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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664388

RESUMEN

By 29 May 2020, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 had spread to 188 countries, infecting more than 5.9 million people, and causing 361,249 deaths. Governments issued travel restrictions, gatherings of institutions were cancelled, and citizens were ordered to socially distance themselves in an effort to limit the spread of the virus. Fear of being infected by the virus and panic over job losses and missed education opportunities have increased people's stress levels. Psychological studies using traditional surveys are time-consuming and contain cognitive and sampling biases, and therefore cannot be used to build large datasets for a real-time depression analysis. In this article, we propose a CorExQ9 algorithm that integrates a Correlation Explanation (CorEx) learning algorithm and clinical Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) lexicon to detect COVID-19 related stress symptoms at a spatiotemporal scale in the United States. The proposed algorithm overcomes the common limitations of traditional topic detection models and minimizes the ambiguity that is caused by human interventions in social media data mining. The results show a strong correlation between stress symptoms and the number of increased COVID-19 cases for major U.S. cities such as Chicago, San Francisco, Seattle, New York, and Miami. The results also show that people's risk perception is sensitive to the release of COVID-19 related public news and media messages. Between January and March, fear of infection and unpredictability of the virus caused widespread panic and people began stockpiling supplies, but later in April, concerns shifted as financial worries in western and eastern coastal areas of the U.S. left people uncertain of the long-term effects of COVID-19 on their lives.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Minería de Datos , Depresión/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Ciudades , Humanos , Pandemias , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Incertidumbre , Estados Unidos
2.
Global Health ; 16(1): 59, 2020 07 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646522

RESUMEN

Coronavirus Disease is impacting the entire world. As the first country that has needed to confront this disease, China has responded with unprecedented and hugely successful public health initiatives. Almost simultaneous with the awareness of the potential for widespread loss of life, the first Chinese university recognizing the likely psychological impacts of COVID-19, assembled the first university-based professional team to offer pandemic-related mental health services to the Chinese public. This paper describes the work that we provided and the challenges encountered. The challenges are described in four contexts: the organizational/systemic level, the technical perspective, the therapeutic process, and the ethical aspects. We also provide recommendations on what we can do in the short term, and future improvements that can be made.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , China/epidemiología , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Universidades
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645962

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, is a highly contagious infectious disease declared by the World Health Organization to be a pandemic and a global public health emergency. During outbreaks, health care workers are submitted to an enormous emotional burden as they must balance the fundamental "duty to treat" with their parallel duties to family and loved ones. The aims of our study were to evaluate disease perceptions, levels of stress, emotional distress, and coping strategies among medical staff (COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 departments) in a tertiary pulmonology teaching hospital in the first month after the outbreak of COVID-19. One hundred and fifteen health care workers completed four validated questionnaires (the brief illness perception questionnaire, perceived stress scale, the profile of emotional distress emotional, and the cognitive coping evaluation questionnaire) that were afterwards interpreted by one psychologist. There was a high level of stress and psychological distress among health care workers in the first month after the pandemic outbreak. Interestingly, there were no differences between persons that worked in COVID-19 departments versus those working in non-COVID-19 departments. Disease perceptions and coping mechanisms were similar in the two groups. As coping mechanisms, refocusing on planning and positive reappraisal were used more than in the general population. There is no difference in disease perceptions, levels of stress, emotional distress, and coping strategies in medical staff handling COVID-19 patients versus those staff who were not handling COVID-19 patients in the first month after the pandemic outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Distrés Psicológico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuerpo Médico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Rumanía/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646034

