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1.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 565-569, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202509

RESUMEN

This report describes the first clinical case of a transfusion-associated Mycoplasma haemocanis infection in a dog in Korea. A 6-year-old male Maltese underwent a red blood cell transfusion for idiopathic immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Eighteen days after the blood transfusion, the recipient's packed cell volume decreased and basophilic organisms were found on erythrocytes. A polymerase chain reaction and sequential analysis showed that both the donor dog and recipient dog had M. haemocanis. Six weeks after doxycycline administration, no organisms were detected and the recipient's anemia had improved.


Asunto(s)
Anemia Hemolítica Autoinmune/terapia , Anemia Hemolítica Autoinmune/veterinaria , Transfusión Sanguínea/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/terapia , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Doxiciclina/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma , Reacción a la Transfusión/microbiología , Reacción a la Transfusión/veterinaria , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/etiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Perros , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , República de Corea , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 342-347, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241905

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2016, WHO estimated 376 million new cases of the four main curable STIs: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Further, an estimated 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus. STIs may lead to severe reproductive health sequelae. Low-income and middle-income countries carry the highest global burden of STIs. A large proportion of urogenital and the vast majority of extragenital non-viral STI cases are asymptomatic. Screening key populations and early and accurate diagnosis are important to provide correct treatment and to control the spread of STIs. This article paints a picture of the state of technology of STI point-of-care testing (POCT) and its implications for health system integration. METHODS: The material for the STI POCT landscape was gathered from publicly available information, published and unpublished reports and prospectuses, and interviews with developers and manufacturers. RESULTS: The development of STI POCT is moving rapidly, and there are much more tests in the pipeline than in 2014, when the first STI POCT landscape analysis was published on the website of WHO. Several of the available tests need to be evaluated independently both in the laboratory and, of particular importance, in different points of care. CONCLUSION: This article reiterates the importance of accurate, rapid and affordable POCT to reach universal health coverage. While highlighting the rapid technical advances in this area, we argue that insufficient attention is being paid to health systems capacity and conditions to ensure the swift and rapid integration of current and future STI POCT. Unless the complexity of health systems, including context, institutions, adoption systems and problem perception, are recognised and mapped, simplistic approaches to policy design and programme implementation will result in poor realisation of intended outcomes and impact.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevención & control , Sífilis/transmisión , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/transmisión
4.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 56-61, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509002

RESUMEN

In this study, the relative contribution of vertical transmission, within-farm transmission and between-farm transmission of Mycoplasma synoviae in layer pullet flocks was quantified using logistic regression analysis. Data from 311 Dutch pullet flocks, of which 172 (55%) were positive for M. synoviae, were included in the study. Also the M. synoviae status of the parent stock of these flocks was included. The M. synoviae status was determined with the M. synoviae rapid plate agglutination test. Data analysis showed that vertical transmission was the most important transmission route for M. synoviae in layers as is demonstrated by an odds ratio of 5.8 (P = 0.000). A positive association with M. synoviae infections was found for layer pullet flocks on a multi-house farm where at least one other flock was M. synoviae-positive compared to single-house farms (odds ratio 3.1, P = 0.022), while a negative association was found when no other M. synoviae-positive flocks were present (odds ratio = 0.2, P = 0.003). No association was found between M. synoviae status of pullet flocks and poultry farm density. Odds ratios were 0.54 (P = 0.288) and 0.34 (P = 0.073), respectively, for medium and highest poultry farm density compared to lowest poultry farm density. This is the first time that the relative contribution of horizontal and vertical transmission of M. synoviae has been quantified. These results can be extrapolated to M. synoviae control in general, and emphasize the importance of M. synoviae control in parent stock and practical channelling.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma synoviae/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , Pruebas de Aglutinación/veterinaria , Animales , Femenino , Vivienda para Animales , Modelos Logísticos , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Densidad de Población , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16816, 2019 11 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727935

