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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2603-2613, 2021 Aug 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472281

RESUMEN

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a major disease of pigs that inflicts heavy losses on the global pig industry. The etiologic agent is the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is assigned to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae. This review consists of five parts, the first of which provides a brief introduction to PEDV and its epidemiology. Part two outlines the passive immunity in new born piglets and the important role of colostrum, while the third part summarizes the characteristics of the immune systems of pregnant sows, discusses the concept of the "gut-mammary gland-secretory IgA(sIgA) axis" and the possible underpinning mechanisms, and proposes issues to be addressed when designing a PEDV live vaccine. The final two parts summarizes the advances in the R&D of PEDV vaccines and prospects future perspectives on prevention and control of PEDV, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Vacunas Virales , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Femenino , Inmunización , Embarazo , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control
2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2779-2785, 2021 Aug 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472295

RESUMEN

To investigate whether the engineered Lactobacillus plantarum expressing the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S1 gene can protect animals against PEDV, guinea pigs were fed with recombinant L. plantarum containing plasmid PVE5523-S1, with a dose of 2×108 CFU/piece, three times a day, at 14 days intervals. Guinea pigs fed with wild type L. plantarum and the engineered L. plantarum containing empty plasmid pVE5523 were used as negative controls. For positive control, another group of guinea pigs were injected with live vaccine for porcine epidemic diarrhea and porcine infectious gastroenteritis (HB08+ZJ08) by intramuscular injection, with a dose of 0.2 mL/piece, three times a day, at 14 days intervals. Blood samples were collected from the hearts of the four groups of guinea pigs at 0 d, 7 d, 14 d, 24 d, 31 d, 41 d and 48 d, respectively, and serum samples were isolated for antibody detection and neutralization test analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The spleens of guinea pigs were also aseptically collected to perform spleen cells proliferation assay. The results showed that the engineered bacteria could stimulate the production of secretory antibody sIgA and specific neutralizing antibody, and stimulate the increase of IL-4 and IFN-γ, as well as the proliferation of spleen cells. These results indicated that the engineered L. plantarum containing PEDV S1 induced specific immunity toward PEDV in guinea pigs, which laid a foundation for subsequent oral vaccine development.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Lactobacillus plantarum , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Vacunas Virales , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Cobayas , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Porcinos , Vacunas Virales/genética
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101324, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358949

RESUMEN

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), a highly contagious disease hazardous to the poultry industry, is caused by an etiological agent called the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Some IBV strains (IBVs) alone usually do not cause high mortality in field conditions if not with secondary pathogens including Escherichia coli (E. coli). Herein, we established an IBV and E. coli co-infection model to evaluate the protective efficacy of two IBV vaccine strains against a new emerging genotype GVI-1 with mild virulence in experimental conditions. Chickens were inoculated with IBV field isolate ZQX (genotype GVI-1) and challenged 4 dlater with the E. coli strain MS160427 (serotype O8). Subsequently, these chickens were euthanized at seven days postchallenge (d.p.c.) with E. coli. An autopsy revealed that lesions in the IBV plus E. coli co-infection group were more severe than those in the IBV-infected group. This pathological model was used to assess the protective effect of two commonly used vaccine strains (H120 and 4/91) against the IBV ZQX strain, and a significantly better protective efficacy was observed for 4/91 compared with H120. Thus, IBV and E. coli co-infection could be employed in assessing the protective efficacy of IBV vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Bronquitis , Coinfección , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Vacunas Virales , Animales , Bronquitis/veterinaria , Pollos , Coinfección/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Escherichia coli , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control
4.
Avian Dis ; 65(3): 364-372, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427409