RESUMEN

Korea's Daegu Metropolitan City once had the second highest rate of COVID-19 infection after Wuhan in China. Following the outbreak, the government provided the first national disaster relief fund to citizens as financial aid. This study investigated whether the sense of regional belonging, pride, and mental health among 550 citizens of Daegu differed between the times before and after COVID-19, based on the presence or absence of the disaster relief fund. Frequency analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, and t-tests were conducted using the SPSS 25.0 program. Results showed that the sense of belonging was higher after COVID-19 than before, while pride was lower. Individuals who received the disaster relief fund showed higher levels of regional belonging and pride with statistical significance. The prevalence of melancholy and depression increased after COVID-19, but the presence or absence of the fund did not lead to a significant difference. Thus, in case of a future national disaster level, provision of the disaster relief fund can raise the sense of regional belonging and pride, in order to elicit communication among local residents toward overcoming difficulties. Furthermore, during challenging disaster situations, central and local governments should provide diverse programs for the citizens' mental health care.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Desastres/economía , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Factores Sociológicos , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Ciudades , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Emociones , Femenino , Administración Financiera , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , República de Corea , Adulto Joven
5.
Eval Health Prof ; 43(3): 201-203, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608250

RESUMEN

This survey aimed to assess the concerns of students of health-related higher education in Brazil regarding distance learning during the coronavirus pandemic. A Google Forms anonymous questionnaire was sent by WhatsApp Messenger to students at a private university. Seven hundred and four students answered the questionnaire (566 female, 138 male, mean age = 23.09 years), reflecting approximately a third of the students in health-related disciplines. Students reported feeling anxious due to the pandemic. Most of the students agreed with having the ability to continue education through distance learning, but relatively few of them enjoyed it. Also, students were concerned that learning of clinical material and professional training would be impaired, and they were afraid of failing the year of education. Health-related higher education private institutions in Brazil should focus on reassessing and prioritizing their policies and protocols and include a detailed plan for the future.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Educación a Distancia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E60, 2020 07 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644918

RESUMEN

Current communication messages in the COVID-19 pandemic tend to focus more on individual risks than community risks resulting from existing inequities. Culture is central to an effective community-engaged public health communication to reduce collective risks. In this commentary, we discuss the importance of culture in unpacking messages that may be the same globally (physical/social distancing) yet different across cultures and communities (individualist versus collectivist). Structural inequity continues to fuel the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on black and brown communities nationally and globally. PEN-3 offers a cultural framework for a community-engaged global communication response to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Cultura , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Comunicación , Salud Global , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Salud Poblacional , Salud Pública , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
10.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 50(3): 155-165, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653111

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Although rare, neurological manifestations in SARS-CoV-2 infection are increasingly being reported. We conducted a retrospective systematic study to describe the electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics in this disease, looking for specific patterns. METHODS: EEGs performed in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 between 25/03/2020 and 06/05/2020 in the University Hospital of Bicêtre were independently reviewed by two experienced neurologists. We used the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's terminology for the description of abnormal patterns. EEGs were classified into five categories, from normal to critically altered. Interobserver reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Medical records were reviewed to extract demographics, clinical, imaging and biological data. RESULTS: Forty EEGs were reviewed in 36 COVID-19 patients, 18 in intensive care units (ICU) and 22 in medicine units. The main indications were confusion or fluctuating alertness for 23 (57.5%) and delayed awakening after stopping sedation in ICU in six (15%). EEGs were normal to mildly altered in 23 (57.5%) contrary to the 42.5% where EEG alterations were moderate in four (10%), severe in eight (20%) and critical in five (12.5%). Generalized periodic discharges (GPDs), multifocal periodic discharges (MPDs) or rhythmic delta activity (RDA) were found in 13 recordings (32.5%). EEG alterations were not stereotyped or specific. They could be related to an underlying morbid status, except for three ICU patients with unexplained encephalopathic features. CONCLUSION: In this first systematic analysis of COVID-19 patients who underwent EEG, over half of them presented a normal recording pattern. EEG alterations were not different from those encountered in other pathological conditions.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Confusión/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Retraso en el Despertar Posanestésico/etiología , Electroencefalografía , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Comorbilidad , Confusión/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Sedación Profunda , Retraso en el Despertar Posanestésico/fisiopatología , Demencia/complicaciones , Demencia/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/etiología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/fisiopatología , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
Am Surg ; 86(6): 599-601, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683962

