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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 62-64, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896479

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As countermeasures against the COVID-19 outbreak, sports and entertainment events were canceled (VEC) in Japan for two weeks from 26 February through 13 March. Moreover, most schools were closed (SC). OBJECTIVE: For this study, we estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) and SC and VEC effects. METHOD: After constructing a susceptible-infected-recovered model with three age classes, we used data of symptomatic patients in Japan for 14 January through 24 March. The SC and VEC effects were incorporated into the model through changes in contact patterns and contact frequencies among age classes. RESULTS: Results suggest R0 as 2.56, with 95% CI of [2.51, 2.96] before SC and VEC. The respective effects of SC and VEC were estimated as 0.4 (95% CI [0.3, 0.5]) and 0.5 (95% CI [0.3, 0.7]). CONCLUSION: The estimated R0 is similar to those found from other studies of China and Japan. Significant reduction of contact frequency has been achieved by SC and VEC. Nevertheless, its magnitude was insufficient to contain the outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Instituciones Académicas/organización & administración , Adulto , Anciano , Número Básico de Reproducción , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Modelos Estadísticos
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 120-122, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988731

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Information on the effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs), especially among HCWs with frequent contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on 49 HCWs who worked in close contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. HCWs had blood samples taken every 2 weeks to test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using two different types of assay. RESULTS: Forty-nine participants (31 nurses, 15 doctors, 3 other workers) were enrolled. In total, 112 blood samples are obtained from participants. The median work days in 2 weeks was 9 (interquartile range (IQR): 5-10) days. In a single work day, 30 of the 49 participants (61.5%) had contact with patients with suspected or conformed SARS-CoV-2 at least 8 times, and approximately 60% of participants had more than 10 min of contact with a single patient. The median self-reported compliance to PPE was 90% (IQR: 80-100%). Seven participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); however, none were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, so the positive ELISA results were assumed to be false-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that appropriate PPE is sufficient to prevent infection amongHCWs. It is necessary to establish a system that provides a stable supply of PPE for HCWs to perform their duties.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Personal de Salud , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adulto , Anciano , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2225: 25-38, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108655

RESUMEN

Various systems exist for the robust production of recombinant proteins. However, only a few systems are optimal for human vaccine protein production. Plant-based transient protein expression systems offer an advantageous alternative to costly mammalian cell culture-based systems and can perform posttranslational modifications due to the presence of an endomembrane system that is largely similar to that of the animal cell. Technological advances in expression vectors for transient expression in the last two decades have produced new plant expression systems with the flexibility and speed that cannot be matched by those based on mammalian or insect cell culture. The rapid and high-level protein production capability of transient expression systems makes them the optimal system to quickly and versatilely develop and produce vaccines against viruses such as 2019-nCoV that have sudden and unpredictable outbreaks. Here, expression of antiviral subunit vaccines in Nicotiana benthamiana plants via transient expression is demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Plantas/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas de Subunidad/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de Subunidad/biosíntesis , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Vectores Genéticos , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología
4.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(1): 109-119, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212072

RESUMEN

New telehealth platforms and interventions have proliferated over the past decade and will be further spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging literature examines the efficacy and safety of these interventions. Early pilot studies and trials demonstrate equivalent outcomes of telehealth interventions that seek to replace routine postoperative care in low-risk patients who have undergone low-risk surgeries. Studies are underway to evaluate interventions in higher-risk populations undergoing more complex procedures. Tele-ICU platforms demonstrate promise to provide specialized, high-acuity care to underserved areas and may also be used to augment compliance with evidence-based protocols.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Cuidados Críticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuidados Posoperatorios , Telemedicina , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
6.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48000