RESUMEN

We previously reported that recombinant Newcastle disease virus LaSota (rLS) expressing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark)-type trimeric spike (S) ectodomain (Se; rLS/ArkSe) provides suboptimal protection against IBV challenge. We have now developed rLS expressing chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and IBV Ark Se in an attempt to enhance vaccine effectiveness. In the current study, we first compared protection conferred by vaccination with rLS/ArkSe and rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF. Vaccinated chickens were challenged with virulent Ark, and protection was determined by clinical signs, viral load, and tracheal histomorphometry. Results showed that coexpression of GMCSF and the Se from rLS significantly reduced tracheal viral load and tracheal lesions compared with chickens vaccinated with rLS/ArkSe. In a second experiment, we evaluated enhancement of cross-protection of a Massachusetts (Mass) attenuated vaccine by priming or boosting with rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF. Vaccinated chickens were challenged with Ark, and protection was evaluated. Results show that priming or boosting with the recombinant virus significantly increased cross-protection conferred by Mass against Ark virulent challenge. Greater reductions of viral loads in both trachea and lachrymal fluids were observed in chickens primed with rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF and boosted with Mass. Consistently, Ark Se antibody levels measured with recombinant Ark Se protein-coated ELISA plates 14 days after boost were significantly higher in these chickens. Unexpectedly, the inverse vaccination scheme, that is, priming with Mass and boosting with the recombinant vaccine, proved somewhat less effective. We concluded that a prime and boost strategy by using rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF and the worldwide ubiquitous Mass attenuated vaccine provides enhanced cross-protection. Thus, rLS/GMCSF coexpressing the Se of regionally relevant IBV serotypes could be used in combination with live Mass to protect against regionally circulating IBV variant strains.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Factor Estimulante de Colonias de Granulocitos y Macrófagos/inmunología , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/inmunología , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/genética , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Pollos/genética , Pollos/inmunología , Pollos/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Protección Cruzada , Expresión Génica , Factor Estimulante de Colonias de Granulocitos y Macrófagos/administración & dosificación , Factor Estimulante de Colonias de Granulocitos y Macrófagos/genética , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/química , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/genética , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/fisiología , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Dominios Proteicos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/administración & dosificación , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Tráquea/inmunología , Tráquea/virología , Vacunación , Vacunas Atenuadas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Atenuadas/genética , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología , Carga Viral
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27026, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449478

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is no definite conclusion about comparison of better effectiveness between N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health-care workers (HCWs) from respiratory infectious diseases, so that conflicting results and recommendations regarding the protective effects may cause difficulties for selection and compliance of respiratory personal protective equipment use for HCWs, especially facing with pandemics of corona virus disease 2019. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, medRxiv, and Google Scholar from initiation to November 10, 2020 for randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies that reported protective effects of masks or respirators for HCWs against respiratory infectious diseases. We gathered data and pooled differences in protective effects according to different types of masks, pathogens, occupations, concurrent measures, and clinical settings. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: 42020173279). RESULTS: We identified 4165 articles, reviewed the full text of 66 articles selected by abstracts. Six randomized clinical trials and 26 observational studies were included finally. By 2 separate conventional meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials of common respiratory viruses and observational studies of pandemic H1N1, pooled effects show no significant difference between N95 respirators and medical masks against common respiratory viruses for laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection (risk ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-1.13, I2 = 0.0%), clinical respiratory illness (risk ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.45-1.09, I2 = 83.7%, P = .002), influenza-like illness (risk ratio 0.75, 95% CI 0.54-1.05, I2 = 0.0%), and pandemic H1N1 for laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.49-1.70, I2 = 0.0%, P = .967). But by network meta-analysis, N95 respirators has a significantly stronger protection for HCWs from betacoronaviruses of severe acute respiratory syndrome, middle east respiratory syndrome, and corona virus disease 2019 (odds ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide moderate and very-low quality evidence of no significant difference between N95 respirators and medical masks for common respiratory viruses and pandemic H1N1, respectively. And we found low quality evidence that N95 respirators had a stronger protective effectiveness for HCWs against betacoronaviruses causative diseases compared to medical masks. The evidence of comparison between N95 respirators and medical masks for corona virus disease 2019 is open to question and needs further study.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud , Máscaras , Respiradores N95 , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Virosis/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Metaanálisis en Red , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050901, 2021 08 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446498

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory infection caused by the MERS-CoV. MERS was first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Every year, the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca attracts more than two million pilgrims from 184 countries, making it one of the largest annual religious mass gatherings (MGs) worldwide. MGs in confined areas with a high number of pilgrims' movements worldwide continues to elicit significant global public health concerns. MERCURIAL was designed by adopting a seroconversion surveillance approach to provide multiyear evidence of MG-associated MERS-CoV seroconversion among the Malaysian Hajj pilgrims. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MERCURIAL is an ongoing multiyear prospective cohort study. Every year, for the next 5 years, a cohort of 1000 Hajj pilgrims was enrolled beginning in the 2016 Hajj pilgrimage season. Pre-Hajj and post-Hajj serum samples were obtained and serologically analysed for evidence of MERS-CoV seroconversion. Sociodemographic data, underlying medical conditions, symptoms experienced during Hajj pilgrimage, and exposure to camel and untreated camel products were recorded using structured pre-Hajj and post-Hajj questionnaires. The possible risk factors associated with the seroconversion data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The primary outcome of this study is to better enhance our understanding of the potential threat of MERS-CoV spreading through MG beyond the Middle East. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has obtained ethical approval from the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia. Results from the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented in conferences and scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NMRR-15-1640-25391.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Islamismo , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Viaje
7.
Science ; 373(6558): 991-998, 2021 08 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214046

