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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112709, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075724

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization and has caused over 550,000 deaths worldwide as of July 2020. Accurate and scalable point-of-care devices would increase screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of COVID-19 patients. Here, we demonstrate rapid label-free electrochemical detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a commercially available impedance sensing platform. A 16-well plate containing sensing electrodes was pre-coated with receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and subsequently tested with samples of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody CR3022 (0.1 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml). Subsequent blinded testing was performed on six serum specimens taken from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients (1:100 dilution factor). The platform was able to differentiate spikes in impedance measurements from a negative control (1% milk solution) for all CR3022 samples. Further, successful differentiation and detection of all positive clinical samples from negative control was achieved. Measured impedance values were consistent when compared to standard ELISA test results showing a strong correlation between them (R2=0.9). Detection occurs in less than five minutes and the well-based platform provides a simplified and familiar testing interface that can be readily adaptable for use in clinical settings.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Espectroscopía Dieléctrica/instrumentación , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Técnicas Biosensibles/economía , COVID-19 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Espectroscopía Dieléctrica/economía , Impedancia Eléctrica , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Proteínas Inmovilizadas/inmunología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Factores de Tiempo
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112715, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099241

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerging human infectious disease. Because no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines are available to treat COVID-19, early diagnostics, isolation, and prevention are crucial for containing the outbreak. Molecular diagnostics using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the current gold standard for detection. However, viral RNAs are much less stable during transport and storage than proteins such as antigens and antibodies. Consequently, false-negative RT-PCR results can occur due to inadequate collection of clinical specimens or poor handling of a specimen during testing. Although antigen immunoassays are stable diagnostics for detection of past infection, infection progress, and transmission dynamics, no matched antibody pair for immunoassay of SARS-CoV-2 antigens has yet been reported. In this study, we designed and developed a novel rapid detection method for SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 (S1) protein using the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2, which can form matched pairs with commercially available antibodies. ACE2 and S1-mAb were paired with each other for capture and detection in a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) that did not cross-react with SARS-CoV Spike 1 or MERS-CoV Spike 1 protein. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 (<5 ng of recombinant proteins/reaction) was detected by the ACE2-based LFIA. The limit of detection of our ACE2-LFIA was 1.86 × 105 copies/mL in the clinical specimen of COVID-19 Patients without no cross-reactivity for nasal swabs from healthy subjects. This is the first study to detect SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen using an LFIA with matched pair consisting of ACE2 and antibody. Our findings will be helpful to detect the S1 antigen of SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/química , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/análisis , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/química , Técnicas Biosensibles/economía , COVID-19 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/economía , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/instrumentación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Inmunoensayo/economía , Inmunoensayo/instrumentación , Inmunoconjugados/química , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Factores de Tiempo
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112685, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113383

RESUMEN

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the ongoing global pandemic has led to infections of millions of people and losses of many lives. The rapid, accurate and convenient SARS-CoV-2 virus detection is crucial for controlling and stopping the pandemic. Diagnosis of patients in the early stage infection are so far limited to viral nucleic acid or antigen detection in human nasopharyngeal swab or saliva samples. Here we developed a method for rapid and direct optical measurement of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles in one step nearly without any sample preparation using a spike protein specific nanoplasmonic resonance sensor. As low as 370 vp/mL were detected in one step within 15 min and the virus concentration can be quantified linearly in the range of 0 to 107 vp/mL. Measurements shown on both generic microplate reader and a handheld smartphone connected device suggest that our low-cost and rapid detection method may be adopted quickly under both regular clinical environment and resource-limited settings.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Virión/aislamiento & purificación , Anticuerpos Inmovilizados/química , Técnicas Biosensibles/economía , COVID-19 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/análisis , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 221: 0-0, 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-196546