RESUMEN

Motivada pela necessidade imediata de mudanças na resposta à pandemia do novo coronavírus e diante da inoperância por parte do Governo Federal, as organizações do campo da Saúde que participam da Frente pela Vida lançaram o Plano Nacional de Enfrentamento à pandemia de Covid-19 em 3 de julho. O documento foi elaborado pela Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (ABRASCO), Centro Brasileiro de Estudos de Saúde (CEBES), Associação Brasileira Rede Unida (Rede Unida), Associação Brasileira de Economia em Saúde (ABrES), Associação Brasileira de Saúde Mental (ABRASME), Associação Brasileira de Saúde do Trabalhador e da Trabalhadora (ABRASTT), Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem (ABEn), Sociedade Brasileira de Virologia (SBV), Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética (SBB), Conselho Nacional de Saúde (CNS), Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical (SBMT), Sociedade Brasileira para a Qualidade do Cuidado e Segurança do Paciente (SOBRASP), Rede de Médicas e Médicos Populares (RMMP), Associação Brasileira de Médicas e Médicos pela Democracia (ABMMD) e Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (SBMFC). O documento, após Apresentação e Introdução, debate a complexidade da pandemia e faz uma análise aprofundada dos aspectos biomoleculares e clínicos e o panorama epidemiológico; analisando na sequência a Consolidação do SUS; a Ciência e Tecnologia (C&T) em saúde e produção de insumos estratégicos; o fortalecimento do sistema de proteção social; e a atenção às populações vulnerabilizadas e Direitos Humanos, mostrando que a ciência e sociedade brasileiras são capazes de produzir uma resposta alternativa ao descaso e descompasso geradores de morte. Ao final, indica responsabilidades e recomendações às autoridades políticas e sanitárias, aos gestores públicos e à sociedade em geral.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Sistema Único de Salud/organización & administración
7.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51476, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1119621

RESUMEN

Objetivo: desenvolver um modelo de máscara de tecido, com aplicação do elemento filtrante em celulose, para fins de utilização como barreira física segura para aerossóis, como estratégia de resposta emergencial à pandemia provocada pelo SARS-CoV-2. Método: pesquisa laboratorial realizada por meio de protótipos, testagens empíricas e análises e discussões junto a expertises. Resultados: a condução da pesquisa demonstrou que os aerossóis são retidos pela barreira física de celulose introduzida à estrutura das máscaras, o que motivou a segunda fase do estudo em unidade da Rede Brasileira de Laboratórios Analíticos de Saúde sobre a eficácia desses materiais. Conclusão: a confecção de máscaras de tecido é um fenômeno mundial importante e urgente frente à pandemia da COVID-19. Em função da crise de abastecimento e dos parâmetros ressaltados neste estudo, acredita-se que o uso desse equipamento possa ser estendido a setores não críticos de unidades de saúde, além da população em geral.


Objective: to develop a model of fabric mask, with the application of a cellulose filter element, for use as a safe physical barrier for aerosols, as an emergency response strategy for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Method: laboratory research carried out by means of prototypes, empirical tests and analyses, and discussions with experts. Results: the research demonstrated that aerosols are retained by the physical cellulose barrier introduced into the structure of the masks, which motivated the second phase of the study into the effectiveness of these materials at a unit of the Brazilian Analytical Health Laboratories Network. Conclusion: the making of fabric masks is an important and urgent worldwide phenomenon in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. In view of the supply crisis and the parameters highlighted in this study, it is believed that the use of this equipment can be extended to non-critical sectors of health units, as well as to the general population.


Objetivo: desarrollar un modelo de mascarilla de tela, con la aplicación de un elemento filtrante de celulosa, para su uso como barrera física segura para aerosoles, como estrategia de respuesta de emergencia para la pandemia SARS-CoV-2. Método: investigación de laboratorio realizada mediante prototipos, pruebas y análisis empíricos y discusiones con expertos. Resultados: la investigación demostró que los aerosoles son retenidos por la barrera física de celulosa introducida en la estructura de las máscaras, lo que motivó la segunda fase del estudio sobre la efectividad de estos materiales en una unidad de la Red Brasileña de Laboratorios Analíticos de Salud. Conclusión: la fabricación de máscaras de tela es un fenómeno mundial importante y urgente para hacer frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Ante la crisis de oferta y los parámetros resaltados en este estudio, se cree que el uso de este equipamiento puede extenderse a sectores no críticos de las unidades de salud, así como a la población en general.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/normas , Ensayo de Materiales , Brasil , Celulosa , Filtros , Capacidad de Reacción , Pandemias/prevención & control
8.
Rev. senol. patol. mamar. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(4): 130-136, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192959

