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1.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 342-347, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241905

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2016, WHO estimated 376 million new cases of the four main curable STIs: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Further, an estimated 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus. STIs may lead to severe reproductive health sequelae. Low-income and middle-income countries carry the highest global burden of STIs. A large proportion of urogenital and the vast majority of extragenital non-viral STI cases are asymptomatic. Screening key populations and early and accurate diagnosis are important to provide correct treatment and to control the spread of STIs. This article paints a picture of the state of technology of STI point-of-care testing (POCT) and its implications for health system integration. METHODS: The material for the STI POCT landscape was gathered from publicly available information, published and unpublished reports and prospectuses, and interviews with developers and manufacturers. RESULTS: The development of STI POCT is moving rapidly, and there are much more tests in the pipeline than in 2014, when the first STI POCT landscape analysis was published on the website of WHO. Several of the available tests need to be evaluated independently both in the laboratory and, of particular importance, in different points of care. CONCLUSION: This article reiterates the importance of accurate, rapid and affordable POCT to reach universal health coverage. While highlighting the rapid technical advances in this area, we argue that insufficient attention is being paid to health systems capacity and conditions to ensure the swift and rapid integration of current and future STI POCT. Unless the complexity of health systems, including context, institutions, adoption systems and problem perception, are recognised and mapped, simplistic approaches to policy design and programme implementation will result in poor realisation of intended outcomes and impact.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevención & control , Sífilis/transmisión , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/transmisión
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108588, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122592

RESUMEN

Coinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) can induce more-severe disease than a single infection with either. We evaluated the efficacy of a new vaccine combining inactivated PCV2 and Mhr, in a model of PCV2 and Mhr infection. Twenty-five 35-day-old PCV2- and Mhr-free pigs were randomly divided into five groups, with five pigs in each group. The pigs in groups 1 and 2 were vaccinated with the combined vaccine and then challenged with Mhr or PCV2, respectively. The pigs in groups 3 and 4 were not vaccinated and then challenged with PCV2 or Mhr, respectively, and group 5 was used as the unvaccinated unchallenged control. Two weeks after booster immunization via the intramuscular route, all the pigs except those in control group 5 were challenged with PCV2 or Mhr. All the pigs were euthanized 28 days after challenge. The pigs in vaccinated groups 1 and 2 showed a significant increase in weight after challenge with PCV2 or Mhr (P < 0.001), with an average daily gain (ADG) of 0.315 kg compared with unvaccinated groups 3 and 4 (0.279 kg). Mhr was isolated from the unvaccinated pig lungs after Mhr challenge, whereas it was not isolated from the vaccinated pigs. No PCV2 or Mhr was detected with PCR or histochemical staining in vaccinated groups 1 and 2. A statistical analysis showed that the PCV2 and Mhr combined vaccine providing protected against PCV2 infection causing viremia and inguinal lymphadenopathy (5 pigs protected out 5) or against Mhr infection causing fiber inflammation (4 pigs out 5). Thus, we have developed an effective combined vaccine for the prevention and control of PCV2 or Mhr infections in swine herds, this will help reduce prevalence of PCV2 and Mhr coinfections.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Infecciones por Circoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Vacunas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Circoviridae/prevención & control , Circovirus/clasificación , Circovirus/inmunología , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/veterinaria , Coinfección/virología , Inmunización Secundaria , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/inmunología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Vacunas Combinadas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Combinadas/inmunología , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación
3.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 220: 109995, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877484

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a poultry pathogen with a reported distribution throughout the world. Vaccination is utilized as an important component of MS control programs for MS infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate protection efficacy of an inactivated MS vaccine (MS bacterin) with different adjuvants in broilers against a Chinese field isolate (CHN-BZJ2-2015). Vaccination with adjuvants ISA 71 VG and chitosan, respectively, enhanced specific lymphocyte proliferation responses and upregulated the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-2 and IFN-γ prior to challenge. Furthermore, vaccination with adjuvant ISA 71 VG elicited the highest antibody titers, exhibited significantly lower air sac, foot pad and tracheal lesions than the other groups (P < 0.05), and decreased MS colonization. These results demonstrated that inactivated MS vaccine with ISA 71 VG is able to induce both cellular and humoral immune response in broilers and confers a high level of protection upon challenge, demonstrating a potential application in the field.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/clasificación , Animales , Proliferación Celular , Pollos/inmunología , Quitosano/administración & dosificación , Quitosano/inmunología , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/inmunología , Inmunidad Celular , Inmunidad Humoral , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Mycoplasma synoviae/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Vacunación/veterinaria , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/inmunología
6.
Avian Dis ; 63(2): 359-365, 2019 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251538