RESUMEN

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 highlights the need to develop universal vaccination strategies against the broader Sarbecovirus subgenus. Using chimeric spike designs, we demonstrate protection against challenge from SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351, bat CoV (Bt-CoV) RsSHC014, and a heterologous Bt-CoV WIV-1 in vulnerable aged mice. Chimeric spike messenger RNAs (mRNAs) induced high levels of broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against high-risk Sarbecoviruses. By contrast, SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination not only showed a marked reduction in neutralizing titers against heterologous Sarbecoviruses, but SARS-CoV and WIV-1 challenge in mice resulted in breakthrough infections. Chimeric spike mRNA vaccines efficiently neutralized D614G, mink cluster five, and the UK B.1.1.7 and South African B.1.351 variants of concern. Thus, multiplexed-chimeric spikes can prevent SARS-like zoonotic coronavirus infections with pandemic potential.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Vacunas Sintéticas/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Protección Cruzada , Citocinas/sangre , Femenino , Inmunidad Heteróloga , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Liposomas , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Nanopartículas , Dominios Proteicos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión , Virus del SRAS/inmunología , Virus del SRAS/fisiología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Replicación Viral
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15431, 2021 07 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326355

RESUMEN

Currently, no approved vaccine is available against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease. The spike glycoprotein is typically considered a suitable target for MERS-CoV vaccine candidates. A computational strategy can be used to design an antigenic vaccine against a pathogen. Therefore, we used immunoinformatics and computational approaches to design a multi-epitope vaccine that targets the spike glycoprotein of MERS-CoV. After using numerous immunoinformatics tools and applying several immune filters, a poly-epitope vaccine was constructed comprising cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-, helper T-cell lymphocyte (HTL)-, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-inducing epitopes. In addition, various physicochemical, allergenic, and antigenic profiles were evaluated to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine. Molecular interactions, binding affinities, and the thermodynamic stability of the vaccine were examined through molecular docking and dynamic simulation approaches, during which we identified a stable and strong interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In silico immune simulations were performed to assess the immune-response triggering capabilities of the vaccine. This computational analysis suggested that the proposed vaccine candidate would be structurally stable and capable of generating an effective immune response to combat viral infections; however, experimental evaluations remain necessary to verify the exact safety and immunogenicity profile of this vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Epítopos/inmunología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Vacunas/inmunología , Biología Computacional , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Epítopos de Linfocito B/genética , Epítopos de Linfocito B/inmunología , Epítopos de Linfocito T/genética , Epítopos de Linfocito T/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal/inmunología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Modelos Moleculares , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Filogenia , Unión Proteica , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Linfocitos T Citotóxicos/inmunología , Linfocitos T Colaboradores-Inductores/inmunología , Vacunas/farmacología , Vacunas de Subunidad/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 259: 109155, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197977

RESUMEN

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) can cause a highly contagious enteric disease in turkeys with severe economic losses in the global turkey industry. To date, no commercial vaccines are available for control of the disease. In the present study, we isolated a field strain (NC1743) of TCoV and evaluated its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkey poults to establish a TCoV disease model. The results showed that the TCoV NC1743 isolate was pathogenic to turkey poults with a minimal infectious dose at 106 EID50/bird. About 50 % of one-day-old SPF turkeys infected with the virus's minimal infectious dose exhibited typical enteric disease signs and lesions from 6 days post-infection (dpi) to the end of the experiment (21 dpi). In contrast, fewer than 20 % of older turkeys (1- or 2-week-old) infected with the same amount of TCoV displayed enteric disease signs, which disappeared after 15-18 dpi. Although all infected turkeys, regardless of age, shed TCoV, the older turkeys shed less virus than the younger birds, and 50 % of the 2-week-old birds even cleared the virus at 21 dpi. Furthermore, the viral infection caused day-old turkeys more body-weight-gain reduction than older birds. The overall data demonstrated that the TCoV NC1743 isolate is a highly pathogenic strain and younger turkeys are more susceptible to TCoV infection than older birds. Thus, one-day-old turkeys infected with the minimal infectious dose of TCoV NC1743 could be used as a TCoV disease model to study the disease pathogenesis, and the TCoV NC1743 strain could be used as a challenge virus to evaluate a vaccine protective efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Coronavirus del Pavo/patogenicidad , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Pavos/virología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus del Pavo/clasificación , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/sangre , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos
10.
Clin Ter ; 172(4): 268-270, 2021 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247208

