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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1342204, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948513

RESUMEN

Purpose: Chest computed tomography (CT) is used to determine the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, and pneumonia is associated with hyponatremia. This study aims to explore the predictive value of the semi-quantitative CT visual score for hyponatremia in patients with COVID-19 to provide a reference for clinical practice. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 343 patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19, all patients underwent CT, and the severity of lung lesions was scored by radiologists using the semi-quantitative CT visual score. The risk factors of hyponatremia in COVID-19 patients were analyzed and combined with laboratory tests. The thyroid function changes caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and their interaction with hyponatremia were also analyzed. Results: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the total severity score (TSS) of hyponatremia was higher [M(range), 3.5(2.5-5.5) vs 3.0(2.0-4.5) scores, P=0.001], implying that patients with hyponatremia had more severe lung lesions. The risk factors of hyponatremia in the multivariate regression model included age, vomiting, neutrophils, platelet, and total severity score. SARS-CoV-2 infection impacted thyroid function, and patients with hyponatremia showed a lower free triiodothyronine (3.1 ± 0.9 vs 3.7 ± 0.9, P=0.001) and thyroid stimulating hormone level [1.4(0.8-2.4) vs 2.2(1.2-3.4), P=0.038]. Conclusion: Semi-quantitative CT score can be used as a risk factor for hyponatremia in patients with COVID-19. There is a weak positive correlation between serum sodium and free triiodothyronine in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hiponatremia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagen , Hiponatremia/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Anciano , Adulto , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Anciano de 80 o más Años
2.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 12(7): e1342, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023424

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs) may provide insight on transmission patterns and demographic factors that favor coronaviruses (CoVs) with greater disease severity. This study describes the incidence of CoVs in several high-risk groups in Ottawa, Canada, from October 2020 to March 2022. METHODS: Serological assays quantified IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. Incident infections were compared between four population groups: individuals exposed to children, transit users, immunocompromised, and controls. Associations between antibody prevalence indicative of natural infection and demographic variables were assessed using regression analyses. RESULTS: Transit users and those exposed to children were at no greater risk of infection compared to the control group. Fewer infections were detected in the immunocompromised group (p = .03). SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was greater in individuals with low income and within ethnic minorities. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nonpharmaceutical interventions intended to reduce SAR-CoV-2 transmission protected populations at high risk of exposure. The re-emergence of sCoVs and other common respiratory viruses alongside SARS-CoV-2 may alter infection patterns and increase the risk in vulnerable populations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Estaciones del Año , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/inmunología , Incidencia , Masculino , Femenino , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Niño , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Preescolar , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven , Anciano , Factores de Riesgo , Canadá/epidemiología , Lactante , Pandemias , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre
3.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 91: 102608, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Predictive modelling using pre-epidemic data have long been used to guide public health responses to communicable disease outbreaks and other health disruptions. In this study, cancer registry and related health data available 2-3 months from diagnosis were used to predict changes in cancer detection that otherwise would not have been identified until full registry processing was completed about 18-24 months later. A key question was whether these earlier data could be used to predict cancer incidence ahead of full processing by the cancer registry as a guide to more timely health responses. The setting was the Australian State of New South Wales, covering 31 % of the Australian population. The study year was 2020, the year of emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cancer detection in 2020 was modelled using data available 2-3 months after diagnosis. This was compared with data from full registry processing available from 2022. Data from pre-pandemic 2018 were used for exploratory model building. Models were tested using pre-pandemic 2019 data. Candidate predictor variables included pathology, surgery and radiation therapy reports, numbers of breast screens, colonoscopies, PSA tests, and melanoma excisions recorded by the universal Medical Benefits Schedule (MBS). Data were analysed for all cancers collectively and 5 leading types. RESULTS: Compared with full registry processing, modelled data for 2020 had a >95 % accuracy overall, indicating key points of inflexion of cancer detection over the COVID-disrupted 2020 period. These findings highlight the potential of predictive modelling of cancer-related data soon after diagnosis to reveal changes in cancer detection during epidemics and other health disruptions. CONCLUSIONS: Data available 2-3 months from diagnosis in the pandemic year indicated changes in cancer detection that were ultimately confirmed by fully-processed cancer registry data about 24 months later. This indicates the potential utility of using these early data in an early-warning system.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias , Pandemias , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Incidencia , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Femenino , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Australia/epidemiología , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Epidemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6 (Supple-6)): S13-S17, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39018133

