/complicaciones , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedad Inflamatoria Pélvica/etiología , Parejas Sexuales , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/complicaciones , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Cervicitis Uterina/complicaciones , Vaginosis Bacteriana/complicaciones , Vaginosis Bacteriana/diagnóstico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237424, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a need for a rapid diagnostic point of care test to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection to prevent incorrect, lack or excess of treatment resulting from current syndromic management in low-resource settings. An assay to identify NG antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is also highly desirable to facilitate antibiotic stewardship. Here we describe the development of two target product profiles (TPPs): one for a test for etiological diagnosis of NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (TPP1) and one for the detection of NG AMR/susceptibility (TPP2). METHODS: Draft TPPs were initially developed based on a landscape analysis of existing diagnostics and expert input. TPPs were refined via an online Delphi survey with two rounds of input from 68 respondents. TPP characteristics on which <75% of non-industry respondents agreed were further discussed and revised by an expert working group. RESULTS: The need for a test to identify NG in patients with urethral or vaginal discharge was identified as a minimal requirement of TPP1, with a test that can diagnose NG in asymptomatic patients as the optimal requirement. A sensitivity of 80% was considered acceptable, either in context of syndromic management or screening high-risk populations. For TPP2, the agreed minimal requirement was for a test to be used at level 2 healthcare facilities and above, with an optimal requirement of level 1 or above. A lateral flow format was preferred for TPP1, while it was considered likely that TPP2 would require a molecular format. A total of 31 test characteristics were included in TPP1 and 27 in TPP2. CONCLUSIONS: Following the working group revisions, TPPs were posted online for public feedback for two months, and are now finalized. The final TPPs are currently guiding the development of new diagnostics that meet the defined characteristics to reach the market within two years.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1363, 2020 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891137

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia screening in high schools offers a way to reach adolescents outside of a traditional clinic setting. Using transmission dynamic modeling, we examined the potential impact of high-school-based chlamydia screening programs on the burden of infection within intervention schools and surrounding communities, under varying epidemiological and programmatic conditions. METHODS: A chlamydia transmission model was calibrated to epidemiological data from three different settings. Philadelphia and Chicago are two high-burden cities with existing school-based screening programs. Rural Iowa does not have an existing program but represents a low-burden setting. We modeled the effects of the two existing programs to analyze the potential influence of program coverage and student participation. All three settings were used to examine a broader set of hypothetical programs with varying coverage levels and time trends in participation. RESULTS: In the modeled Philadelphia program, prevalence among the intervention schools' sexually active 15-18 years old population was 4.34% (95% credible interval 3.75-4.71%)after 12 program years compared to 5.03% (4.39-5.43%) in absence of the program. In the modeled Chicago program, prevalence was estimated as 5.97% (2.60-7.88%) after 4 program years compared to 7.00% (3.08-9.29%) without the program. In the broader hypothetical scenarios including both high-burden and low-burden settings, impact of school-based screening programs was greater in absolute terms in the higher-prevalence settings, and benefits in the community were approximately proportional to population coverage of intervention schools. Most benefits were garnered if the student participation did not decline over time. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained high student participation in school-based screening programs and broad coverage of schools within a target community are likely needed to maximize program benefits in terms of reduced burden of chlamydia in the adolescent population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Chlamydia trachomatis , Tamizaje Masivo , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Adolescente , Chicago/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Iowa/epidemiología , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Philadelphia/epidemiología , Prevalencia
7.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 363-368, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865864