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre el gasto sanitario público per cápita y la tasa de mortalidad poblacional por COVID-19 en Europa y en España. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Asimismo, se contrastaron los promedios de TMP-COVID-19 entre países y comunidades autónomas con mayor y menor GSPpc que el promedio. RESULTADOS: No se halló correlación, en los países europeos, entre el gasto sanitario público per cápita y la tasa de mortalidad poblacional por COVID-19 (r: 0,3; p = 0,14), ni en las comunidades autónomas (r: 0,03; p = 0,91). Tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas en el contraste de la tasa de mortalidad poblacional por COVID-19 por grupos de gasto sanitario público per capita. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación entre «bajo» gasto sanitario público y malos resultados en España en la crisis de la COVID-19 no está sustentada en la evidencia disponible. Los aumentos de financiación de la sanidad pública deberían destinarse a las reformas estructurales para aumentar su eficiencia social


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between public health expenditure per capita and the mortality rate due to COVID-19 in Europe and Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare and contrast the mortality rate due to COVID-19 between countries and autonomous communities with higher and lower public health expenditure per capita than the mean. RESULTS: No correlation between the public health expenditure per capita and the mortality rate due to COVID-19 (r: 0.3; p = 0.14) was found among European countries or Spain's Autonomous Communities (r: 0.03; p = 0.91). No significant differences were found when comparing the mortality rate due to COVID-19 among the public health expenditure per capita groups. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence does not support association between «low» public healthcare expenditure and the poor outcomes observed in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased funding for the Spanish National Health System should be earmarked for structural reforms to increase its social efficiency


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Pandemias/economía , Gastos en Salud , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , España/epidemiología
5.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 93(6): 420.e1-420.e6, dic. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192559

RESUMEN

Con más de 575.000 muertes y cerca de 13,3 millones de casos a nivel global, la pandemia por COVID-19ha causado un terrible impacto en apenas medio año de evolución desde que por primera vez fuesen detectados casos en China. Conscientes de las dificultades planteadas en entornos con sistemas de salud robustos, donde la mortalidad ha sido significativa, y la transmisión difícilmente controlable, había una lógica preocupación por ver cómo el virus podría afectar a los países africanos, donde sus frágiles sistemas de salud auguraban un impacto aún mayor. Este «tsunami» anunciado, de potenciales consecuencias devastadoras, parece, sin embargo, no haber llegado todavía, y los países africanos, donde ya se ha evidenciado una creciente transmisión, no están viendo el impacto en la salud de sus habitantes que muchos habían predicho. En este artículo repasamos la situación actual de la pandemia en el continente africano, intentando entender los determinantes de su lenta progresión


With over 575,000 deaths and about 13.3 million cases globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a terrible impact globally during the 6 months since cases were first detected in China. Conscious of the many challenges presented in settings with abundance of resources and with robust health systems, where mortality has been significant and transmission difficult to control, there was a logical concern to see how the virus could impact African countries, and their fragile and weak health systems. Such an anticipated "tsunami", with potentially devastating consequences, seems however to not have yet arrived, and African countries, albeit witnessing an increasing degree of autochthonous transmission, seem to this day relatively unaffected by the pandemic. In this article we review the current situation of the pandemic in the African continent, trying to understand the determinants of its slow progress


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , África/epidemiología
6.
Textos contextos (Porto Alegre) ; 19(2): 38934, : 38936, 23 dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151741

RESUMEN

El artículo aborda el problema del hambre en el mundo, uno de los fenómenos más aberrantes con que la humanidad inició la nueva década. A partir del año 2014 comenzó a manifestarse una tendencia ascendente en la inseguridad alimentaria hasta alcanzar niveles graves en 2019-2020. Con el inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, se ha acentuado la preocupación respecto a los efectos que ésta podría provocar en la crisis alimentaria a nivel mundial y, espe-cialmente, en América Latina y el Caribe, debido a que es el continente donde el acceso mercantil a la alimentación se sitúa entre las más costosas del mundo. Por cierto, la región no enfrenta escasez de alimentos, sino que al contrario hay abundancia de ellos. Estas contradicciones hacen necesario cuestionarse si la liberalización del mercado ha sido una solución para resolver el problema del hambre a nivel mundial. Así como también, revisar la pertinencia de las políticas "oficiales" de seguridad alimentaria y de sus instituciones impulsoras. Una de las vías de solución es lograr la acción coordinada y permanente de los Estados para garantizar la provisión de alimentos a la población y evitar el avance del hambre. Hoy más que nunca se requiere el fortalecimiento de proyectos de integración regional basados en la soberanía alimentaria.