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with mortality among coronavirus disease-2019 patients with preexisting hypertension. METHODS: The retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted from June 15 to July 7, 2021, after approval from Dr Soetomo General Province Hospital, Indonesia, and comprised data from the coronavirus disease-2019 registry in the East Java province of Indonesia from March 2020 to June 2021. Data was collected for adult patients infected by coronavirus disease-2019 with pre-existing hypertension Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 2,732 patients in the registry, 425(15.6%) with median age 56.5 years (interquartile range: 50-64 years) had pre-existing hypertension. Of them, 251(59.06%) were males, and 110(25.9%) had died while in hospital. Mortality was associated with older age; higher white blood cell counts at admission and lower platelet count (p<0.05). In addition, electrocardiogram parameters associated with mortality were faster heart rate and ST abnormality (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Older age, high white blood cell level, lower platelet count, faster heart rate, and ST abnormality at admission were found to be the predictors of mortality among hospitalised coronavirus disease-2019 patients with pre-existing hypertension.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Electrocardiografía , Hipertensión , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Indonesia/epidemiología , Femenino , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Anciano , Factores de Edad , Adulto , Recuento de Leucocitos , Factores de Riesgo , Recuento de Plaquetas , Mortalidad Hospitalaria
5.
Arch Virol ; 169(8): 158, 2024 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970647

RESUMEN

The highly pathogenic genotype 2b (HP-G2b) of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which caused a pandemic in 2013-2014, evolved in South Korea and became endemic, affecting the domestic pig industry. This study describes the genotypic traits of novel HP-G2b PEDV strains identified on affected farms experiencing low disease severity with < 10% neonatal mortality. Nucleotide sequencing revealed common deletion patterns, termed S-DEL2, resulting in a two-amino-acid deletion at positions 60 and 61, 61 and 62, or 63 and 64 in the N-terminal domain of the spike (S) protein of all isolates. The S barcode profiles of S-DEL2 variants differed from each other and shared 96.0-99.4% and 98.5-99.6% nt sequence identity with other South Korean HP-G2b PEDV strains in the S gene and in the complete genome sequence, respectively. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis showed that the S-DEL2 strains belonged to diverse domestic clades: CK, CK.1, CK.2, or NC. The emergence of novel S-DEL2 strains suggests that continuous evolution of PEDV occurs under endemic circumstances, resulting in genetic diversity and distinct clinical presentations. This study advances our knowledge regarding the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of PEDV and emphasizes the importance of active monitoring and surveillance to identify novel variants and determine their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Genotipo , Filogenia , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/clasificación , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Eliminación de Secuencia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306532, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968319

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the use of endemic enteric coronaviruses polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative testing results as an alternative approach to detect the emergence of animal health threats with similar clinical diseases presentation. This retrospective study, conducted in the United States, used PCR-negative testing results from porcine samples tested at six veterinary diagnostic laboratories. As a proof of concept, the database was first searched for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) negative submissions between January 1st, 2010, through April 29th, 2013, when the first porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) case was diagnosed. Secondly, TGEV- and PEDV-negative submissions were used to detect the porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV) emergence in 2014. Lastly, encountered best detection algorithms were implemented to prospectively monitor the 2023 enteric coronavirus-negative submissions. Time series (weekly TGEV-negative counts) and Seasonal Autoregressive-Integrated Moving-Average (SARIMA) were used to control for outliers, trends, and seasonality. The SARIMA's fitted and residuals were then subjected to anomaly detection algorithms (EARS, EWMA, CUSUM, Farrington) to identify alarms, defined as weeks of higher TGEV-negativity than what was predicted by models preceding the PEDV emergence. The best-performing detection algorithms had the lowest false alarms (number of alarms detected during the baseline) and highest time to detect (number of weeks between the first alarm and PEDV emergence). The best-performing detection algorithms were CUSUM, EWMA, and Farrington flexible using SARIMA fitted values, having a lower false alarm rate and identified alarms 4 to 17 weeks before PEDV and PDCoV emergences. No alarms were identified in the 2023 enteric negative testing results. The negative-based monitoring system functioned in the case of PEDV propagating epidemic and in the presence of a concurrent propagating epidemic with the PDCoV emergence. It demonstrated its applicability as an additional tool for diagnostic data monitoring of emergent pathogens having similar clinical disease as the monitored endemic pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Virus de la Gastroenteritis Transmisible , Animales , Porcinos , Virus de la Gastroenteritis Transmisible/genética , Virus de la Gastroenteritis Transmisible/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Gastroenteritis Porcina Transmisible/diagnóstico , Gastroenteritis Porcina Transmisible/virología , Gastroenteritis Porcina Transmisible/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Deltacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(27): e38819, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968457