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Describir las medidas adoptadas dentro del plan de contingencia del COVID-19 respecto a la biopsia selectiva de ganglio centinela (BSGC) y analizar su impacto sobre la actividad asistencial. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y retrospectivo de BSGC realizadas durante el período del 14/03 al 11/05 de 2020. Análisis de las medidas tomadas para minimizar las probabilidades de contagio y resultados de PCR de pacientes y personal. Comparativa de casos con los realizados en el mismo período de 2019. Actividad diaria de linfogammagrafía y de cirugía radioguiada (CRG) por indicación médica. Cálculo numérico y porcentual de CRG por hospital y recursos humanos diarios de medicina nuclear requeridos. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 42 intervenciones con BSGC, un 31,1% menos que en 2019. La indicación médica de cáncer de mama experimentó el mayor descenso de actividad (n=18, 41,9%). Del total de CRG, Hospital Clínic realizó el 45,2%, Hospital Maternitat el 31,0%, Hospital Plató el 16,7% y Hospital Sant Joan de Déu el 7,1% restante. En relación con los recursos humanos, la planificación inicial se cumplió en un 77% de los días. El total de los controles PCR a pacientes (n=42) y personal de CRG (n=9) dio resultado negativo. CONCLUSIONES: El COVID-19 influyó negativamente en la actividad asistencial de la BSGC del Hospital Clínic, pero fue compensado por una planificación acertada, basada en el análisis previo de los procesos del procedimiento, que permitió adaptar los recursos de material y personal a las circunstancias cambiantes, otorgándole una flexibilidad que posibilitó el cumplimiento de la programación establecida


OBJECTIVE: To describe the measures taken within the COVID-19 contingency plan concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) procedures and to assess their impact on healthcare activity. METHODOLOGY: Qualitative, descriptive and retrospective study of SNB procedures conducted during the lockdown period of COVID-19 (14/03 to 11/05 2020). Analysis of measures taken to minimise the chances of contagion and PCR outcomes of patients and staff. Comparison with SNB procedures conducted in the same time interval in 2019. Daily activity of lymphoscintigraphy and radioguided surgery (RGS) by medical indication. Numerical and percentage calculation of RGS by hospital and daily requirements for human resources in nuclear medicine. RESULTS: Forty-two SNB were performed, representing 31.1% less than those conducted in the same period in 2019. The medical indication of breast cancer showed the greatest activity decrease (n=18, 41.9%). RGS was performed in 45.2% of patients in Hospital Clínic, 31.0% in Maternitat, 16.7% in Plató and 7.1% in Sant Joan de Déu Hospital. Concerning the human resources required, the initial planning was accomplished in 77% of the days (24/31). All the PCR samples from patients (n=42) and RGS staff (n=9) were negative for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 negatively influenced the healthcare activity of SNB in Hospital Clínic, but was compensated by adequate planning, based on prior analysis of the procedure's processes, which allowed adaptation of material and personnel resources to the changing circumstances. This allowed flexibility, which in turn enabled compliance with the established schedule


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Biopsia del Ganglio Linfático Centinela/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirugía Asistida por Computador/estadística & datos numéricos , Linfocintigrafia/estadística & datos numéricos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Precauciones Universales/métodos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Biopsia del Ganglio Linfático Centinela/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Servicio de Medicina Nuclear en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Administración de la Seguridad/métodos
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1097275

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/provisión & distribución , Riesgos Laborales , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Máscaras/normas
10.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47989

RESUMEN

Documento fornece recomendações que visam ajudar os empregadores a estabelecer salas de amamentação e ambientes de trabalho de apoio para as trabalhadoras e suas famílias. Destaca os benefícios do apoio à amamentação para a empresa, para a mãe e o filho, para a sociedade e para o meio ambiente e orienta sobre como apoiar a amamentação durante o COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Lugar de Trabajo , Promoción de la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control
11.
Recurso Educacional Abierto en Portugués | CVSP - Regional | ID: oer-3920

RESUMEN

O que a equipe interprofissional deve saber sobre o COVID-19? Higiene das mãos Sinais e sintomas COVID-19 e atendimento odontológico no SUS Classificação de risco - COVID-19 Casos leves: isolamento domiciliar e manejo terapêutico Manejo de resíduos de serviços de saúde Fluxograma de manejo na atenção primária em Manejo clínico na APS/ESF Protocolo de manejo clínico do coronavírus (COVID-19) na atenção primária à saúde


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Guía de Práctica Clínica
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215613