O artigo aborda o problema da fome no mundo, um dos fenômenos mais aberrantes com que a humanidade começou a nova década. A partir de 2014, começou a se manifestar uma tendência crescente na insegurança alimentar, alcançando graves níveis em 2019-2020. Com o início da pandemia de COVID-19, se acentuou a preocupação a respeito dos efeitos que esta poderia provocar na crise alimentícia a nível mundial e especialmente na América Latina e no Caribe, onde o acesso mercantil à alimentação é um dos mais caros do mundo. No entanto, a região não enfrenta escassez de alimentos, pelo contrário, possui uma grande abundância. Considerando estas contradições, faz-se necessário questionar se a liberação do mercado tem sido uma solução para resolver o problema da fome a nível mundial. Assim como revisar a pertinência das políticas "oficiais" de segurança alimentar e de suas instituições impulsionadoras. Uma das soluções seria obter a ação coordenada e permanente dos Estados a fim de garantir o fornecimento de alimentos à população e evitar o avanço da fome. Hoje, mais do que nunca, é preciso o fortalecimento de projetos de integração regional baseados na soberania alimentar


The article addresses the problem of hunger in the world, one of the most aberrant phenomena with which humanity began the new decade. Starting in 2014, an upward trend in food insecurity began to manifest itself, reaching serious levels in 2019-2020.With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, concern grew about the effects it could have on the food crisis worldwide and, especially in Latin America and the Caribbean. The latter, because it is the region where commercial access to food is among the most expensive in the world. By the way, Latin America does not face a shortage of food, but on the contrary it has an abundance of them. These contra-dictions make it necessary to question whether market liberalization has been a solution to solve the problem of hunger at the world level. As well as reviewing the relevance of "official" food security policies and their driving institutions. One of the solutions is to achieve coordinated and permanent action by the States to guarantee the provision of food to the population and prevent the advance of hunger. Our conclusion is that the strengthening of regional integration projects based on food sovereignty is required.


Asunto(s)
Hambre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Economía , Política Pública , Pandemias , América Latina
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 185-190, dic. 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145464

RESUMEN

Esta revisión narrativa describe el daño colateral de la pandemia de COVID-19, tanto en aspectos de la salud, como también sociales, educativos o económicos. Comunicamos el impacto mundial y local. Consideramos que varias de estas consecuencias eran inevitables, especialmente las sucedidas durante los primeros meses de una pandemia que se difundió a gran velocidad y con graves consecuencias directas en la morbimortalidad de la población. Sin embargo, luego de seis meses de su llegada a la Argentina, es oportuno revaluar la situación y replantearse si no se debería cambiar el enfoque para balancear la minimización del impacto directo de COVID-19 junto con la del daño colateral que las medidas para paliarlo produjeron. Es un desafío que no debe limitarse al sistema de salud. Debe encararse con un abordaje intersectorial amplio y con participación activa de la sociedad. Así como aplanamos la curva de COVID-19, cuanto más nos demoremos en aplanar las otras curvas de problemas sanitarios y sociales que se están generando, mayor será su impacto, tanto en el corto como en el largo plazo. (AU)