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has manifested with respiratory symptoms and a spectrum of extra-pulmonary complications. Emerging evidence suggests potential impacts on the auditory and vestibular systems, but the extent and nature of these effects in recovered individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of vertigo and hearing impairment in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 and to identify potential risk factors associated with these sensory symptoms. A cohort of 250 recovered COVID-19 patients was assessed. Standardized questionnaires, including the Dizziness Handicap Inventory and the Vertigo Symptom Scale, were used to evaluate vertigo. Hearing assessment was conducted using pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, tympanometry, and oto-acoustic emissions testing. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between COVID-19 severity and the occurrence of sensory symptoms, controlling for confounding variables such as age and comorbidities. Of the participants, 10% reported vertigo, varying severity. Hearing assessments revealed that most participants had normal hearing, with an average speech discrimination score of 94.6. Logistic regression analysis indicated a significant association between severe COVID-19 and an increased likelihood of vertigo (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.02-4.35, P = .043) and hearing impairment (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.60-6.78, P = .002). This study suggests a significant association between COVID-19 severity and vertigo and hearing impairment prevalence. The findings underscore the importance of sensory symptom assessment in the post-recovery phase of COVID-19, highlighting the need for comprehensive healthcare approaches to manage long-term sequelae.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pérdida Auditiva , SARS-CoV-2 , Vértigo , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , Vértigo/epidemiología , Vértigo/etiología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pérdida Auditiva/epidemiología , Pérdida Auditiva/etiología , Adulto , Pandemias , Anciano , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Betacoronavirus
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(7): e1012039, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38950065

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) not only caused the COVID-19 pandemic but also had a major impact on farmed mink production in several European countries. In Denmark, the entire population of farmed mink (over 15 million animals) was culled in late 2020. During the period of June to November 2020, mink on 290 farms (out of about 1100 in the country) were shown to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. Genome sequencing identified changes in the virus within the mink and it is estimated that about 4000 people in Denmark became infected with these mink virus variants. However, the routes of transmission of the virus to, and from, the mink have been unclear. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the generation of multiple clusters of the virus within the mink. Detailed analysis of changes in the virus during replication in mink and, in parallel, in the human population in Denmark, during the same time period, has been performed here. The majority of cases in mink involved variants with the Y453F substitution and the H69/V70 deletion within the Spike (S) protein; these changes emerged early in the outbreak. However, further introductions of the virus, by variants lacking these changes, from the human population into mink also occurred. Based on phylogenetic analysis of viral genome data, we estimate, using a conservative approach, that about 17 separate examples of mink to human transmission occurred in Denmark but up to 59 such events (90% credible interval: (39-77)) were identified using parsimony to count cross-species jumps on transmission trees inferred using Bayesian methods. Using the latter approach, 136 jumps (90% credible interval: (117-164)) from humans to mink were found, which may underlie the farm-to-farm spread. Thus, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mink, mink to mink, from mink to humans and between humans were all observed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Visón , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2 , Visón/virología , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/virología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/veterinaria , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animales , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Granjas , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/clasificación , Genoma Viral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética
9.
Virol J ; 21(1): 155, 2024 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982509

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Canine enteric coronavirus (CECoV) is a prevalent infectious disease among dogs worldwide, yet its epidemiology in mainland China remains poorly understood. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the prevalence of CECoV in mainland China and identify factors influencing its prevalence. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted across multiple databases for studies regarding CECoV epidemiology of China. PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang, and CQVIP were searched to obtain the studies. Eligible studies were selected based on predefined criteria, and data were extracted and synthesized. The quality the studies was assessed using the JBI assessment tool. Heterogeneity was checked using I2 test statistics followed by subgroup and sensitivity analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore variations in CECoV prevalence by factors such as year, region, season, health status, social housing type, gender, age, and breed. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and eggers test that was followed by trim and fill analysis. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies involving 21,034 samples were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of CECoV in mainland China was estimated to be 0.30 (95% CI 0.24-0.37), indicating persistent circulation of the virus. Subgroup analyses revealed higher prevalence rates in younger dogs, multi-dog households, apparently healthy dogs, and certain regions such as southwest China. Seasonal variations were observed, with lower prevalence rates in summer. However, no significant differences in prevalence were found by gender. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides valuable insights into the epidemiology of CECoV in mainland China, highlighting the persistent circulation of the virus and identifying factors associated with higher prevalence rates. Continuous monitoring and surveillance efforts, along with research into accurate detection methods and preventive measures, are essential for the effective control of CECoV and mitigation of its potential impact on animal and human health.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus Canino , Enfermedades de los Perros , Animales , Perros , China/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus Canino/genética , Coronavirus Canino/aislamiento & purificación
10.
Vopr Virusol ; 69(3): 255-265, 2024 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38996374