RESUMEN

The co-occurrence of domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and wild felids in rural landscapes can facilitate pathogen transmission. However, in the relatively-isolated regions of southern South America there have been no comprehensive studies to assess disease transmission risks between domestic cats and forest-dwelling wild felids such as guigna (Leopardus guigna). We evaluated hemoplasma infection and the possibility of transmission between domestic cats and guignas by comparing spatial and phylogenetic patterns of pathogen prevalence. Blood/spleen samples were collected from 102 wild guignas and 262 co-occurring rural domestic cats across the entire distribution range of guigna in Chile. Hemoplasma infection was assessed by direct sequencing of the 16S RNA gene. Infection with hemoplasmas was common and geographically widespread across different bioclimatic areas for both species. The most common feline Mycoplasma species in guigna and domestic cats were Candidatus M. haemominutum (CMhm) (15.7% guigna; 10.3% domestic cat) and Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) (9.8% guigna, 6.1% domestic cat). A previously undescribed Mycoplasma sp. sequence was found in two guignas and one cat. Continuous forest-landscapes were associated with higher hemoplasma-prevalence in guignas. Shared hemoplasma nucleotide sequence types between guigna and domestic cats were rare, suggesting that cross-species transmission between guignas and domestic cats may occur, but is probably uncommon. Ectoparasites, which have been linked with hemoplasma transmission, were not found on guignas and were infrequent on domestic cats. Our results suggest that transmission pathways vary among hemoplasma species and, contrary to our predictions, domestic cats did not appear to be the main driver of hemoplasma infection in guignas in these human-dominated landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma/clasificación , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos , Animales , Animales Domésticos/microbiología , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Gatos , Chile , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Felidae , Femenino , Masculino , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Especificidad de la Especie
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 252, 2019 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324179

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Transmission of Mycoplasma (M.) suis mainly occurs via iatrogenic or zootechnical manipulations or due to ranking fights. Other transmission routes including ingestion of secretes/excretes; blood-sucking arthropods and intra-uterine transmission have thought to play an epidemiological role without being experimentally proven. To investigate a vertical transmission of M. suis under field conditions blood samples from pre-suckling piglets and their corresponding dam were examined for M. suis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 21 farms in Southern Germany. RESULTS: A total of 14.35% of the 474 blood samples from pre-suckling piglets reacted qPCR positive. Additionally, M. suis was detected in 65 (31.25%) of the 208 sows at farrowing. On farm level, 16 (76.2%) of the 21 farms had at least one M. suis positive animal. M. suis positive farms had an average of 0.41 more stillborn piglets per litter than M. suis negative farms (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The present study provides further insights into M. suis infection dynamics as it is the first detection of M. suis in piglets immediately after birth prior to colostrum intake and the first large scale investigation of M. suis in sows at farrowing.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos/microbiología , Femenino , Alemania , Mycoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/sangre , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Mortinato/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/sangre , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología
8.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4492-4497, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180119

RESUMEN

In ovo vaccination is currently being considered as a means of delivery for live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccines. This study was performed to determine the transmissibility of strain F MG (FMG) from in ovo-vaccinated chicks to non-vaccinated pen mates. Eggs from an MG clean flock were incubated together for 18 D, at which point all live embryonated eggs were either not injected or administered a dilution of an FMG vaccine at 106 CFU per dose, 1 × 104 CFU per dose, 1 × 102 CFU per dose, or 1 CFU per dose. Non-injected eggs were hatched in a separate incubator. Ten non-injected, sentinel birds, and 1 in ovo-vaccinated FMG chick were placed in each of 32 isolation units located in 2 replicate rooms (8 replicates per dose). At 6 wk of age, surviving birds that had been vaccinated in ovo were removed, swabbed for FMG detection by PCR, and bled for serum plate agglutination (SPA) and ELISA testing for the presence of antibodies against MG (1, 2, 6, and all 8 in ovo-vaccinated chicks in the 106, 104, 102, and 1 CFU dosages). At 12 wk of age, the remaining sentinel birds were likewise sampled. No sentinel birds died. The in ovo-vaccinated birds that survived to 6 wk were serologically positive except for 5 birds in the 1 CFU treatment. The percentages of MG-positive sentinel birds and sentinel birds with antibody production against MG at 12 wk from each unit were not different between all MG dosages (P = 0.48, PCR; P = 0.77, SPA; P = 0.85, ELISA). Body weights of the in ovo-vaccinated chicks at 6 wk of age (P = 0.43) and the sentinel birds at 12 wk of age (P = 0.95) were each not affected by FMG treatment. These findings indicate that layer chickens in ovo vaccinated with a live-attenuated FMG vaccine were capable of transmitting FMG to other chicks with which they were in direct contact.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , Animales , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Pollos , Femenino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Óvulo , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/inmunología , Vacunas Atenuadas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología
9.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(5): 1220-1230, 2019 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141137

