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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 120-122, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988731

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Information on the effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) for preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs), especially among HCWs with frequent contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on 49 HCWs who worked in close contact with patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. HCWs had blood samples taken every 2 weeks to test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using two different types of assay. RESULTS: Forty-nine participants (31 nurses, 15 doctors, 3 other workers) were enrolled. In total, 112 blood samples are obtained from participants. The median work days in 2 weeks was 9 (interquartile range (IQR): 5-10) days. In a single work day, 30 of the 49 participants (61.5%) had contact with patients with suspected or conformed SARS-CoV-2 at least 8 times, and approximately 60% of participants had more than 10 min of contact with a single patient. The median self-reported compliance to PPE was 90% (IQR: 80-100%). Seven participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); however, none were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, so the positive ELISA results were assumed to be false-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that appropriate PPE is sufficient to prevent infection amongHCWs. It is necessary to establish a system that provides a stable supply of PPE for HCWs to perform their duties.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Personal de Salud , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adulto , Anciano , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2225: 25-38, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108655

RESUMEN

Various systems exist for the robust production of recombinant proteins. However, only a few systems are optimal for human vaccine protein production. Plant-based transient protein expression systems offer an advantageous alternative to costly mammalian cell culture-based systems and can perform posttranslational modifications due to the presence of an endomembrane system that is largely similar to that of the animal cell. Technological advances in expression vectors for transient expression in the last two decades have produced new plant expression systems with the flexibility and speed that cannot be matched by those based on mammalian or insect cell culture. The rapid and high-level protein production capability of transient expression systems makes them the optimal system to quickly and versatilely develop and produce vaccines against viruses such as 2019-nCoV that have sudden and unpredictable outbreaks. Here, expression of antiviral subunit vaccines in Nicotiana benthamiana plants via transient expression is demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Plantas/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas de Subunidad/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de Subunidad/biosíntesis , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Vectores Genéticos , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 142317, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182011

RESUMEN

Nowadays, there is an important controversy about coronavirus air transmission. The aim of this study was to determine aerosol transmission from patients with coronavirus infection using "COVID-19 traps" that included different untouched surfaces within them. 42 swab samples of 6 different surfaces placed in the rooms of 6 patients with a positive diagnostic of COVID-19 were analyzed with RT-PCR technique to evaluate the presence of the virus and its stability. Samples were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h. Patients were in an intensive care unit (ICU) and in a COVID-19 ward unit (CWU) at a Spanish referral hospital. None of the samples placed in the ICU unit were positive for COVID-19. However, two surfaces, placed in a CWU room with a patient that required the use of respiratory assistance were positive for coronavirus at 72 h. Surfaces could not be touched by patients or health workers, so viral spreading was unequivocally produced by air transmission. Thus, fomites should be considered as a possible mode of transmission of coronavirus and frequent disinfection of surfaces should be taken into account. Our results, although preliminary, point the importance of SARS-CoV-2 virus air transmission indoors and may shed some light in this debate.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Aire , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Contaminación de Equipos , Fómites , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
6.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 109, 2020 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160419

RESUMEN

In-hospital resuscitation practices have changed by necessity in the Covid-19 era, principally due to precautions intended to protect caregivers from infection. This has resulted in serious delays in resuscitation response.ILCOR has recently modified its guidelines to separate defibrillation from other interventions, recognizing that shock success is extremely time-dependent and that defibrillation poses relatively little risk of Covid-19 transmission. The new recommendation calls for sending one caregiver into the isolation room in order to initiate bedside monitoring and defibrillate if indicated, while the code team is donning their personal protective equipment. Implementing this change requires focused training in that specific role. This can be accomplished by intensively training a subset of clinical staff to assume the responsibility and act without hesitation when a code occurs.Focused defibrillation training promises to avoid compromising the care of patients experiencing tachyarrhythmic arrests in the setting of Covid-19. Such a training program might even result in better survival than before the pandemic for this subset of patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Reanimación Cardiopulmonar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Cardioversión Eléctrica , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Resucitación , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
7.
Acta Med Port ; 33(11): 733-741, 2020 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160423