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Bats are natural reservoirs of coronaviruses (Coronaviridae), which have caused three outbreaks of human disease SARS, MERS and COVID-19 or SARS-2 over the past decade. The purpose of the work is to study the diversity of coronaviruses among bats inhabiting the foothills and mountainous areas of the Republics of Dagestan, Altai and the Kemerovo region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of bat oral swabs and feces were tested for the presence of coronavirus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: It has been shown that the greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), inhabiting the Republic of Dagestan, are carriers of two different coronaviruses. One of the two coronaviruses is a member of the Sarbecovius subgenus of the Betacoronavirus genus, which includes the causative agents of SARS and COVID-19. The second coronavirus is assigned to the Decacovirus subgenus of the Alphacoronavirus genus and is most similar to viruses identified among Rhinolophus spp. from European and Middle Eastern countries. In the Altai Republic and Kemerovo region, coronaviruses belonging to the genus Alphacoronavirus, subgenus Pedacovirus, were found in the smooth-nosed bats: Ikonnikov`s bat (Myotis ikonnikovi) and the eastern bat (Myotis petax). The virus from the Altai Republic from M. ikonnikovi is close to viruses from Japan and Korea, as well as viruses from Myotis spp. from European countries. The virus from the Kemerovo region from M. petax groups with coronaviruses from Myotis spp. from Asian countries and is significantly different from coronaviruses previously discovered in the same natural host.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Animales , Quirópteros/virología , Siberia/epidemiología , Filogenia , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus/clasificación , Humanos , Heces/virología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , COVID-19/virología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología
11.
Virol J ; 21(1): 157, 2024 Jul 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992629

RESUMEN

Newborn piglets' health is seriously threatened by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which also has a significant effect on the pig industry. The gut microbiota produces butyrate, an abundant metabolite that modulates intestinal function through many methods to improve immunological and intestinal barrier function. The objective of this investigation was to ascertain how elevated butyrate concentrations impacted the host transcriptional profile of PEDV CV777 strain infection. Our findings showed that higher concentrations of butyrate have a stronger inhibitory effect on PEDV CV777 strain infection. According to RNA-seq data, higher concentrations of butyrate induced more significant transcriptional changes in IPEC-J2 cells, and signaling pathways such as PI3K-AKT may play a role in the inhibition of PEDV CV777 strain by high concentrations of butyrate. Ultimately, we offer a theoretical and experimental framework for future research and development of novel approaches to harness butyrate's antiviral infection properties.


Asunto(s)
Butiratos , Células Epiteliales , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Animales , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/efectos de los fármacos , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/fisiología , Porcinos , Butiratos/farmacología , Butiratos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/virología , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Antivirales/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/virología , Mucosa Intestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Replicación Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Intestinos/virología
12.
Microb Biotechnol ; 17(7): e14518, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953907

RESUMEN

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) infects pigs of all ages by invading small intestine, causing acute diarrhoea, vomiting, and dehydration with high morbidity and mortality among newborn piglets. However, current PEDV vaccines are not effective to protect the pigs from field epidemic strains because of poor mucosal immune response and strain variation. Therefore, it is indispensable to develop a novel oral vaccine based on epidemic strains. Bacillus subtilis spores are attractive delivery vehicles for oral vaccination on account of the safety, high stability, and low cost. In this study, a chimeric gene CotC-Linker-COE (CLE), comprising of the B. subtilis spore coat gene cotC fused to the core neutralizing epitope CO-26 K equivalent (COE) of the epidemic strain PEDV-AJ1102 spike protein gene, was constructed. Then recombinant B. subtilis displaying the CLE on the spore surface was developed by homologous recombination. Mice were immunized by oral route with B. subtilis 168-CLE, B. subtilis 168, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as control. Results showed that the IgG antibodies and cytokine (IL-4, IFN-γ) levels in the B. subtilis 168-CLE group were significantly higher than the control groups. This study demonstrates that B. subtilis 168-CLE can generate specific systemic immune and mucosal immune responses and is a potential vaccine candidate against PEDV infection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Bacillus subtilis , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Esporas Bacterianas , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/inmunología , Animales , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/inmunología , Esporas Bacterianas/genética , Esporas Bacterianas/inmunología , Ratones , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Porcinos , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/genética , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Antígenos Virales/genética , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Administración Oral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Femenino , Técnicas de Visualización de Superficie Celular , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 295: 110163, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959807