RESUMEN

Host competence, or how well an individual transmits pathogens, varies substantially within and among animal populations. As this variation can alter the course of epidemics and epizootics, revealing its underlying causes will help predict and control the spread of disease. One host trait that could drive heterogeneity in competence is host tolerance, which minimizes fitness losses during infection without decreasing pathogen load. In many cases, tolerance should increase competence by extending infectious periods and enabling behaviors that facilitate contact among hosts. However, we argue that the links between tolerance and competence are more varied. Specifically, the different physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which hosts achieve tolerance should have a range of effects on competence, enhancing the ability to transmit pathogens in some circumstances and impeding it in others. Because tissue-based pathology (damage) that reduces host fitness is often critical for pathogen transmission, we focus on two mechanisms that can underlie tolerance at the tissue level: damage-avoidance and damage-repair. As damage-avoidance reduces transmission-enhancing pathology, this mechanism is likely to decrease host competence and pathogen transmission. In contrast, damage-repair does not prevent transmission-relevant pathology from occurring. Rather, damage-repair provides new, healthy tissues that pathogens can exploit, likely extending the infectious period and increasing host competence. We explore these concepts through graphical models and present three disease systems in which damage-avoidance and damage-repair alter host competence in the predicted directions. Finally, we suggest that by incorporating these links, future theoretical studies could provide new insights into infectious disease dynamics and host-pathogen coevolution.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Gripe Aviar/virología , Malaria/veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Animales , Anopheles/parasitología , Pinzones , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Gripe Aviar/patología , Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Malaria/parasitología , Malaria/patología , Malaria/transmisión , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/patología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/fisiología , Orthomyxoviridae/fisiología , Plasmodium/fisiología
10.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1747-1752, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127669

RESUMEN

A 2-year-old female intact pregnant Beagle was evaluated after the owner surrendered her to a shelter. Prepartum and 2 months postpartum at the time of routine spay, the dam was whole-blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Ehrlichia ewingii. She was also whole-blood PCR positive for Mycoplasma haemocanis prepartum and continuously for 5 months thereafter. The dam delivered 5 healthy puppies, 1 of which was whole-blood PCR positive for M. haemocanis. All 5 puppies had antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. at 1 month of age but not thereafter, and all puppies were Ehrlichia spp. PCR negative for 5 months of follow-up. Therefore, this study supports a potential role for vertical transmission in the maintenance of M. haemocanis in dogs as reservoir hosts. In contrast, in this case there was no evidence that E. ewingii was transmitted transplacentally or during the perinatal period.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos , Coinfección/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Perros , Ehrlichia/aislamiento & purificación , Ehrlichiosis/inmunología , Ehrlichiosis/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Mycoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Embarazo
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(4): 719-727, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882306