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the cause of chronic respiratory disease, remains one of the most important pathogens in the poultry industry. Controlling the impact of this disease is done by eradication of positive breeder flocks or by vaccination and medication. Tylosin and tilmicosin are often used in medication programs. However, recent data on the in vivo efficacy of these macrolide antibiotics are scarce. Therefore, two dose titration studies were conducted using a recently isolated M. gallisepticum strain belonging to the wild-type population with regard to its tilmicosin and tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration. In a first trial, broilers were infected with M. gallisepticum and treated with 10 or 20 mg tilmicosin/kg body weight (BW) in the drinking water for five successive days. In a second trial, broilers were infected with M. gallisepticum and treated with 35 or 100 mg tylosin/ kg BW in the drinking water for five successive days. Clinical scoring of respiratory signs, macroscopic scoring of respiratory tract lesions, M. gallisepticum isolation from the respiratory organs, weight gain, and mortality were monitored for efficacy evaluation. All tylosin and tilmicosin treatments significantly reduced the course of clinical respiratory disease, macroscopic lesions in the respiratory organs, and M. gallisepticum numbers in the respiratory tract and obtained higher weight gains compared with the Mycoplasma-infected untreated control group. A treatment of 100 mg tylosin/kg daily for 5 days was not more clinically efficacious than the dosage of 35 mg tylosin/kg daily for 5 days. At final necropsy, in animals treated with 20 mg/kg BW tilmicosin, significantly fewer respiratory tract lesions were present than in the animals treated with 10 mg/kg BW tilmicosin. Therefore, when tilmicosin is used to treat clinical outbreaks of M. gallisepticum in broilers, a dosing scheme of 20 mg tilmicosin/kg BW for five successive days seems to be the most recommended scheme.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pollos , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Tilosina/análogos & derivados , Tilosina/farmacología , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control
7.
Cells ; 8(5)2019 05 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137698

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), a pathogen that infects chickens and some other birds, triggers chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens, which is characterized by inflammation. The investigation of microbial pathogenesis would contribute to the deep understanding of infection control. Since microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play a key role in this process, gga-mir-146c, an upregulated miRNA upon MG infection, was selected according to our previous RNA-sequencing data. In this paper, we predicted and validated that MMP16 is one of gga-miR-146c target genes. Results show that MMP16 is the target of gga-miR-146c and gga-miR-146c can downregulate MMP16 expression within limits. gga-miR-146c upregulation significantly increased the expression of TLR6, NF-κB p65, MyD88, and TNF-α, whereas the gga-miR-146c inhibitor led to an opposite result. gga-miR-146c upregulation effectively decreased apoptosis and stimulated DF-1 cells proliferation upon MG infection. On the contrary, gga-miR-146c inhibitor promoted apoptosis and repressed the proliferation. Collectively, our results suggest that gga-miR-146c upregulation upon MG infection represses MMP16 expression, activating TLR6/MyD88/NF-κB pathway, promoting cell proliferation by inhibiting cell apoptosis, and, finally, enhancing cell cycle progression to defend against host MG infection.