RESUMEN

Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection and vaccination against live attenuated infectious bronchitis virus (aIBV) are frequent in poultry worldwide. Here, we evaluated the clinical effect of H9N2 subtype AIV and QX genotype aIBV co-infection in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens and explored the potential mechanisms underlying the observed effects using by 4D-FastDIA-based proteomics. The results showed that co-infection of H9N2 AIV and QX aIBV increased mortality and suppressed the growth of SPF chickens. In particular, severe lesions in the kidneys and slight respiratory signs similar to the symptoms of virulent QX IBV infection were observed in some co-infected chickens, with no such clinical signs observed in single-infected chickens. The replication of H9N2 AIV was significantly enhanced in both the trachea and kidneys, whereas there was only a slight effect on the replication of the QX aIBV. Proteomics analysis showed that the IL-17 signaling pathway was one of the unique pathways enriched in co-infected chickens compared to single infected-chickens. A series of metabolism and immune response-related pathways linked with co-infection were also significantly enriched. Moreover, co-infection of the two pathogens resulted in the enrichment of the negative regulation of telomerase activity. Collectively, our study supports the synergistic effect of the two pathogens, and pointed out that aIBV vaccines might increased IBV-associated lesions due to pathogenic co-infections. Exacerbation of the pathogenicity and mortality in H9N2 AIV and QX aIBV co-infected chickens possibly occurred because of an increase in H9N2 AIV replication, the regulation of telomerase activity, and the disturbance of cell metabolism and the immune system.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Coinfección , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa , Subtipo H9N2 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Pollos/virología , Subtipo H9N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Subtipo H9N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/patogenicidad , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/genética , Coinfección/virología , Coinfección/veterinaria , Gripe Aviar/virología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos , Replicación Viral , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología , Genotipo , Virulencia , Proteómica , Riñón/virología , Riñón/patología
14.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0302413, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976703

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, pneumonia was the leading cause of respiratory failure and death. In addition to SARS-COV-2, it can be caused by several other bacterial and viral agents. Even today, variants of SARS-COV-2 are endemic and COVID-19 cases are common in many places. The symptoms of COVID-19 are highly diverse and robust, ranging from invisible to severe respiratory failure. Current detection methods for the disease are time-consuming and expensive with low accuracy and precision. To address such situations, we have designed a framework for COVID-19 and Pneumonia detection using multiple deep learning algorithms further accompanied by a deployment scheme. In this study, we have utilized four prominent deep learning models, which are VGG-19, ResNet-50, Inception V3 and Xception, on two separate datasets of CT scan and X-ray images (COVID/Non-COVID) to identify the best models for the detection of COVID-19. We achieved accuracies ranging from 86% to 99% depending on the model and dataset. To further validate our findings, we have applied the four distinct models on two more supplementary datasets of X-ray images of bacterial pneumonia and viral pneumonia. Additionally, we have implemented a flask app to visualize the outcome of our framework to show the identified COVID and Non-COVID images. The findings of this study will be helpful to develop an AI-driven automated tool for the cost effective and faster detection and better management of COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Aprendizaje Profundo , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Pandemias , Algoritmos , Neumonía/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Internet , Betacoronavirus
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(6): 211, 2024 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39001969