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Accessible health services are a key element of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) control. This study aimed to examine whether there were any differences in accessing sexual health services between Medicare-eligible and Medicare-ineligible men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of MSM attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2016 and 2019. Demographic characteristics, sexual practices, HIV testing practices and STI diagnoses were compared between Medicare-eligible and Medicare-ineligible MSM. RESULTS: We included 5,085 Medicare-eligible and 2,786 Medicare-ineligible MSM. Condomless anal sex in the past 12 months was more common in Medicare-eligible compared to Medicare-ineligible MSM (74.4% vs. 64.9%; p<0.001) although the number of partners did not differ between groups. There was no difference in prior HIV testing practices between Medicare-eligible and Medicare-ineligible MSM (76.1% vs. 77.7%; p=0.122). Medicare-ineligible MSM were more likely to have anorectal chlamydia compared to Medicare-eligible MSM (10.6% vs. 8.5%; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Medicare-ineligible MSM have less condomless sex but a higher rate of anorectal chlamydia, suggesting they might have limited access to STI testing or may be less willing to disclose high-risk behaviour. Implications for public health: Scaling up access to HIV and STI testings for Medicare-ineligible MSM is essential.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Salud Sexual
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1239, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are common. To better understand the characteristics of patients frequently infected with CT at our sexually transmitted infection (STI) care services, we assessed the differences between patients repeatedly infected with CT and those who repeatedly tested negative. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of cohort data, we assessed individuals tested for CT at different STI care providers between 2011 and mid-2018 in Southwest Limburg, the Netherlands (n = 17,616). Patients with ≥2 repeat CT infections in the study period were categorized as "patients with repeat CT infections." Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for the binary outcome measure: patients with repeat CT infections versus patients who repeatedly tested negative (reference group). Additional analyses were performed for only the STI clinic population. RESULTS: Patients aged < 25 years (OR: 1.83; 95%CI:1.38-2.43), co-infected with HIV (OR: 2.07; 95%CI: 1.02-4.22) or co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) (OR: 5.04; 95%CI: 3.33-7.63) had more repeat CT infections. In additional analyses among exclusively STI clinic visitors, patients with urogenital symptoms (OR: 2.17; 95%CI: 1.41-3.35), and patients notified for STIs (OR: 4.55; 95%CI: 3.17-6.54) had more frequent repeat CT infections. CONCLUSIONS: Patients aged < 25 years and patients coinfected with HIV or NG had more frequent repeat CT infections, accounting for ~ 20% of the diagnosed CT infections. These patients are likely at the highest risk for transmitting and acquiring CT. Therefore, testing and retesting this group remains important to enhance CT control.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Coinfección , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
9.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(3): 553-567, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643040

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) on adverse pregnancy outcomes based on the currently available evidence. METHODS: Multiple databases were comprehensively searched from the available date of inception through December 9, 2019. The effect of C. trachomatis on adverse pregnancy outcomes was assessed using pooled odds rations (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Egger's test was used for publication bias. RESULTS: Fifty studies involving 502,141 participants were identified. C. trachomatis infection was found to be associated with preterm birth in antibody detection [OR (95% CI): 1.571 (1.112-2.220), P = 0.010] and high-quality assessment [OR (95% CI): 1.734 (1.295-2.321), P < 0.001], preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in culture detection [OR (95% CI): 4.339 (1.806-10.424), P = 0.001] and high-quality assessment [OR (95% CI): 2.822 (1.333-5.973), P = 0.007], stillbirth [OR (95% CI): 1.585 (1.219-2.062), P = 0.001], low-birthweight babies [OR (95% CI): 2.205 (1.137-4.274), P = 0.019], and babies small for gestational age [OR (95% CI): 1.193 (1.091-1.305), P < 0.001]. No publication bias was exhibited in miscarriage (P = 0.170), preterm birth (P = 0.303), PPROM (P = 0.341), stillbirth (P = 0.533), and low-birthweight babies (P = 0.535). CONCLUSIONS: C. trachomatis infection during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of preterm birth, PPROM, stillbirth, low-birthweight babies, and babies small for gestational age.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Rotura Prematura de Membranas Fetales/epidemiología , Trabajo de Parto Prematuro/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Aborto Espontáneo , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Femenino , Rotura Prematura de Membranas Fetales/microbiología , Humanos , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Recién Nacido , Recién Nacido Pequeño para la Edad Gestacional , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/microbiología , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Mortinato
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636237