Asunto(s)
Embrión de Pollo/citología , Metaloproteinasa 16 de la Matriz/metabolismo , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/patogenicidad , Factor 88 de Diferenciación Mieloide/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 6/metabolismo , Animales , Apoptosis , Ciclo Celular , Línea Celular , Proliferación Celular , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/microbiología , Expresión Génica , Genes Reporteros , Metaloproteinasa 16 de la Matriz/genética , MicroARNs/genética , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/aislamiento & purificación , Factor 88 de Diferenciación Mieloide/genética , FN-kappa B/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Receptor Toll-Like 6/genética , Regulación hacia Arriba
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 48-55, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955823

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a major pathogen of poultry globally, causing chronic respiratory disease and arthritis. Vaccination is an effective means for the control of the disease. The MS-H vaccine is an attenuated strain developed through chemical mutagenesis of an Australian field strain, 86079/7NS. Analysis of whole genome of MS-H and its comparison with that of 86079/7NS has revealed a frameshift mutation early in a gene (oppF) that codes for an oligopeptide transporter permease, OppF. Monospecific antibodies raised against peptides upstream and downstream of the mutation in OppF revealed that only N-terminus of the OppF was expressed in MS-H while the full version was expressed in 86079/7NS. Also, examination of the recombinant N- (OppF-N) and C termini (OppF-C) of OppF, upstream and downstream of the mutation site respectively, as well as the full length OppF in Western immunoblotting experiments showed that serum from MS-H vaccinated chicken strongly bound OppF-N while serum from 86079/7NS challenged chicken detected OppF, OppF-N and OppF-C. The potential of the recombinant OppF, OppF-N and OppF-C to discriminate antibody responses to MS-H reisolates with wild or vaccine type OppF was assessed against 88 chicken sera in indirect ELISA and ratios were calculated between optical densities (OD) over those obtained in MS major membrane protein MSPB ELISA. Comparison of the OD ratios revealed that the MSPB/OppF and MSPB/OppF-C OD ratios of the sera against isolates with vaccine type OppF were significantly higher than those against isolates with wild type OppF. These results are in accordance with oppF gene mutation in MS-H and confirms that MS-H does not express OppF beyond the frame shift mutation found in its oppF gene. Also, the indirect ELISA based on OppF-C in combination with the MSPB has the potential to differentiate between MS-H and field strain antibody responses.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Mutación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma synoviae/genética , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Australia , Proteínas Bacterianas/inmunología , Pollos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Mycoplasma synoviae/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Pruebas Serológicas , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(6)2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971467

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is among the most economically significant mycoplasmas causing production losses in poultry. Seven melt-curve and agarose gel-based mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMAs) and one PCR are provided in the present study to distinguish the M. gallisepticum vaccine strains and field isolates based on mutations in the crmA, gapA, lpd, plpA, potC, glpK, and hlp2 genes. A total of 239 samples (M. gallisepticum vaccine and type strains, pure cultures, and clinical samples) originating from 16 countries and from at least eight avian species were submitted to the presented assays for validation or in blind tests. A comparison of the data from 126 samples (including sequences available at GenBank) examined by the developed assays and a recently developed multilocus sequence typing assay showed congruent typing results. The sensitivity of the melt-MAMA assays varied between 101 and 104 M. gallisepticum template copies/reaction, while that of the agarose-MAMAs ranged from 103 to 105 template copies/reaction, and no cross-reactions occurred with other Mycoplasma species colonizing birds. The presented assays are also suitable for discriminating multiple strains in a single sample. The developed assays enable the differentiation of live vaccine strains by targeting two or three markers/vaccine strain; however, considering the high variability of the species, the combined use of all assays is recommended. The suggested combination provides a reliable tool for routine diagnostics due to the sensitivity and specificity of the assays, and they can be performed directly on clinical samples and in laboratories with basic PCR equipment.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Tipificación Molecular , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/inmunología , Vacunas Bacterianas/genética , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 273-277, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827400

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) is a pathogen of pigs causing polyserositis and polyarthritis. The most susceptible population are nursery pigs of approximately 7 weeks of age, although we have shown that clinical signs can persist into finishing aged animals after a late-nursery infection. We have previously demonstrated the efficacy of a novel inactivated Mhr vaccine for the reduction of lameness and polyserositis in caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived (CDCD) pigs vaccinated at 3 weeks and challenged with Mhr at 6 weeks of age. Here we evaluated the duration of immunity (DOI) of the same vaccine. Vaccine or placebo was administered to CDCD pigs at 3 weeks of age. Pigs were challenged with Mhr at either 10 weeks of age (=7 week DOI) or 13 weeks of age (=10 week DOI). In the 7 week DOI, vaccination provided significant reductions in lameness (p = 0.0018), arthritis (p = 0.0002), and pericarditis (p = 0.0312) versus the placebo control. In the 10 week DOI, a significant reduction in arthritis (p = 0.0320) was observed in the vaccine group as compared to the placebo group. Both vaccine groups showed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the post-challenge average daily gain (ADG), gaining 0.2 kg/day more than their respective placebo groups.