RESUMEN

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is one of the important causes of diarrhoea in cattle. The virus is responsible for the high fatality rate associated with acute diarrhoea in calves. Rapid and accurate tests need to be conducted to detect the virus and minimise economic losses associated with the disease. Nucleic acid-based detection assays including PCR is an accurate test for detecting pathogens. However, these tests need skilled personnel, time and expensive devices. In this study, we developed a novel assay for the detection of BCoV in clinical cases. This novel assay combined reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification with CRISPR/Cas13 and conducted a rapid visualisation of cleavage activity using a Lateral Flow Device. A conserved sequence of the BCV M gene was used as a target gene and the assays were tested in terms of specificity, sensitivity and time consumption. The result showed the specificity of the assay as 100% with no false positives being detected. Ten copies of the input RNA were enough to detect the virus and perform the assay. It took up to forty minutes for reading the results. Conducted together, the assay should be used as a rapid test to clinically diagnose infectious pathogens including bovine coronavirus. However, the assay needed the RNA to be extracted from the clinical sample in order to detect the virus. Therefore, more studies are needed to optimise the assay to be able to detect the virus in the clinical sample without extracting the RNA.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Coronavirus Bovino , Diarrea , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Animales , Bovinos , Coronavirus Bovino/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Diarrea/veterinaria , Diarrea/virología , Diarrea/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico
16.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 25(7): 628-632, 2024 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39011682

RESUMEN

Airborne transmission is among the most frequent types of nosocomial infection. Recent years have witnessed frequent outbreaks of airborne diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the latter being on the rampage since the end of 2019 and bringing the effect of aerosols on health back to the fore (Gralton et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2021). An increasing number of studies have shown that certain highly transmissible pathogens can maintain long-term stability and efficiently spread through aerosols (Leung, 2021; Lv et al., 2021). As reported previously, influenza viruses that can spread efficiently through aerosols remain stable for a longer period compared to those that cannot. The World Health Organization (WHO) has stated that aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) play an important role in aerosol transmission in hospitals (Calderwood et al., 2021). AGPs, referring to medical procedures that produce aerosols, including dental procedures, endotracheal intubation, sputum aspiration, and laparoscopic surgeries, have been reported to be significantly associated with an increased risk of nosocomial infection among medical personnel (Hamilton, 2021).


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles , COVID-19 , Infección Hospitalaria , Endoscopios , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Desinfección/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Microbiología del Aire
17.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 52(3): 337-346, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39007473

RESUMEN

At the beginning of 2020, the world was faced with the challenge of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic announced by the WHO on March 11, caused by the betacoronavirus type 2 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), which had profound health, sociological and even economic consequences. The quickly implemented and large-scale research resulted in the introduction of widely available vaccines that reduced the further development of the pandemic and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Currently, 11 antiviral drugs (Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab, Regdanvimab, Casirivimab/Imdevimab, Sotrovimab, Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir, Remdesivir, Molnupiravir, Baricitinib, Anakinra, Tocilizumab, Vilobelimab) have been approved or conditionally approved by the European Medicines Agency and/or by the Food and Drug Administration and are available on the pharmaceutical market. The progress in the pathophysiological description of the SARS-CoV-2 infection has allowed the identif i cation of potential targets for drugs against SARS-CoV-2: inhibitors of intracellular entry of the virus (the interaction between the viral spike (S) protein and the cellular angiotensin converting enzyme-2; ACE2 receptor), inhibitors of viral and cellular proteases, and immunomodulatory drugs (antagonists of pro-inf l ammatory cytokines or complement components). Novel agents against SARS-CoV-2 are also sought among the previously routinely used drugs as their repositioning and among plant-derived compounds. It is expected that ongoing research should result in the introduction of new drugs used in COVID-19 in the near future. The article brief l y describes the current epidemiological situation regarding COVID-19 and the currently used vaccines. Moreover, the paper outlines currently used and researched potential drugs in the pharmacotherapy of this disease.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales , Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología
18.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 442, 2024 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39003456