This narrative review shows the collateral damage of the COVID-19 pandemic, whether in health, social, educational or economic aspects. We report on the impact at the global and local levels. Many of these consequences were inevitable, especially in the first months of a pandemic that spread at great speed and with serious direct consequences on the morbidity and mortality of the population. However, six months after the arrival in our country, it is an opportunity to reassess the situation and rethink whether the approach should not be changed to balance the minimization of the direct impact of COVID-19 with that of the collateral damage that mitigation measures produced. This is a challenge that should not be limited to the health system. It must be addressed with a broad intersectoral approach and active participation of society. Just as we flatten the COVID-19 curve, the longer we delay in flattening the other curves of health and social problems that are being generated, the greater the impact, both in the short and long term. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Argentina , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Aislamiento Social , Problemas Sociales/prevención & control , Problemas Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrategias de Salud Nacionales , Sistemas de Salud/tendencias , Indicadores de Morbimortalidad , Mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Impactos en la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Equidad en el Acceso a los Servicios de Salud , Análisis de las Consecuencias , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49570, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094832

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir as experiências e contradições no controle da pandemia de Covid-19 sob a perspectiva da epidemiologia e das políticas públicas brasileiras. Conteúdo: o debate apresentado divide-se em duas seções: a primeira traça a reflexão dos parâmetros epidemiológicos sobre a curva epidêmica do SARS-CoV-2, bem como as experiências internacionais para o controle deste fenômeno. A segunda, ancorada nas políticas públicas brasileiras, apresenta uma análise comparada das experiências nacionais e internacionais, discutindo os potenciais reflexos sobre a pandemia, considerando algumas especificidades sociais. Conclusão: frente à impossibilidade de redução de pessoas susceptíveis por meio de estratégias vacinais, a redução da velocidade da curva epidêmica precisa ocorrer por meio de ações de isolamento físico social. Ademais, a construção de políticas públicas que visem a proteção ao trabalhador e a ampliação do investimento no setor saúde são medidas urgentes.


Objective: to discuss experiences and contradictions in the control of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of epidemiology and Brazilian public policies. Content: the discussion presented is divided into two sections: the first one present epidemiological parameters on the epidemic curve of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the international experiences for the control of this phenomenon. The second, anchored in the Brazilian public policies, presents a comparative analysis of national and international experiences, discussing the potential impacts on the pandemic, considering some specific social issues. Conclusion: in the face of impossibility of reducing susceptible people through vaccination strategies, the reduction of the speed of the epidemic curve needs to occur through actions of social distance. In addition, the construction of public policies aimed at protecting workers and expanding investment in the health sector are urgent measures.


Objetivo: discutir las experiencias y contradicciones en el control de la pandemia Covid-19 desde la perspectiva de la epidemiología brasileña y las políticas públicas. Contenido: el debate presentado se divide en dos secciones. El primero traza la reflexión de los parámetros epidemiológicos en la curva epidémica del SARS-CoV-2, así como las experiencias internacionales para el control de este fenómeno. El segunda seccione, anclada en las políticas públicas brasileñas, presenta un análisis comparativo de las experiencias nacionales e internacionales, discutiendo los posibles impactos en la pandemia, considerando algunas especificidades sociales brasileñas. Conclusión: dada la imposibilidad de reducir a las personas susceptibles a través de estrategias de vacunación, la reducción de la velocidad de la curva epidémica debe ocurrir a través de acciones de aislamiento social y físico. Además, la construcción de políticas públicas destinadas a proteger a los trabajadores y ampliar la inversión en el sector de la salud son medidas urgentes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Política de Salud , Pandemias , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 149, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193964

RESUMEN

HIV/AIDS is an infectious disease that has claimed the lives of millions of people worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine that has been developed in a bid to fight this deadly infection, however, antiretrovirals (ARVs), which are drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection are routinely prescribed to infected persons. They act via several mechanisms of action to reduce the severity of infection and rate of infectivity of the virus by decreasing the viral load while increasing CD4 counts. COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented events affecting almost all areas of humans' life including availability of medicines and other consumables. This paper analyses the availability of ARVs during COVID-19 era and offered recommendations to be adopted in order to prevent shortages.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/economía , Fármacos Anti-VIH/provisión & distribución , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Antirretrovirales/economía , Antirretrovirales/provisión & distribución , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/economía , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Costos de los Medicamentos/tendencias , Industria Farmacéutica , Infecciones por VIH/economía , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Seguro de Servicios Farmacéuticos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Malar J ; 19(1): 411, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198747

RESUMEN

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system. While it is principal to drive national budget rearrangements during the pandemic, the long-standing malaria control programmes should not be left behind in order to sustain the achievements from the previous years. With different levels of intensity, many countries have been struggling to improve the health system resilience and to mitigate the unavoidable stagnation of malaria control programmes. Current opinion emphasized the impacts of budget reprioritization on malaria-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria endemic countries in Africa and Southeast Asia, and feasible attempts that can be taken to lessen these impacts.