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in sexually active female patients <25 years old using nucleic-acid amplification tests (NAAT) from a vaginal swab. Our providers were typically testing using the less sensitive urine NAATs. We aimed to increase the percentage of urogenital C trachomatis NAATs performed by using vaginal swabs in adolescent female patients ages 10 through 20 years from 1.4% to 25%. METHODS: We implemented 3 interventions at 3 pediatric practices over 12 months including education, process standardization, and cross-training. We used statistical process control to analyze the effect of interventions on our primary outcome: the percentage of urogenital C trachomatis tests performed with a vaginal swab. Our balance measure was the total number of urogenital C trachomatis tests. RESULTS: There were 818 urogenital C trachomatis tests performed: 289 before and 529 after the first intervention. Of urogenital C trachomatis tests in the preintervention time period, 1.4% were performed by using vaginal swabs. We surpassed our aim of 25% 6 weeks after the first intervention. We noted sustained improvement after the second intervention, with an average of 68.3% of tests performed by using vaginal swabs for the remaining postintervention period. There was no difference in the overall number of urogenital C trachomatis tests pre- and postintervention. CONCLUSIONS: Using quality improvement methodology and implementing easily replicable interventions, we significantly and sustainably increased use of vaginal swabs. The interventions standardizing processes were associated with a higher impact than the educational intervention.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pediatras/educación , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/tendencias , Vagina/microbiología , Frotis Vaginal/tendencias , Adolescente , Niño , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiología , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/estadística & datos numéricos , Folletos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Utilización de Procedimientos y Técnicas/tendencias , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Conducta Sexual , Adulto Joven
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611792

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led many clinics to move from clinician-collected to self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for the detection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Before this change, however, self-collection was used primarily for genital and anorectal infections, with only limited studies on the performance of self-collection of oropharyngeal swabs for oropharyngeal STI detection. The Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) changed from clinician-collected to self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for oropharyngeal gonorrhea and chlamydia screening on 16 March 2020 in order to reduce health care worker risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared the proportions of valid and positive samples for gonorrhea and chlamydia among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two time periods; the clinician collection period, between 20 January and 15 March 2020, and the self-collection period, between 16 March and 8 May 2020. A total of 4,097 oropharyngeal swabs were included. The proportion of oropharyngeal swabs with equivocal or invalid results for Neisseria gonorrhoeae was higher in the self-collection period (1.6% [24/1,497]) than in the clinician collection period (0.9% [23/2,600]) (P = 0.038), but the proportions did not differ for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis The positivity rates of oropharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR], 1.07 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.85 to 1.34]) (P = 0.583) and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis (adjusted PR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.51 to 1.39]) (P = 0.504) specimens did not differ between the two periods. Self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have acceptable performance characteristics and, importantly, reduce health care worker exposure to respiratory infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Faríngeas/diagnóstico , Manejo de Especímenes , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Orofaringe/microbiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autocuidado , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(6): 707-713, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589825

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) may be present in the female cervical canal without any symptoms of infection. Chronic chlamydial infections lead to many serious complications and perinatal infections, while the presence of GBS is a reservoir for infections of newborns or invasive streptococcal infection in adults. OBJECTIVES: To examine healthy women for C. trachomatis without symptoms from the reproductive system, assess the frequency of asymptomatic infections, detect GBS in the cervical canal, demonstrate differences in drug susceptibility, and determine the serotype of S. agalactiae strains and correlations among the ones present in the cervical canal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 315 cervical swabs were collected for genetic and microbiological analysis for the presence of C. trachomatis and S. agalactiae. Latex and diffusion-disk methods were used to determine the serotype and susceptibility of streptococci. RESULTS: Ten out of 315 women (3.2%) were C. trachomatis-positive. Using traditional methods of microscopy, culture and serology, 42 strains (13.3% of the subjects) obtained from patients were identified as S. agalactiae and further analyzed. The most common serotypes identified were II (18/42, 42.9%), V (11/42, 26.2%) and III (10/42, 23.8%). The less common serotypes found were VII (2/10, 4.8%), and Ib (1/10, 2.4%); no Ia, IV or VII serotypes were found. All the strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 71.4% of them were susceptible to erythromycin and 81.0% were susceptible to clindamycin. Seven isolates (16.7%) were concomitantly resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia trachomatis was confirmed in 3.2% of the respondents, and GBS was found in 13.3%, despite a lack of symptoms of infection. The incidence of C. trachomatis infections and GBS colonization in Poland is similar to those in other European countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Polonia/epidemiología , Embarazo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(12): JC69, 2020 06 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539504