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Portugal took early action to control the COVID-19 epidemic, initiating lockdown measures on March 16th when it recorded only 62 cases of COVID-19 per million inhabitants and reported no deaths. The Portuguese public complied quickly, reducing their overall mobility by 80%. The aim of this study was to estimate the initial impact of the lockdown in Portugal in terms of the reduction of the burden on the healthcare system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We forecasted epidemic curves for: Cases, hospital inpatients (overall and in intensive care), and deaths without lockdown, assuming that the impact of containment measures would start 14 days after initial lockdown was implemented. We used exponential smoothing models for deaths, intensive care and hospitalizations and an ARIMA model for number of cases. Models were selected considering fitness to the observed data up to the 31st March 2020. We then compared observed (with intervention) and forecasted curves (without intervention). RESULTS: Between April 1st and April 15th, there were 146 fewer deaths (-25%), 5568 fewer cases (-23%) and, as of April 15th, there were 519 fewer intensive care inpatients (-69%) than forecasted without the lockdown. On April 15th, the number of intensive care inpatients could have reached 748, three times higher than the observed value (229) if the intervention had been delayed. DISCUSSION: If the lockdown had not been implemented in mid-March, Portugal intensive care capacity (528 beds) would have likely been breached during the first half of April. The lockdown seems to have been effective in reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, serious COVID-19 disease, and associated mortality, thus decreasing demand on health services. CONCLUSION: An early lockdown allowed time for the National Health Service to mobilize resources and acquire personal protective equipment, increase testing, contact tracing and hospital and intensive care capacity and to promote broad prevention and control measures. When lifting more stringent measures, strong surveillance and communication strategies that mobilize individual prevention efforts are necessary.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Urgencias Médicas/epidemiología , Epidemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/métodos , Ocupación de Camas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Epidemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Portugal/epidemiología , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 185, 2020 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prehospital professionals such as emergency physicians or paramedics must be able to choose and adequately don and doff personal protective equipment (PPE) in order to avoid COVID-19 infection. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a gamified e-learning module on adequacy of PPE in student paramedics. METHODS: This was a web-based, randomized 1:1, parallel-group, triple-blind controlled trial. Student paramedics from three Swiss schools were invited to participate. They were informed they would be presented with both an e-learning module and an abridged version of the current regional prehospital COVID-19 guidelines, albeit not in which order. After a set of 22 questions designed to assess baseline knowledge, the control group was shown the guidelines before answering a set of 14 post-intervention questions. The e-learning group was shown the gamified e-learning module right after the guidelines, and before answering post-intervention questions. The primary outcome was the difference in the percentage of adequate choices of PPE before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The participation rate was of 71% (98/138). A total of 90 answer sets was analyzed. Adequate choice of PPE increased significantly both in the control (50% [33;83] vs 25% [25;50], P = .013) and in the e-learning group (67% [50;83] vs 25% [25;50], P = .001) following the intervention. Though the median of the difference was higher in the e-learning group, there was no statistically significant superiority over the control (33% [0;58] vs 17% [- 17;42], P = .087). The e-learning module was of greatest benefit in the subgroup of student paramedics who were actively working in an ambulance company (42% [8;58] vs 25% [- 17;42], P = 0.021). There was no significant effect in student paramedics who were not actively working in an ambulance service (0% [- 25;33] vs 17% [- 8;50], P = .584). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a gamified e-learning module increases the rate of adequate choice of PPE only among student paramedics actively working in an ambulance service. In this subgroup, combining this teaching modality with other interventions might help spare PPE and efficiently protect against COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/educación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto , Técnicos Medios en Salud/educación , Técnicos Medios en Salud/normas , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Personal de Salud/normas , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Internet , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto Joven
9.
Acta Biomed ; 91(13-S): e2020022, 2020 11 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170176