RESUMEN

The role that environmental factors can play in preventing and controlling the Covid-19 epidemic was explored and compared to that of influenza. Papers cited by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences were discussed, which indicate that temperature and humidity in the environment can influence the intensity of the spread of the disease. The fact that influenza viruses and coronaviruses appeared seasonally, prevailing in the winter and declining in the summer, was illustrated. It was discussed that ultraviolet light in the environment can contribute to the control of the spread of the virus. A study was cited to suggest that particulate matter contributes to increased infection mortality, and that it increases in summer in some regions, countering the health effects of humidity and temperature. Data generated by online electronic tools was compared with surveillance reports generated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemic began stronger in northern hemisphere countries during the northern winter. (Evidence that the epidemic intensified during the southern winter is not disputed.) The incidence declined in the northern hemisphere during the summer, except for the U.S., where cases doubled. Evidence suggests that the high degree of SARS-CoV-2 infection counteracts the role that environmental factors may play in Covid-19 control.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estaciones del Año , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Ambiente , Salud Global , Humanos , Incidencia , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Internet , Informática Médica , España , Rayos Ultravioleta , Estados Unidos
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218091

RESUMEN

The first case of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the novel contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 [...].


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Aire , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Hospitales , Control de Infecciones , Casas de Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
14.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 791-794, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218390

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Covid-19 pandemic began in the end of 2019 and spread all over the world in a short duration of time. Measures have been taken such as social distancing, compulsory lockdown and restriction of activities so as to prevent spread of virus. It has posed problem to both the antenatal women and maternity care workers. The care and management of pregnant women is an essential service to identify high-risk mothers and also to have good pregnancy outcome for both mother and baby. Any delay in this may lead to catastrophe, hence this issue needs to be addressed properly. This review briefs about the literature available on antenatal care during covid-19 pandemic. Pregnancy is not very adversely affected by the virus itself but extra caution should be taken to prevent and complications should they arise. The norms of social distancing by patients and wearing personal protective equipment by hospital staff, testing of pregnant women should be followed as per regional and national guidelines. This will help ensure safety of all people along with care to the expecting mother. The presence of covid-19 infection should not deter women from receiving antenatal care nor should the obstetric treatment be delayed during labor. Decision for timing and mode of delivery should be individualised based on obstetric indications and maternal-fetal status.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Atención Prenatal/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología
15.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 795-800, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218391

RESUMEN

The spread of COVID-19 has resulted in a high risk of infection in hospitals worldwide. The medical staff in emergency rooms, in particular, have borne the brunt of the pandemic, and strict protection measures are needed to avoid infection in these units. Taiwan as a whole has performed extremely well in this epidemic, an achievement that has been acknowledged internationally. This success can be attributed to the Taiwan Epidemic Prevention Management Center's extensive experience and courageous strategy. The emergency department professionals of all hospitals, in conjunction with the outstanding performance of the center's policy, have also done much to control the infection's spread. However, excessive protection can also negatively affect patients' safety and the quality of medical care, especially for pregnant and parturient women. This article uses two actual cases from a medical center in northern Taiwan to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women. This case study serves to highlight that, to ensure more effective coordination during severe epidemics, a comprehensive infection prevention plan should be formulated. In addition, pregnant women's human rights must be safeguarded so that various protective mechanisms can be effectively used to achieve win-win solutions. Hospitals need to plan their production methods and timing in advance for when pregnant patients are in critical condition. The findings include that obstetricians recommend caesarean sections as a safer method in during epidemics. Emergency room physicians and obstetricians should also actively assist mothers prepare for birth to enhance maternal and fetal safety.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Atención Perinatal/normas , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Cesárea/normas , Infección Hospitalaria/virología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Obstetricia/normas , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Taiwán/epidemiología
16.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 808-811, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218393

RESUMEN

Many routine and elective services have already been postponed or suspended by both Government and private setups in most parts of the world because of the unprecedented pandemic of COVID-19. Healthcare systems everywhere in the world are under pressure. Being a component of essential health services, family planning and abortion services should continue to cater the population in order to prevent the complications arising from unintended pregnancies and sudden rise in STIs. Due to airborne nature of transmission of the virus, it is advisable for all consultations relating to family planning services to be done remotely unless and until visit is absolutely necessary. Contraception initiation and continuation can be done by telemedicine in most individuals. Post partum contraception can be advised before discharge from hospital. In an individual planning for pregnancy, currently it is not advisable to discontinue contraceptive and plan for pregnancy as not much is known about the effect of the virus on foetal development. Also, pregnancy requires routine antenatal and peripartum care and complications arising from pregnancy may necessitate frequent hospital visits, exposing the individual to the risk of infection. Abortion services are time sensitive therefore should not be denied or delayed beyond legal limit. We need to change from real to virtual consultation to prevent the rise in unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections and unsafe abortions.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Telemedicina/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Anticoncepción/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Atención Preconceptiva/métodos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología
17.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 812-820, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218394