RESUMEN

The chief of surgery of a 264-bed acute care facility and clinic system in Topeka, KS, USA, gives a chronology that illustrates the rapid and profound clinical, economic, and emotional impact of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on his hospital and community. In his view, the pandemic has laid bare the weaknesses of several factors basic to the modern US health care system and the resulting economic crisis: just-in-time supply chain technology; foreign sourcing of masks, gowns, and critical equipment, all at critical shortages during the crisis; rural hospital closings; lack of excess capacity through maximization of utilization for efficiency; and an overreliance on high revenue elective procedures and tests. His team was tested by an emergency operation for bowel obstruction that put all the isolation protocols into action. Despite their readiness and the success of the operation and the potential for telemedicine as an alternative to in-person evaluations and outpatient visits, the forced cancellation of all elective operations have led to the loss of revenue for both hospital system and providers, furlough and termination of workers, and financial hardship and uncertainty.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Hospitales Comunitarios/economía , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Protocolos Clínicos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/economía , Clausura de las Instituciones de Salud/economía , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Obstrucción Intestinal/cirugía , Kansas/epidemiología , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Reducción de Personal/economía , Telemedicina
13.
Am Surg ; 86(6): 572-576, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683964

RESUMEN

A surgeon failed to heed his own misgivings on taking a family vacation cruise. Despite scrupulous hand-washing and antiseptic precautions with anything within reach, he contracts COVID-19. His anxiety increased as his condition became increasingly serious: uncontrollable dry coughing spells, spiking fevers, and his worst symptom, progressive dyspnea and chest pain. From what he knew about the disease, he feared admission to the intensive care unit, a step that portended a significantly worse prognosis. After a week-and-a-half of illness, misery, and fear, he began to improve: first, his fevers diminished, breathing came more easily, and coughing spells occurred less frequently, if still unpredictably. Now with his strength slowly returning, he contemplated returning to work but was frustrated when tests showed he was still shedding active virions. Under quarantine and with time to reflect, he cautions against complacency with regard to the infectiousness of COVID-19. His own denial led to the loss of his health and livelihood. At home but still separated from his wife and children in a basement bedroom, the bittersweet circumstances of his reunion with them is a reminder of the preciousness of life and love of family.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Negación en Psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cirujanos/psicología , Ansiedad , Betacoronavirus , Dolor en el Pecho/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Tos/virología , Disnea/virología , Familia , Miedo , Fiebre/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones
14.
Am Surg ; 86(6): 602-610, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683965

RESUMEN

Nine surgeons from rural and remote communities in the United States share early experiences preparing for the COVID-19 pandemic. Relating experiences remarkably different from health care providers in urban areas in America most affected by the first stages of the outbreak, they tell the challenges of organizing resources in facilities already struggling with poverty-stricken communities far from established health care resources and supplies. From Alaska to Appalachia and the Navajo Nation to the rural midwest, they show the leadership and professionalism that exemplify rural surgery.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Hospitales Rurales/organización & administración , Liderazgo , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Rural , Cirujanos , Betacoronavirus , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Hospitales Rurales/normas , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Pobreza , Aislamiento Social , Estrés Psicológico , Cirujanos/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 70(7): 272-282, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688420

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: International studies point to increased mental health problems of medical staff during the Corona pandemic (COVID-19). This is the first study to investigate mental health, i. e. adjustment disorder, depression, stress symptoms, Corona related fears as well as coping mechanisms in this group in a German-speaking country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In April 2020, N=100 subjects were recruited that currently are engaged in a hospital. A series of standardized assessments were included: adjustment disorder (ADNM-20), depression (PHQ-9), stress symptoms and coping strategies (SCI). Currently, cross-sectional data are analyzed, because the study is still going on and longitudinal data is not yet assessed. RESULTS: Frequencies of adjustment disorder and depression are 8 and 15%, respectively. Two hierarchical regression models were run to predict adjustment disorder and depression; predictive power was higher for the first (41 vs. 35%). Fear of infection was reported to be higher regarding one's family than oneself. Nursing staff, those with preloads, and women were found to report more mental health problems. Those with direct contact to people that fell ill with COVID-19 did not differ from those with no direct contact. DISCUSSION: Currently, medical staff has a high risk for being mentally stressed. China, being epidemically experienced, has published principles for psychiatric interventions in January 2020. This might be relevant for Switzerland, too. Specific psychotherapeutic interventions, targeting at cognitive restructuring and sensitizing regarding dealing with alcohol and cigarettes, may be needed in order to protect this vulnerable group of person during and after the Corona pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Adaptación/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Pandemias , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Trastornos de Adaptación/epidemiología , Trastornos de Adaptación/etiología , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Familia , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuerpo Médico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Suiza/epidemiología
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926008, 2020 Jul 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710536