RESUMEN

Abstract: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created havoc worldwide ever since its emergen-ce in December 2019. The current evidence indicates that the virus remains viable in aerosols for hours and on fomites for few days. A little information is available on the topic, the present communication reviews the perseverance and distribution of the novel coronavirus in the aerosol and on various inanimate surfaces so that the appropriate safety measures can be undertaken and the virus protection guidelines may be framed accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles , COVID-19/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Desinfectantes/farmacología , Fómites/virología , SARS-CoV-2/efectos de los fármacos , Administración de la Seguridad/métodos , Humanos
11.
Vet Res Commun ; 45(2-3): 75-86, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251560

RESUMEN

The recent prevalence of coronavirus (CoV) poses a serious threat to animal and human health. Currently, porcine enteric coronaviruses (PECs), including the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), the novel emerging swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV), and re-emerging porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), which infect pigs of different ages, have caused more frequent occurrences of diarrhoea, vomiting, and dehydration with high morbidity and mortality in piglets. PECs have the potential for cross-species transmission and are causing huge economic losses in the pig industry in China and the world, which therefore needs to be urgently addressed. Accordingly, this article summarises the pathogenicity, prevalence, and diagnostic methods of PECs and provides an important reference for their improved diagnosis, prevention, and control.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Alphacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Animales , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Deltacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Humanos , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/genética , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/patogenicidad , Prevalencia , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Virus de la Gastroenteritis Transmisible/genética , Virus de la Gastroenteritis Transmisible/patogenicidad
12.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48241

RESUMEN

A pandemia da Covid-19, doença provocada pelo novo coronavírus trouxe uma série de dúvidas. Com diversas informações circulando sobre o assunto, umas das dúvidas é quanto ao risco de contaminação das gestantes e, consequentemente, dos bebês. Essa matéria esclarece sobre quais cuidados as gestantes devem adotar, riscos de contágio e procedimentos para as puérperas ou parturientes, ou seja, as mulheres que se encontram em trabalho de parto ou tiveram bebês recentemente.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Periodo Posparto
13.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Francés, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48230

RESUMEN

Uma nova parceria entre o Governo do Canadá e a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), destinada a melhorar a saúde e a proteção das populações em grande vulnerabilidade devido à COVID-19, particularmente as mulheres, foi anunciada hoje na 74ª Assembleia Mundial da Saúde.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Vacunación , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Canadá , Organización Panamericana de la Salud/organización & administración
14.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48224

RESUMEN

A pandemia da Covid-19 altera rotinas e dinâmicas familiares no Brasil desde março de 2020. Muitas vezes, aqueles contaminados pelo vírus precisam realizar o isolamento social dentro da própria casa, nesse caso, as precauções com a higiene e os limites do espaço de convívio são essenciais para que se evite novos contágios, conforme descrito no artigo.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Aislamiento Social , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión
15.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48226

RESUMEN

A solução de hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO), popularmente conhecida como água sanitária, é comumente utilizada na higienização de ambientes, pois, quando diluída em água, forma o ácido hipocloroso (HClO), eficaz contra os microorganismo patogênicos. Nesse período de pandemia, é importante saber a correta manipulação desse produto, principalmente por segurança, mas também para que não haja um mau uso e consequentemente o gasto desnecessário de dinheiro. Buscando orientar a população sobre a forma correta de higienizar a casa com água sanitária e assim evitar a contaminação pelo novo coronavírus, o Conselho Federal de Química (CFQ) desenvolveu uma cartilha com perguntas e respostas sobre o manejo desse composto


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Desinfección , Blanqueadores
16.
Salvador; s.n; 3 ed., rev; jun. 2021. 32 p. ilus mapas.
Monografía en Portugués | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-BA | ID: biblio-1281099