Asunto(s)
Presupuestos/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Enfermedades Endémicas/economía , Recursos en Salud/economía , Malaria/economía , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , África , Asia Sudoriental , Presupuestos/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Recursos en Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Malaria/prevención & control , Control de Mosquitos/economía , Control de Mosquitos/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(11)2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172013

RESUMEN

Pathogens are various organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, which can cause severe illnesses to their hosts. Throughout history, pathogens have accompanied human populations and caused various epidemics. One of the most significant outbreaks was the Black Death, which occurred in the 14th century and caused the death of one-third of Europe's population. Pathogens have also been studied for their use as biological warfare agents by the former Soviet Union, Japan, and the USA. Among bacteria and viruses, there are high priority agents that have a significant impact on public health. Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Variola virus, Filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), Arenoviruses (Lassa), and influenza viruses are included in this group of agents. Outbreaks and infections caused by them might result in social disruption and panic, which is why special operations are needed for public health preparedness. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that significantly impede treatment and recovery of patients are also valid threats. Furthermore, recent events related to the massive spread of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are an example of how virus-induced diseases cannot be ignored. The impact of outbreaks, such as SARS-CoV-2, have had far-reaching consequences beyond public health. The economic losses due to lockdowns are difficult to estimate, but it would take years to restore countries to pre-outbreak status. For countries affected by the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), their health systems have been overwhelmed, resulting in an increase in the mortality rate caused by diseases or injuries. Furthermore, outbreaks, such as SARS-CoV-2, will induce serious, wide-ranging (and possibly long-lasting) psychological problems among, not only health workers, but ordinary citizens (this is due to isolation, quarantine, etc.). The aim of this paper is to present the most dangerous pathogens, as well as general characterizations, mechanisms of action, and treatments.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Salud Pública , Betacoronavirus , Guerra Biológica/métodos , Guerra Biológica/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Infecciones/epidemiología , Infecciones/microbiología , Infecciones/terapia , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Psicología
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(20): 10902-10912, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155254

RESUMEN

The world will never be the same after the current COVID-19 pandemic. We may have to live with the coronavirus for a long time. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in a major burden on the global health system and economy. This report describes the current COVID-19 landscape and its socioeconomic implications. Despite the concerns for second waves of infection, gradual lifting of lockdown restrictions has occurred worldwide to relieve economic pressures and likely contributes towards possibly surging of outbreak although region wise variation exists due to several other biological factors, such as testing capacity and basic healthcare facilities among susceptible population within that region. Different prediction models have been put forth to forecast the spread of the current outbreak. However, it is challenging to perceive the precise changes happening in the real world as every time dynamics differ same as other epidemics cannot possibly be exactly superimposed to COVID-19. Currently, to decrypt the conundrum for effective antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2 is in full swing. Due to high rate of mortality and it expeditiously spread is it decisive to understand the biological properties, clinical characteristics, epidemiology, evolution, pathogenesis for vaccine development and pathogenicity studies against the viral curb. Instant diagnostic and adequate therapeutics serve as a major intervention for the management of pandemic containment. Our study aims to analyze the impact of current measures and to suggest appropriate administrative strategic planning rather than to make somewhat authentic prediction in relation to the current scenario. Our predictive analysis study should be helpful against prevention, cure and control of the current outbreak of COVID-19 till the availability of cure or vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Desarrollo de Medicamentos , Diagnóstico Precoz , Salud Global , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/economía
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