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current pandemics. This virus attacks the cells by binding to the transmembrane angiotensin I converting enzyme 2. In this study, we experimented a food supplement containing alpha-cyclodextrin and hydroxytyrosol for the improvement of the defenses against the SARS-CoV-2. Hydroxytyrosol has anti-viral properties and is able to reduce the serum lipids in mice. α-cyclodextrin has the ability to deplete sphingolipids and phospholipids from the cellular membranes. The aim of the present preliminary open non-controlled interventional study was to evaluate the efficacy of alpha-cyclodextrin and hydroxytyrosol in improving defenses against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Fifty healthy volunteers at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection from Northern Cyprus and six positive individuals for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled in this study. The in silico prediction was performed using D3DOCKING to evaluate the interactions of hydroxytyrosol and alpha-cyclodextrin with proteins involved in the SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis. RESULTS: The 50 volunteers did not become positive in 15 days for SARS-CoV-2 after the administration of the compound for two weeks, despite they were at higher risk of infection than the general population. Interestingly, in the cohort of six positive patients, two patients were administered the spray and became negative after five days, despite the viral load was higher in the treated subjects than the untreated patients who became negative after ten days. In addition, we identified possible interactions among hydroxytyrosol and alpha-cyclodextrin with the protein Spike and the human proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2. CONCLUSIONS: We reported on the results of the possible role of alpha-cyclodextrin and hydroxytyrosol in improving defenses against SARS-CoV-2. The next step will be the administration of the compound to a larger cohort in a controlled study to confirm the reduction of the infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the treated subjects.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Pandemias/prevención & control , Alcohol Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , alfa-Ciclodextrinas/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Chipre , Endocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vaporizadores Orales , Alcohol Feniletílico/uso terapéutico , Proyectos Piloto , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Carga Viral
10.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(5): 540-548, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170591

RESUMEN

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. This study sought to share our experiences with in-hospital management and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive AMI patients, including those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI), from February 1, 2020, to April 15, 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic), and from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic), respectively. Fifty-three AMI patients (31 STEMI, 22 NSTEMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic were matched to 53 AMI patients before the pandemic. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the matched patients. STEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic had a longer delay time, less primary or remedial PCI and more emergency thrombolysis than those before the pandemic. Less coronary angiography and stenting were performed in AMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the pandemic. There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical outcomes between the matched patients. However, STEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic had a 4-fold (12.9% vs. 3.2%) increase in all-cause mortality rate compared with those before the pandemic. AMI combined with COVID-19 infection was associated with higher rates of mortality than AMI alone. This study demonstrates that the COVID-19 pandemic results in significant reperfusion delays in STEMI patients and has a marked impact on the treatment options selection in AMI patients. The mortality rate of STEMI patients exhibits an increasing trend during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Cardiología en Hospital/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infarto del Miocardio sin Elevación del ST/terapia , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud/tendencias , Pandemias , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/tendencias , Neumonía Viral , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/tendencias , Tiempo de Tratamiento/tendencias , Anciano , China , Angiografía Coronaria/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio sin Elevación del ST/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio sin Elevación del ST/mortalidad , Admisión del Paciente , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/efectos adversos , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/instrumentación , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/mortalidad , Terapia Trombolítica/efectos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidad , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(10): 1111-1116, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175704

RESUMEN

The recent spread of COVID-19 presents a huge public health concern. Clinical presentations of COVID-19 range from asymptomatic cases to severe pneumonia that can lead to death. Drastic measures were necessary to prevent the disease from spreading and protect the most vulnerable groups in the general population. The rapid reorganization of the healthcare system and great efforts made by medical staff were needed to admit to hospitals and then treat a progressively growing number of patients. The predominant route of virus transmission is through direct contact with an infected individual or respiratory droplets, therefore, all dental procedures with aerosol-formation pose an extremely high risk for the spread of infection. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current epidemiological situation, routes of transmission, and specific recommendations for dental practices including patient screening and triage, infection control, and treatment protocols. In this situation, it is essential that all dental healthcare workers make wise clinical decisions and educate themselves and their patients on how to prevent the spread of infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Atención Odontológica , Odontología/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Medición de Riesgo
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138115