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND During the outbreak of COVID-19, health care workers in the radiology department frequently interact with suspected patients and face a higher risk of infection and sudden surges in workload. High anxiety levels seriously harm physical and mental health and affect work efficiency and patient safety. Therefore, it is critical to determine anxiety levels of health care workers and explore its risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used to evaluate the anxiety and resilience of 364 health care workers with high exposure risk from the radiology departments of 32 public hospitals in Sichuan Province, China. Multivariate linear regression was used to analyze factors related to anxiety. RESULTS The mean anxiety score was 44.28±8.93 and 23.4% of our study participants reported mild (n=63), moderate (n=19), or severe (n=3) anxiety. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, job position, availability of protective materials, signs of suspected symptoms, and susceptibility to emotions and behaviors of people around them were identified as risk factors for anxiety, whereas psychological resilience was identified as a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that the anxiety level of health care workers in the radiology department with a high exposure risk to COVID-19 was high in the early stage of the outbreak, although the majority remained within normal limits. Timely assessment and effective intervention measures can improve the mental health of these at-risk populations.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Exposición Profesional , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Servicio de Radiología en Hospital , Resiliencia Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Miedo , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Muestreo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrés Psicológico , Carga de Trabajo
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(12): 7155-7163, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633412

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Social distancing is crucial in order to flatten the curve of COVID-19 virus spreading. Isolation, scarcity of resources and the lack of social contacts may have produced a negative impact on people's emotions and psychological well-being. This study aims to explore the reasons and the ways through which social distancing generates negative emotions in individuals who experienced the lockdown. To a larger extent, the objective is to check the existence of relations between negative emotions and the satisfaction of basic needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Italy 140,656 online interviews were collected from March 22 to April 2, 2020. Data analysis was carried out using mono and bivariate statistical analysis, K-means clustering and the Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The parameters for the identification of six clusters were: the intensity of the respondent's basic emotions and the layers of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. RESULTS: The majority of people involved in an emergency situation, implying a collapse of social contacts, experience some kind of emotional reactions. In our study, we found a correlation between basic emotions and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In times of crisis, the most basic needs are the physiological ones. Fear, anger and sadness are predominant in all population groups; anger and disgust mainly appear when people are exposed to the risk of not being able to meet subsistence needs, thus perceiving a lack of economic security. CONCLUSIONS: The well-known Maslow's theory of human needs seems to fit well with the outbreak of negative emotions in the context of COVID-19. This study demonstrates the existence of links between negative emotions and primary needs that mainly refer to the first three levels of Maslow's pyramid. As a result of COVID-19 worldwide pandemic, many people have been sucked into the bottom layers of the pyramid. This change in individual basic needs has triggered a relevant transformation in individual emotional status and a shift towards negative emotions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Emociones , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Conducta Social , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Italia , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235590, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614889

RESUMEN

Amongst the most robust consensus related to the COVID-19 disease is that the elderly are by far the most vulnerable population group. Hence, public authorities target older people in order to convince them to comply with preventive measures. However, we still know little about older people's attitudes and compliance toward these measures. In this research, I aim to improve our understanding of elderly people's responses to the pandemic using data from 27 countries. Results are surprising and quite troubling. Elderly people's response is substantially similar to their fellow citizens in their 50's and 60's. This research (i) provides the first thorough description of the most vulnerable population's attitudes and compliance in a comparative perspective (ii) suggest that governments' strategies toward elderly people are far from successful and (iii) shows that methodologically, we should be more cautious in treating age as having a linear effect on COVID-19 related outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente/psicología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Cuarentena/métodos , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
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