Asunto(s)
Artritis/veterinaria , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/inmunología , Pericarditis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Animales , Artritis/prevención & control , Vacunas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/microbiología , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Pericarditis/prevención & control , Porcinos/inmunología , Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Vacunación , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/inmunología
12.
Avian Pathol ; 48(3): 238-244, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773899

RESUMEN

In order to compare the short-term efficacies of the live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85, four groups of SPF chickens were vaccinated with each of the vaccines using eye drop and aerosol inoculations, and were subsequently challenged with a wild-type MG strain. When administered by the recommended routes (eye drop for ts-11 and fine aerosol for 6/85), both vaccines induced substantial and comparable levels of protection against airsacculitis and tracheitis caused by wild-type MG. The long-term efficacies of the two vaccines administered by the recommended route were also assessed. Serum antibody responses and colonization of the vaccines in the upper respiratory system were monitored at different time points after vaccination, and protective efficacies of the vaccines were evaluated at 36 weeks post vaccination as above. Systemic antibody response following ts-11 eye drop vaccination was initially strong but reduced gradually over time while, in contrast, that to 6/85 spray vaccination was initially weak but increased over time. Kinetics of the antibody response to the vaccines appeared to be correlated with the number of birds harbouring each vaccine in their upper respiratory system throughout the sampling timepoints. Regardless of the levels of serum antibodies or number of birds harbouring the vaccine, both vaccines induced substantial and comparable levels of protection against airsacculitis and tracheitis caused by wild-type MG. Therefore, kinetics of systemic antibody response and persistence in the upper respiratory system varies between vaccine strains; however, the levels of protection may not, at least up to 36 weeks post vaccination. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS The kinetics of systemic antibody response and persistence of the vaccine in the upper respiratory system varies between vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85. The levels of protection induced by the two vaccines against virulent MG strain challenge are comparable when they are administered by the route recommended by their manufacturers.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Pollos/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Vacunación/veterinaria , Pruebas de Aglutinación/veterinaria , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Pollos/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos , Factores de Tiempo , Tráquea/inmunología , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología
13.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(3): 695-702, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286575

RESUMEN

The economic costs of contagious agalactia (CA) to the small ruminant dairy industry are not well known but include losses due to mortality, lowered milk production, spoiled products, abortions and animal welfare problems, as well as diagnosis and treatment. This paper reports financial estimates made in southern Europe, including a study on small- and large-scale farming systems in Italy, indicating that the financial losses are high and underestimated. Furthermore, the current control strategies, including chemotherapy and vaccination, in selected countries in Europe are described. In some countries, disease control is hampered by excessively strict veterinary legislation which discourages farmers and private veterinarians from notifying outbreaks because it leads to the prohibition of milk sales and can result in delays in lifting restrictions. In addition, new European Union legislation may downgrade the importance of CA, which will have implications for international research efforts. Finally, a series of recommendations are provided that cover the proper notification and handling of CA outbreaks, including movement control, current diagnostics, treatment, vaccination and disinfection.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera , Legislación Veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/economía , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Europa (Continente)
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 357, 2018 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458824