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the temporary closure of physical activity and sports facilities, and the generalized cancellation or postponement of sports events have a massive impact on social and economic development. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using tracking data from a football match to assess interpersonal contact between individuals by calculating two measures of respiratory exposure. The dynamic tracking positioning of all players and referees during one international football match was analyzed. For each individual, two measures of respiratory exposure were calculated, based on the 2 m interpersonal distance recommendations for contact tracing for COVID-19 control. Overall, individuals spent a median of 0.12 mm:ss (IQR = 0.45 mm:ss) exposed to interpersonal contact of fewer than 2 m from others. The highest value of exposure was observed between two players of opposing teams (6.35 mm:ss). The results suggest that tracking data can be used to assess respiratory exposure to interpersonal contact in team sports, such as football. The measures of exposure calculated can be used to the prompt identification of high-risk contacts of COVID-19 cases during a match or a training session, but also the risk stratification of different sports and physical activities.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Fútbol , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Grabación en Video
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138223

RESUMEN

The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the lives of people all over the world. It is particularly urgent and important to analyze the epidemic spreading law and support the implementation of epidemic prevention measures. It is found that there is a moderate to high correlations between the number of newly diagnosed cases per day and temperature and relative humidity in countries with more than 10,000 confirmed cases worldwide. In this paper, the correlation between temperature/relative humidity and the number of newly diagnosed cases is obvious. Governments can adjust the epidemic prevention measures according to climate change, which will more effectively control the spread of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clima , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología
14.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 68(6): 35, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185755

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic developing rapidly in 2020 is triggered by the emergence of a new human virus-SARS-CoV-2. The emergence of a new virus is not an unexpected phenomenon and has been predicted for many years. Since the virus has spread all over the world, it will be very difficult or even impossible to eradicate it. A necessary condition for complete or partial elimination of the virus is to have an effective vaccine. It is possible that SARS-CoV-2 will become milder in the next few years and COVID-19 will then only threaten individuals from risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Animales , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Evolución Biológica , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Coronaviridae/genética , Coronaviridae/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Predicción , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Selección Genética , Virulencia , Zoonosis
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 137, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193952

RESUMEN

Sudan is facing a formidable task of fighting COVID-19. The country is suddenly challenged by this health issue that will test its path towards peace, stability, and development. The fragile task of handling COVID-19 epidemic in Sudan is brought about by several factors such as the weak healthcare system and political conflicts, that have been intertwined with the recent regime. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was already high unemployment, soaring inflation and lack of social protection and safety nets for its populace. The government has been trying its best to address the pandemic, however, much still needs to be done. Neglecting Sudan by the international community in terms of support towards containment of COVID-19 has grievous implications for transition out of military dictatorship and efforts to curb the pandemic globally. As no country is safe if all is not safe. It is essential that Sudan should leverage on innovations, country-compatible measures, and other tailor-made strategies for effective responses.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Conflictos Armados , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Países en Desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Política de Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Pobreza , Refugiados , Condiciones Sociales , Sudán/epidemiología , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 146, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193961

RESUMEN

Prevention of exposure to the COVID-19 virus in the general population is an essential strategy to slow community transmission. This paper shares the experiences and challenges of community engagement in COVID-19 prevention in the Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania implemented by our team from the Institute of Public Health (IPH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) in collaboration with the COVID-19 response team in the Moshi Municipality. We conducted an education session with the COVID-19 response team and together brainstormed transmission hotspots and which interventions would be most feasible in their settings. The first hotspot identified was crowded local market spaces. Suggested interventions included targeted and mass public health education through the engagement of market opinion leaders, public announcements, and radio shows. We conducted participatory rural appraisal techniques to enable market vendors and clients to visualize two-meter distances and provided a prototype hand-washing facility that was foot operated. We found mass public health educational campaigns essential to inform and update the public about COVID-19 pandemic and to address rumors and misinformation, which hampers compliance with public health interventions. Coordinated efforts among stakeholders in the country are necessary to develop context-specific prevention and case management strategies following the national and international guidelines. Local ownership of recommended interventions is necessary to ensure compliance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Desinfección de las Manos/instrumentación , Educación en Salud/métodos , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Colaboración Intersectorial , Liderazgo , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Aplicaciones Móviles , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Instalaciones Privadas , Salud Pública , Población Rural , Participación de los Interesados , Tanzanía/epidemiología
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 147, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193962