RESUMEN

SOURCE CITATION: Grillo-Ardila CF, Torres M, Gaitan HG. Rapid point of care test for detecting urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in nonpregnant women and men at reproductive age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;1:CD011708. 31995238.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia , Chlamydia trachomatis , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas de Atención de Punto
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(8): 976-982, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) receive gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing, but many evidence-based preventive services are unaffordable. The pay-it-forward strategy offers an individual a gift (eg, a test for sexually transmitted diseases) and then asks whether they would like to give a gift (eg, a future test) to another person. This study examined the effectiveness of a pay-it-forward programme to increase gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing among MSM in China. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled superiority trial at three HIV testing sites run by MSM community-based organisations in Guangzhou and Beijing, China. We included MSM aged 16 years or older who were seeking HIV testing and met indications for gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing. Restricted randomisation was done using computer-generated permuted blocks. 30 groups were randomised into three arms (1:1:1): a pay-it-forward arm in which men were offered free gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and then asked whether they would like to donate for testing of prospective participants, a pay-what-you-want arm in which men were offered free testing and given the option to pay any desired amount for the test, and a standard-of-care arm in which testing was offered at ¥150 (US$22). There was no masking to arm assignment. The primary outcome was gonorrhoea and chlamydia test uptake ascertained by administrative records. We used generalised estimating equations to estimate intervention effects with one-sided 95% CIs and a prespecified superiority margin of 20%. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03741725. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2018, and Jan 19, 2019, 301 men were recruited and included in the analysis. 101 were randomly assigned to the pay-it-forward group, 100 to the pay-what-you-want group, and 100 to the standard-of-care group. Test uptake for gonorrhoea and chlamydia was 56% (57 of 101 participants) in the pay-it-forward arm, 46% (46 of 100 participants) in the pay-what-you-want arm, and 18% (18 of 100 participants) in the standard-of-care arm. The estimated difference in test uptake between the pay-it-forward and standard-of-care group was 38·4% (95% CI lower bound 28·4%). Among men in the pay-it-forward arm, 54 of 57 (95%) chose to donate to support testing for others. INTERPRETATION: The pay-it-forward strategy can increase gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing uptake among Chinese MSM and could be a useful tool for scaling up preventive services that carry a mandatory fee. FUNDING: US National Institute of Health; Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank, and WHO; the National Key Research and Development Program of China; Doris Duke Charitable Foundation; and Social Entrepreneurship to Spur Health.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Reembolso de Seguro de Salud , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/microbiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 419, 2020 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546213

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Four new variants of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCTs), detected in several countries, cause false-negative or equivocal results using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2; Hologic). We evaluated the clinical sensitivity and specificity, as well as the analytical inclusivity and exclusivity of the updated AC2 for the detection of CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) on the automated Panther system (Hologic). METHODS: We examined 1004 clinical AC2 samples and 225 analytical samples spiked with phenotypically and/or genetically diverse NG and CT strains, and other potentially cross-reacting microbial species. The clinical AC2 samples included CT wild type (WT)-positive (n = 488), all four described AC2 diagnostic-escape nvCTs (n = 170), NG-positive (n = 214), and CT/NG-negative (n = 202) specimens. RESULTS: All nvCT-positive samples (100%) and 486 (99.6%) of the CT WT-positive samples were positive in the updated AC2. All NG-positive, CT/NG-negative, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV)-positive, bacterial vaginosis-positive, and Candida-positive AC2 specimens gave correct results. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the updated AC2 for CT detection was 99.7 and 100%, respectively, and for NG detection was 100% for both. Examining spiked samples, the analytical inclusivity and exclusivity were 100%, i.e., in clinically relevant concentrations of spiked microbe. CONCLUSIONS: The updated AC2, including two CT targets and one NG target, showed a high sensitivity, specificity, inclusivity and exclusivity for the detection of CT WT, nvCTs, and NG. The updated AC2 on the fully automated Panther system offers a simple, rapid, high-throughput, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of CT and NG, which can easily be combined with detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and TV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/métodos , Candida/genética , Candidiasis/diagnóstico , Candidiasis/microbiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Reacciones Cruzadas , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/microbiología , Humanos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , ARN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Ribosómico 23S/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tricomoniasis/diagnóstico , Tricomoniasis/parasitología , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética
16.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(7): 627-636, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403988