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic was primarily considered a respiratory malady in the early phases of the outbreak. However, as more patients suffer from this illness, a myriad of symptoms emerge in organ systems separate from the lungs. Among those patients with cardiac involvement, myocarditis, pericarditis, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmia were among the most common manifestations. Pericarditis with pericardial effusion requiring medical or interventional treatments has been previously reported in the acute setting. Notably, chronic pericarditis with pericardial thickening resulting in constriction requiring sternotomy and pericardiectomy has not been published to date. CASE PRESENTATION: A patient with COVID-19-associated constrictive pericarditis three years after viral infection requiring pericardiectomy was reported. The COVID-19 infection originally manifested as anosmia and ageusia. Subsequently, the patient developed dyspnea, fatigue, right-sided chest pressure, bilateral leg edema, and abdominal fullness. Following recurrent right pleural effusions and a negative autoimmune work-up, the patient was referred for cardiothoracic surgery for pericardiectomy when radiographic imaging and hemodynamic assessment were consistent with constrictive pericarditis. Upon median sternotomy, the patient's pericardium was measured to be 8 mm thick. Descriptions of the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features are provided. Within the first week after the operation, the patient's dyspnea resolved; one month later, leg edema and abdominal bloating were relieved. CONCLUSIONS: Although an association between COVID-19 and cardiac complications has been established, this case adds another element of virus severity and chronic manifestations. The need for sternotomy and pericardiectomy to treat COVID-19-related constrictive pericarditis is believed to be the first reported diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pericardiectomía , Pericarditis Constrictiva , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Pericarditis Constrictiva/cirugía , Pericarditis Constrictiva/diagnóstico , COVID-19/complicaciones , Pericardiectomía/métodos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Persona de Mediana Edad , Betacoronavirus , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
19.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298254, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843201

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials, Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (NMV/r) and Molnupiravir (MPV) reduced the risk of severe/fatal COVID-19 disease. Real-world data are limited, particularly studies directly comparing the two agents. METHODS: Using the VA National COVID-19 database, we identified previously uninfected, non-hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 with ≥1 risk factor for disease progression who were prescribed either NMV/r or MPV within 3 days of a positive test. We used inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) to account for providers' preferences for a specific treatment. Absolute risk difference (ARD) with 95% confidence intervals were determined for those treated with NMV/r vs. MPV. The primary outcome was hospitalization or death within 30 days of treatment prescription using the IPTW approach. Analyses were repeated using propensity-score matched groups. RESULTS: Between January 1 and November 30, 2022, 9,180 individuals were eligible for inclusion (6,592 prescribed NMV/r; 2,454 prescribed MPV). The ARD for hospitalization/death for NMV/r vs MPV was -0.25 (95% CI -0.79 to 0.28). There was no statistically significant difference in ARD among strata by age, race, comorbidities, or symptoms at baseline. Kaplan-Meier curves did not demonstrate a difference between the two groups (p-value = 0.6). Analysis of the propensity-score matched cohort yielded similar results (ARD for NMV/r vs. MPV -0.9, 95% CI -2.02 to 0.23). Additional analyses showed no difference for development of severe/critical/fatal disease by treatment group. CONCLUSION: We found no significant difference in short term risk of hospitalization or death among at-risk individuals with COVID-19 treated with either NMV/r or MPV.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales , Tratamiento Farmacológico de COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Citidina , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Hospitalización , Hidroxilaminas , Leucina , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hidroxilaminas/uso terapéutico , Citidina/análogos & derivados , Citidina/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/epidemiología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Leucina/análogos & derivados , Leucina/uso terapéutico , Anciano , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/uso terapéutico , Indoles/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Betacoronavirus , Lactamas , Nitrilos
20.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 74, 2024 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863015

RESUMEN

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a pneumoenteric virus that can infect the digestive and respiratory tracts of cattle, resulting in economic losses. Despite its significance, information regarding BCoV pathogenesis is limited. Hence, we investigated clinical signs, patterns of viral shedding, changes in antibody abundance, and cytokine/chemokine production in calves inoculated with BCoV via intranasal and oral. Six clinically healthy Korean native calves (< 30 days old), initially negative for BCoV, were divided into intranasal and oral groups and monitored for 15 days post-infection (dpi). BCoV-infected calves exhibited clinical signs such as nasal discharge and diarrhea, starting at 3 dpi and recovering by 12 dpi, with nasal discharge being the most common symptoms. Viral RNA was detected in nasal and fecal samples from all infected calves. Nasal shedding occurred before fecal shedding regardless of the inoculation route; however, fecal shedding persisted longer. Although the number of partitions was very few, viral RNA was identified in the blood of two calves in the oral group at 7 dpi and 9 dpi using digital RT-PCR analysis. The effectiveness of maternal antibodies in preventing viral replication and shedding appeared limited. Our results showed interleukin (IL)-8 as the most common and highly induced chemokine. During BCoV infection, the levels of IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß were significantly affected, suggesting that these emerge as potential and reliable biomarkers for predicting BCoV infection. This study underscores the importance of BCoV as a major pathogen causing diarrhea and respiratory disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus Bovino , Esparcimiento de Virus , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , República de Corea , Heces/virología , ARN Viral/análisis , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Masculino
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