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2-a new single-stranded RNA virus with respiratory system proclivity and epithelial cell- is a novel infectious disease that originated in Wuhan, China in December, 2019 and has spread to many countries with the total number of confirmed cases put at 20,259,579 cases as of 12th August, 2020. It is transmitted from human-to-human via droplets. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, these droplets find their way into the mouth or nostrils of another person that is within a close range. Alternatively it can be contracted by touching infected hard surfaces and using the same hands to touch the mouth, nose and eye(s). COVID-19 has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March, 2020. There is currently no therapeutic substance accepted as a panacea for the prophylaxis of this infectious disease. As a result of this back drop, many nations have instituted fourteen (14) days quarantine for suspected cases, social distancing and border closure in an attempt to curb the spread of COVID-19. There has been several conspirary theories that emanated since the disease was declared a pandemic. This paper provides useful information to serve as reference to those who seek proper understanding of COVID-19 and its deleterious effects in the body, by distiguishing between the factsand the conspiracy theoriesof coronavirus disease.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Deluciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Aerosoles , Microbiología del Aire , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Bioterrorismo , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Decepción , Fómites , Genocidio , Agencias Gubernamentales , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Política , Cuarentena , Investigadores , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 148, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193963

RESUMEN

Sub-Saharan African countries have been hit by the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19) since March 2020. Besides the resulting health and economic disasters is the psycho-socio-cultural problem related with the management of corpses of people dead from the disease, which might hinder the implementation of the response strategy. In Cameroon for instance, the current corpse management policy is very disputed. In fact, although they were recently made more flexible, the restrictions applied to burials still ban any transfer of dead bodies between cities. In light of the African cultural considerations of dead persons, the disputes observed between the families and the health personnel, the legislation and the available scientific evidence, this article analyses the risks and benefits of allowing families to bury their relatives. It thereafter suggests solutions that reconcile dignity (by allowing families to bury their dead relatives in their homes) and safety (by ensuring a sealed handling and the surveillance by a judiciary police officer). Applying these solutions could improve the population's trust towards the health system, and positively contribute to COVID-19 case prevention, identification and management.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Betacoronavirus , Entierro , Cadáver , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ritos Fúnebres , Prácticas Mortuorias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Entierro/ética , Entierro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Camerún , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Cultura , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/legislación & jurisprudencia , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Familia , Humanos , Prácticas Mortuorias/ética , Prácticas Mortuorias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Personeidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Opinión Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Administración de la Seguridad/ética , Administración de la Seguridad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Administración de la Seguridad/métodos
19.
Chaos ; 30(10): 101103, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138460

RESUMEN

Although there are various models of epidemic diseases, there are a few individual-based models that can guide susceptible individuals on how they should behave in a pandemic without its appropriate treatment. Such a model would be ideal for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Thus, here, we propose a topological model of an epidemic disease, which can take into account various types of interventions through a time-dependent contact network. Based on this model, we show that there is a maximum allowed number of persons one can see each day for each person so that we can suppress the epidemic spread. Reducing the number of persons to see for the hub persons is a key countermeasure for the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Probabilidad , Salud Pública
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5518, 2020 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139704

RESUMEN

Full genome sequences are increasingly used to track the geographic spread and transmission dynamics of viral pathogens. Here, with a focus on Israel, we sequence 212 SARS-CoV-2 sequences and use them to perform a comprehensive analysis to trace the origins and spread of the virus. We find that travelers returning from the United States of America significantly contributed to viral spread in Israel, more than their proportion in incoming infected travelers. Using phylodynamic analysis, we estimate that the basic reproduction number of the virus was initially around 2.5, dropping by more than two-thirds following the implementation of social distancing measures. We further report high levels of transmission heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 spread, with between 2-10% of infected individuals resulting in 80% of secondary infections. Overall, our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of social distancing measures for reducing viral spread.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Genoma Viral/genética , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Secuencia de Bases , Número Básico de Reproducción/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , ARN Viral/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Distancia Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
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