RESUMEN

Partner notification and treatment are essential components of sexually transmitted infection (STI) management, but little is known about such practices among adolescents and young adults. Using data from a prospective cohort study (AYAZAZI) of youth aged 16-24 years in Durban, South Africa, we assessed the STI care cascade across participant diagnosis, STI treatment, partner notification, and partner treatment; index recurrent STI and associated factors; and reasons for not notifying partner of STI. Participants completed laboratory-based STI screening (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis) at enrollment and at 12 months. Of the 37/216 participants with STI (17%), 27/37 (73%) were women and 10/37 (27%) were men. Median age was 19 years (IQR: 18-20). Of the participants with STI, 23/37 (62%) completed a Treatment and Partner Tracing Survey within 6 months of diagnosis. All survey participants reported completing STI treatment (100%), 17/23 (74%) notified a partner, and 6/23 (35%) reported partner treatment. Overall, 4/23 (11%) participants had 12-month recurrent C. trachomatis infection, with no association with partner notification or treatment. Stigma and lack of STI knowledge were reasons for not notifying partner of STI. STI partner notification and treatment is a challenge among youth. Novel strategies are needed to overcome barriers along the STI care cascade.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Parejas Sexuales , Adolescente , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Estudios Prospectivos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Estigma Social , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
17.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(6): 417-421, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404400

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: As Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most commonly reported STIs in Belgium and the majority of women infected are asymptomatic, targeted screening of patients in specified risk groups is indicated. To prevent long-term complications and interrupt transmission, extragenital samples should be included. As this comes with a substantial extra cost, analysis of a pooled sample from vaginal and extragenital sites could be a solution. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of molecular testing for CT and NG in pooled versus single-site samples in a large cohort of female sex workers. METHODS: Women were sampled from three anatomical sites: a pharyngeal, a vaginal and a rectal swab. Each sample was vortexed, and 400 µL of transport medium from each sample site was pooled into an empty tube. NAAT was performed using the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay on the m2000sp/rt system. RESULTS: We included 489 patients: 5.1% were positive for CT; 2.0% were positive for NG and 1.4% were coinfected, resulting in an overall prevalence of 6.5% (95% CI 4.5% to 9.1%) for CT and 3.5% (95% CI 2.0% to 5.5%) for NG. From the 42 patients positive on at least one non-pooled sample, only 5 gave a negative result on the pooled sample, resulting in a sensitivity of 94% (95% CI 79% to 99%) for CT and 82% (95% CI 57% to 96%) for NG. The missed pooled samples were all derived from single-site infections with low bacterial loads. The possibility of inadequate self-sampling as a cause of false negativity was excluded, as 4/5 were collected by the physician. Testing only vaginal samples would have led to missing 40% of CT infections and 60% of NG infections. CONCLUSIONS: Pooling of samples is a cost-saving strategy for the detection of CT and NG in women, with minimal decrease in sensitivity. By reducing costs, more patients and more extragenital samples can be tested, resulting in higher detection rates.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Faringe/microbiología , Recto/microbiología , Trabajadores Sexuales , Vagina/microbiología , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Bélgica/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis , Femenino , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Humanos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e204819, 2020 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407506

RESUMEN

Importance: Rates of chlamydial and gonococcal infection continue to increase in the United States, as do the associated costs of untreated infections. Improved diagnostic technologies that support testing and treating in 1 clinical visit are critical to advancing efforts to control the rates of chlamydial and gonococcal infection. Objective: To evaluate the clinical performance of a point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of chlamydia and gonorrhea. Design, Setting, and Participants: A noninterventional, cross-sectional clinical study was conducted from September 18, 2018, through March 13, 2019, at sexually transmitted infection (STI), HIV, family planning, and obstetrics and gynecology clinics where STI screening is routine, using a convenience sample and comparing commercially available assays with a new 30-minute POC assay. Patients included were those eligible for STI screening or diagnostic testing who had not taken antibiotics effective against chlamydia or gonorrhea within the previous 28 days. Four vaginal swab samples were collected from women and a first-catch urine sample was obtained from men. Main Outcomes and Measures: A composite infection status was used to classify participants as infected if 2 or more comparator results were positive, as not infected if 2 or more comparator samples were negative, and as unevaluable if 1 result was invalid and the other 2 results did not agree with each other. Results: Swab samples from 1523 women (median age, 27 years [interquartile range, 17-37 years]), 817 (53.6%) of whom presented with symptoms, and 922 men (median age, 29 years [interquartile range, 17-41 years]), 308 (33.4%) of whom were symptomatic, were tested. For chlamydia, sensitivity of the new POC assay was 96.1% (95% CI, 91.2%-98.3%) for women and 92.5% (95% CI, 86.4%-96.0%) for men. For gonorrhea, sensitivity estimates were 100.0% (95% CI, 92.1%-100.0%) for women and 97.3% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.3%) for men. For chlamydia, specificity of the new POC assay was 99.1% (95% CI, 98.4%-99.5%) for women and 99.3% (95% CI, 98.4%-99.7%) for men. For gonorrhea, specificity estimates were 99.9% (95% CI, 99.5%-100%) for women and 100% (95% CI, 95.5%-100%) for men. Non-laboratory-trained personnel performed 94.8% of all tests (2318 of 2445) during the study. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that self-obtained vaginal swab samples were associated with performance equivalent to laboratory-based molecular diagnostics, which can support use of this POC assay in many settings. The availability of an easy-to-use, rapid (30-minute) molecular test for accurate detection of chlamydia and gonorrhea has the power to facilitate testing and treatment in a single patient visit for these STIs.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
19.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(6): 402-407, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447324