RESUMEN

The pandemic situation triggered by the spread of COVID-19 has caused great harm worldwide. More than six million people have been infected, and more than 360,000 of them have died. This is the worst catastrophe suffered by mankind in recent history. In the face of this severe disaster, people all over the world are frightened of the prospect of facing an outbreak or an annual recurrence. However, the development of a vaccine will help control the impact of COVID-19. Women in particular have been more seriously affected by the pandemic. Since the pressure and physical load they suffer are often greater than what men endure, women are more threatened by COVID-19. Though women have a poorer quality of life and work and face worse economic conditions, they also tend to have better physiological immunity than men, which can ease the effect of COVID-19. The early development of a vaccine against COVID-19 is an important issue that must take into consideration women's better immune response to the virus along with the technique of hormone regulation. Relevant research has been conducted on female-specific vaccines in the past, and women's issues were considered during those clinical trials to ensure that complications and antibody responses were positive and effective in women. National policies should also propose good strategies for women to be vaccinated. This could improve consciousness, give women a better vaccination experience, enhance their willingness to vaccinate, and protect them from COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Factores Sexuales , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Embarazo , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228096

RESUMEN

People with pre-existing health conditions (PEHC) are vulnerable to viral infection while health literacy (HL) and preventive behaviors (PB) have been shown to benefit people during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to examine the association between PEHC and suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S), and to investigate the modification effect of HL and PB. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8291 participants visiting outpatient departments at 18 hospitals and health centers across Vietnam from 14 February to 31 May 2020. Data were collected regarding participant's characteristics, HL, PB, PEHC, and S-COVID-19-S. Regression models were used for analyzing the associations. Results showed that people with PEHC had a 3.38 times higher likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (odds ratio, OR, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 3.01, 3.79; p < 0.001). In comparison to participants without PEHC and with the lowest HL score, those with PEHC and one HL score increment had a 7% lower likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92, 0.94; p < 0.001). In comparison to participants without PEHC and not adhering to mask wearing, those with PEHC and adhering to mask wearing had a 77% lower likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.32; p < 0.001). Higher HL and adherence to mask wearing can protect people from having S-COVID-19-S, especially in those with PEHC.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Alfabetización en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Máscaras , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vietnam/epidemiología
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(47): 1777-1781, 2020 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237889

RESUMEN

Wearing masks is a CDC-recommended* approach to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by reducing the spread of respiratory droplets into the air when a person coughs, sneezes, or talks and by reducing the inhalation of these droplets by the wearer. On July 2, 2020, the governor of Kansas issued an executive order† (state mandate), effective July 3, requiring masks or other face coverings in public spaces. CDC and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment analyzed trends in county-level COVID-19 incidence before (June 1-July 2) and after (July 3-August 23) the governor's executive order among counties that ultimately had a mask mandate in place and those that did not. As of August 11, 24 of Kansas's 105 counties did not opt out of the state mandate§ or adopted their own mask mandate shortly before or after the state mandate was issued; 81 counties opted out of the state mandate, as permitted by state law, and did not adopt their own mask mandate. After the governor's executive order, COVID-19 incidence (calculated as the 7-day rolling average number of new daily cases per 100,000 population) decreased (mean decrease of 0.08 cases per 100,000 per day; net decrease of 6%) among counties with a mask mandate (mandated counties) but continued to increase (mean increase of 0.11 cases per 100,000 per day; net increase of 100%) among counties without a mask mandate (nonmandated counties). The decrease in cases among mandated counties and the continued increase in cases in nonmandated counties adds to the evidence supporting the importance of wearing masks and implementing policies requiring their use to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (1-6). Community-level mitigation strategies emphasizing wearing masks, maintaining physical distance, staying at home when ill, and enhancing hygiene practices can help reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Máscaras , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Incidencia , Kansas/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
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