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a major poultry pathogen which causes severe economic losses in all the productive sectors. The prevalence of MS in European countries has increased in the last few years, leading to greater attention to the available methods to prevent its spread. The main strategy currently applied for its containment is the development and maintenance of MS-free breeder flocks. A live MS vaccine (MS-H) obtained by mutagenizing an Australian field strain has recently been introduced in Italy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vaccine behaviour in broiler breeder groups at different production stages and the effectiveness of the available laboratory tests in discriminating the MS-H from a field strain. RESULTS: The vaccine diffused extensively through the population, shown by the wide serological response (over 80% of positive samples in RSA and 85% in ELISA), the high serological titres, the positivity of all the tracheal samples collected during the production phase by MS PCR and the positivity by cultivation from tracheal swabs at the end-point (55 weeks after vaccination). In contrast, only one swab from a sternal bursa was positive in MS PCR, while all the joint and oviduct samples were negative. There was no evidence of vertical transmission. Different genotyping techniques were used to achieve a clear classification of the MS positive samples. The vlhA and the obg gene analysis showed that most of the strains were homologous with the vaccine, but some ambiguous samples were further investigated with the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme which confirmed the homology. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a multi-technique approach to monitor vaccinated avian flocks, based both on serological and biomolecular methods, is advised as well as the use of effective genotyping techniques to analyse the MS strains circulating in high densely populated poultry areas.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma synoviae/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Pruebas de Aglutinación/veterinaria , Animales , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Pollos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(10): 9332-9338, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055920

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the elimination of 4 different mastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis, from infected udder quarters during the dry period using quantitative PCR. The second purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between milk haptoglobin (Hp) concentration and the presence of udder pathogens (Strep. agalactiae, Staph. aureus, M. bovis, and Strep. uberis) in udder quarter milk samples before and after dry period. Aseptic udder quarter milk samples (n = 1,001) were collected from 133 dairy cows at dry off and at the first milking after calving from 1 large dairy herd. Bacterial DNA of Strep. agalactiae, Staph. aureus, Strep. uberis, and M. bovis in the udder quarter milk samples was identified with commercial quantitative PCR analysis Mastitis 4B (DNA Diagnostic A/S, Risskov, Denmark). Milk Hp concentration (mg/L) was measured from udder quarter milk samples. The elimination rates during the dry period for M. bovis, Staph. aureus, Strep. agalactiae, and Strep. uberis were 86.7, 93.6, 96.2, and 100.0%, respectively. The new IMI rate was 3.0% for M. bovis, 2.9% for Staph. aureus, 2.4% for Strep. agalactiae, and 3.1% for Strep. uberis. The milk Hp concentration was significantly higher in udder quarter milk samples with blood and in samples positive for Strep. agalactiae at dry off and for Staph. aureus postcalving. Elevated milk Hp concentration was not associated with the presence of M. bovis in the udder quarter milk samples. In conclusion, elimination of Staph. aureus, Strep. agalactiae, and Strep. uberis during the dry period was high; the elimination of M. bovis from infected udder quarters was lower, but probably spontaneous. Additionally, milk Hp concentration may be used as a marker for udder inflammation when combined with the bacteriological results at dry off and postpartum.


Asunto(s)
Mastitis Bovina/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Dinamarca , Femenino , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/microbiología , Mastitis Bovina/microbiología , Leche/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Mycoplasma bovis/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/prevención & control , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Acta Vet Hung ; 66(2): 226-240, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958518

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma bovis is a primary infectious agent of many disorders in cattle including bovine respiratory disease. No commercial vaccines against M. bovis are available in Europe. The immune response of calves to three saponin-based adjuvants combined with a field Polish M. bovis strain was evaluated. Four groups of six calves each were injected subcutaneously with the M. bovis strain combined with either saponin, saponin + Emulsigen®, saponin + Emulsigen® + alphatocopherol acetate, or with phosphate-buffered saline as control group. Blood and nasal swab samples were collected up to day 84 post injection. All formulations effectively stimulated the humoral and the cellular immune response of the calves, but the course of the response depended on the adjuvant formulation. These immunological data provide additional information supporting the findings of previous M. bovis saponin and Emulsigen® vaccine challenge studies to facilitate the development of successful M. bovis vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Bovinos/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma bovis/inmunología , Saponinas/farmacología , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Animales , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Poult Sci ; 97(11): 3860-3869, 2018 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982703