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Test of cure (TOC) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is an important tool in the public health management of STIs. However, there are limited data about the optimal time to perform TOC using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for NG and CT infections. A study was performed to assess the feasibility of a larger study to determine the optimal time to TOC using NAATS. METHODS: The Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit at Public Health England undertook testing of gonococcal and chlamydial nucleic acids within neat urine stored in different conditions over 25 days to provide evidence of the stability of the nucleic acid prior to recruitment. Individuals diagnosed with uncomplicated NG or CT infection were recruited from three sexual health clinics. Individuals were asked to return nine self-taken samples from the site of infection over a course of 35 days. Survival analyses of time to first negative NAAT result for NG and CT infection and univariate regression analysis of factors that affect time to clearance were undertaken. RESULTS: At room temperature, chlamydial DNA in urine is stable for up to 3 weeks and gonococcal DNA for up to 11 days. We analysed data for 147 infections (81 NG and 66 CT). The median time to clearance of infection was 4 days (IQR 2-10 days) for NG infection and 10 days (IQR 7-14 days) for CT infection. Vaginal CT infections took longer to clear (p=0.031). NG infection in men who have sex with men took longer to clear (p=0.052). CONCLUSION: Chlamydial and gonococcal nucleic acids are stable in urine before addition of preservatives, longer than recommended by the manufacturer. The TOC results suggest that it may be possible to undertake TOC for NG and CT infections earlier than current guidelines suggest and that anatomical site of infection may affect time to clearance of infection.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapéutico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Doxiciclina/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico , Faringitis/diagnóstico , Faringitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Proctitis/diagnóstico , Proctitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Uretritis/diagnóstico , Uretritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Vulvovaginitis/diagnóstico , Vulvovaginitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 314, 2020 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted infection, with increasing rates of resistance to fluroquinolones and macrolides, the recommended treatments. Despite this, M. genitalium is not part of routine screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in many countries and the prevalence of infection and patterns of disease remain to be determined in many populations. Such data is of particular importance in light of the reported rise in antibiotic resistance in M. genitalium isolates. METHODS: Urine and urethral swab samples were collected from the primary public sexual health clinic in Singapore and tested for C. trachomatis (CT) or N. gonorrhoeae (NG) infection and for the presence of M. genitalium. Antibiotic resistance in M. genitalium strains detected was determined by screening for genomic mutations associated with macrolide and fluroquinolone resistance. RESULTS: We report the results of a study into M. genitalium prevalence at the national sexual health clinic in Singapore. M. genitalium was heavily associated with CT infection (8.1% of cases), but present in only of 2.4% in CT negative cases and not independently linked to NG infection. Furthermore, we found high rates of resistance mutations to both macrolides (25%) and fluoroquinolones (37.5%) with a majority of resistant strains being dual-resistant. Resistance mutations were only found in strains from patients with CT co-infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support targeted screening of CT positive patients for M. genitalium as a cost-effective strategy to reduce the incidence of M. genitalium in the absence of comprehensive routine screening. The high rate of dual resistance also highlights the need to ensure the availability of alternative antibiotics for the treatment of multi-drug resistant M. genitalium isolates.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efectos de los fármacos , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/complicaciones , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Bacteriano/metabolismo , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Macrólidos/farmacología , Macrólidos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/complicaciones , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 23S/química , ARN Ribosómico 23S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 23S/metabolismo , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Singapur/epidemiología , Uretra/microbiología
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