RESUMEN

A 3ª edição do Plano Estadual de Contingência para Enfrentamento do SARS-CoV-2 na Bahia, contém recomendações para o contexto atual desta emergência, conforme vem evoluindo as estratégias de enfrentamento norteadas pela OMS, MS e SESAB, com vistas a minimizar o impacto na Saúde Pública provocado pela introdução do vírus em território estadual.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Planes de Contingencia , Pandemias , Sistema Único de Salud
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104980, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182190

RESUMEN

This study demonstrates that infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain M41, which is pathogenic for chickens, is nonpathogenic for pheasants. However, M41 replicated in the respiratory tracts of most inoculated pheasants and the virus was shed from their respiratory tracts in the early stages of infection (4 and 8 dpc). Similarly, the attenuated IBV H120 vaccine strain also replicated and the virus was shed from their respiratory tracts of most inoculated pheasants, whereas the pheasant coronavirus (PhCoV) I0623/17 replicated in the respiratory tracts of all challenged pheasants, which then shed virus for a long period of time. Strain M41 also replicated in selected tissues of the inoculated pheasants, including the lung, kidney, proventriculus, and cecal tonsil, although the viral titers were very low. Therefore, it was important to establish whether the H120 vaccine, which has a limited replication capacity in pheasants, induces a protective immune response to both "homologous" M41 and "heterologous" I0623/17 challenge. Vaccination with H120 induced humoral responses, and the replication of M41 was reduced or restricted in the tissues of the H120-vaccinated pheasants compared with its replication in unvaccinated birds. This implies that partial protection was conferred on pheasants by vaccination with the H120 vaccine. Prolonged viral replication and a large number of birds shedding virus into the respiratory tract were also observed in the unvaccinated pheasants after inoculation with M41. However, only limited protection against challenge with PhCoV I0623/17 was conferred on pheasants vaccinated with H120, largely because the replication of H120 in pheasants was limited, thus, limiting the immune responses induced by it. The low amino acid identity of the S1 subunit of the S proteins of H120 and I0623/17 might also account, at least in part, for the poor cross-protective immunity induced by H120. These results suggest that further work is required to rationally design vaccines that confer effective protection against PhCoV infection in commercial pheasant stocks.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Galliformes , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/fisiología , Vacunas Virales/farmacología , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/inmunología , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/patogenicidad , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Vacunas Atenuadas/farmacología
18.
Life Sci ; 280: 119744, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174324

RESUMEN

Viral respiratory tract infections have significantly impacted global health as well as socio-economic growth. Respiratory viruses such as the influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) typically infect the upper respiratory tract by entry through the respiratory mucosa before reaching the lower respiratory tract, resulting in respiratory disease. Generally, vaccination is the primary method in preventing virus pathogenicity and it has been shown to remarkably reduce the burden of various infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the efficacy of conventional vaccines may be hindered by certain limitations, prompting the need to develop novel vaccine delivery vehicles to immunize against various strains of respiratory viruses and to mitigate the risk of a pandemic. In this review, we provide an insight into how polymer-based nanoparticles can be integrated with the development of vaccines to effectively enhance immune responses for combating viral respiratory tract infections.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Vacunación , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Animales , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/virología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
19.
J Vet Sci ; 22(4): e48, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170089

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that has devastated the swine industry in South Korea over the last 30 years. The lack of an effective method to control the endemics has led to a surge in PEDV recurrences in affected farms throughout the country. OBJECTIVES: In the first step toward establishing systematic monitoring of and active control measures over the swine populations, we constructed an assessment model that evaluates the status of (1) biosecurity, (2) herd immunity, and (3) virus circulation in each of the PEDV-infected farms. METHODS: A total of 13 farrow-to-finish pig farms with a history of acute PEDV infection on Jeju Island were chosen for this study. The potential risk of the recurrence in these farms was estimated through on-site data collection and laboratory examination. RESULTS: Overall, the data indicated that a considerable number of the PEDV-infected farms had lax biosecurity, achieved incomplete protective immunity in the sows despite multi-dose vaccination, and served as incubators of the circulating virus; thus, they face an increased risk of recurrent outbreaks. Intriguingly, our results suggest that after an outbreak, a farm requires proactive tasks, including reinforcing biosecurity, conducting serological and virus monitoring to check the sows' immunity and to identify the animals exposed to PEDV, and improving the vaccination scheme and disinfection practices if needed. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the significance of coordinated PEDV management in infected farms to reduce the risk of recurrence and further contribute towards the national eradication of PEDV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Granjas , Inmunidad Colectiva , Islas/epidemiología , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina/inmunología , Recurrencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Porcinos
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