RESUMEN

Commercial layer hens reared on multi-age hen complexes are vaccinated during pullet rearing to combat production losses due to the bacteria Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). In this study, the potential to in ovo vaccinate layer chickens against MG was investigated. Layer embryos were administered a dosage of a live attenuated strain F MG (FMG) vaccine at 18 d of incubation and raised for 6 wk for initial post-hatch evaluation in 2 replicate trials. Treatments included control non-injected eggs, eggs injected with diluent, a non-diluted dosage, a 10-2 dilution, a 10-4 dilution, and a 10-6 dilution. A subset of chicks were swabbed for detection of FMG in the trachea at hatch. At 6 wk of age, birds were swabbed again for FMG detection and a blood sample was tested for MG antibody production. Hatch was depressed in the non-diluted dose group (P < 0.0001). Strain F MG was detected at hatch in the trachea in each FMG injection treatment, with decreasing numbers of positive chicks in the lower dosage groups. Mortality during the first 2 wk post-hatch was 3.5% (trial 1) and was 11.7% (trial 2) in the 10-6 dilution treatment, with all other FMG treatments experiencing a high rate of mortality (>50%). Birds in the in ovo FMG treatments had detectable FMG and antibody production at 6 wk. There were no differences in percentage positive birds (P > 0.3 for all tests) or ELISA titers (P = 0.079) between the FMG treatments. Body weight at 6 wk of age was diminished with increasing FMG dose (P < 0.0001). The lowest dose tested was found to be the most practical, causing the least mortality, least weight loss, and a humoral immune response in the majority of the birds. Further work is needed to evaluate how this in ovo vaccine, promoting immunity earlier, would compare to a standard post-hatch vaccination against an MG challenge scenario through a lay cycle.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Pollos , Inmunidad Humoral , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Vacunación/veterinaria , Animales , Peso Corporal , Pollos/inmunología , Pollos/fisiología , Femenino , Longevidad , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Óvulo , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología
19.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(11): 728-734, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870502

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI), but there are limited strategies to identify individuals at risk of MG. Previously, a sex risk quiz was used to predict STIs including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. The original quiz categorized individuals 25 years or younger as at risk of STIs, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies females younger than 25 years as at risk of STIs. In this study, the quiz was changed to categorize females younger than 25 years as high risk. The objective was to determine if the age-modified risk quiz predicted MG infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of a prospective longitudinal study was performed including female adolescents and young adults (AYAs) evaluated in multiple outpatient clinics. Participants completed an age-modified risk quiz about sexual practices. Scores ranged from 0 to 10 and were categorized as low risk (0-3), medium risk (4-7), and high risk (8-10) based on the STI prevalence for each score. Vaginal and/or endocervical and/or urine specimens were tested for MG, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae using the Aptima Gen-Probe nucleic amplification test. RESULTS: There were 693 participants. Most participants reported having 0 to 1 sexual partners in the last 90 days (91%) and inconsistent condom use (84%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for race, education, and symptom status demonstrated that a medium-risk score predicted MG infection among AYAs younger than 25 years (adjusted odds ratio, 2.56 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-6.18]). CONCLUSION: A risk quiz may be useful during clinical encounters to identify AYA at risk of MG.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/microbiología , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Mycoplasma genitalium/aislamiento & purificación , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Sexo Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Poult Sci ; 97(9): 3072-3075, 2018 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788205

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection can lead to major financial losses for poultry producers. Control of M. gallisepticum infection in the layer industry is generally obtained through vaccination due to the nature of the multi-aged flocks in the facilities. Live vaccines can provide significant protection from the pathogenic effects of M. gallisepticum infection. However, differing management practices, including vaccination procedures, can lead to significant variations in the efficacy of the same vaccine. The site of vaccine deposition has been shown to be one important factor significantly influencing the vaccination outcome. Previous research has shown that vaccine applied to the eyes or sprayed on the head is significantly more effective than when sprayed on the body. Vaccine application to the eyes, through the nares (nasal), and 2 routes through the oral cavity were studied to further characterize the most efficient route for delivery. Results of this work demonstrate that eye drop vaccination is significantly more effective than nasal vaccination, and vaccine delivered through the oral cavity has a negligible contribution to overall vaccination outcome.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Pollos , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control , Vacunación/veterinaria , Administración Intranasal/veterinaria , Administración Oral , Animales , Femenino , Inyecciones Intraoculares/veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas Atenuadas
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