RESUMEN

During 2016-2017, we tested asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia, for Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance mutations in urine and anorectal swab specimens by using PCR. We compared M. genitalium detection rates for those asymptomatic men to those for MSM with proctitis and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) over the same period. Of 1,001 asymptomatic MSM, 95 had M. genitalium; 84.2% were macrolide resistant, and 17% were co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. Rectal positivity for M. genitalium was 7.0% and urine positivity was 2.7%. M. genitalium was not more commonly detected in the rectums of MSM (n = 355, 5.6%) with symptoms of proctitis over the same period but was more commonly detected in MSM (n = 1,019, 8.1%) with NGU. M. genitalium is common and predominantly macrolide-resistant in asymptomatic MSM. M. genitalium is not associated with proctitis in this population.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad Masculina , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Mycoplasma genitalium , Enfermedades Bacterianas de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Bacterianas de Transmisión Sexual/microbiología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Australia/epidemiología , Coinfección , Estudios Transversales , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Humanos , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium/efectos de los fármacos , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Enfermedades Bacterianas de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades Bacterianas de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Evaluación de Síntomas
12.
Acta Vet Scand ; 60(1): 74, 2018 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The significance of hemotrophic mycoplasma in cattle remains unclear. Especially in Europe, their epidemiological parameters as well as pathophysiological influence on cows are lacking. The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' ('C. M. haemobos') and Mycoplasma wenyonii (M. wenyonii) in Bavaria, Germany; (2) to evaluate their association with several blood parameters; (3) to explore the potential of vertical transmission in Simmental cattle; and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of acridine-orange-stained blood smears compared to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results to detect hemotrophic mycoplasma. A total of 410 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-blood samples from cows from 41 herds were evaluated by hematology, acridine-orange-stained blood smears, and real-time PCR. Additionally, blood samples were taken from dry cows of six dairy farms with positive test results for hemotrophic mycoplasma to investigate vertical transmission of infection. RESULTS: The period prevalence of both species was 60.24% (247/410), C. M. haemobos 56.59% (232/410), M. wenyonii 8.54% (35/410) and for coinfection 4.88% (20/410). Of the relevant blood parameters, only mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and white blood cell count (WBC) showed differences between the groups of infected and non-infected individuals. There were lower values of MCV (P < 0.01) and MCH (P < 0.01) and higher values of WBC (P < 0.05) in 'C. M. haemobos'-infected cows. In contrast, co-infected individuals had only higher WBC (P < 0.05). In M. wenyonii-positive blood samples, MCH was significantly lower (P < 0.05). Vertical transmission of 'C. M. haemobos' was confirmed in two calves. The acridine-orange-method had a low sensitivity (37.39%), specificity (65.97%), positive predictive value (63.70%) and negative predictive value (39.75%) compared to PCR. CONCLUSIONS: 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' was more prevalent than M. wenyonii in Bavarian Simmental cattle, but infection had little impact on evaluated blood parameters. Vertical transmission of the infection was rare. Real-time PCR is the preferred diagnostic method compared to the acridine-orange-method.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma/fisiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/sangre , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Femenino , Alemania , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Prevalencia , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa
14.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203658, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248128

RESUMEN

Diseases in introduced broilers can possibly spill over to wild birds on the Galapagos. Knowledge about the current burden of exposure to pathogens in broilers on the Galapagos is very limited. The objective of the study reported here was to measure the burden of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and intestinal parasites in a sample of broiler chickens on 13 farms on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island in July 2017. Blood serum samples were tested for detection of antibodies to IBDV, IBV, NDV, and MG by using an IDEXX Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. In addition, fecal samples and pen bedding environmental samples were processed and analyzed for diagnosis of intestinal parasite eggs under a compound light microscope. The frequency of seropositive broilers to IBDV was 74/130 or 56% (95% CI = 48, 65%), to IBV was 27/130 or 20% (14, 28%), and to NDV was 1/130 or 0.7% (0.1, 4%). All broilers tested negative to MG antibodies. Eimeria spp. infection was common in study broilers. Finally, we observed interaction between broiler chickens and wild birds (finches) inside broiler pens, as well as the presence of backyard chickens inside property limits of study farms. This study produced evidence that exposure to IBDV, IBV, and intestinal parasites in broilers on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island is important. Study results are relevant because (i) they provide new baseline data on the burden of exposure to avian pathogens in broiler farms, (ii) justify the need to verify standard operating procedures in hatcheries that supply (non-vaccinated) day-old chicks to the Galapagos and (iii) to implement enhanced biosecurity standards on broiler chicken farms to mitigate risk of disease transmission between broilers, backyard poultry, and wild birds on the Galapagos.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/microbiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Especies Introducidas , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Enfermedad de Newcastle/transmisión , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/transmisión , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Aves/microbiología , Aves/parasitología , Aves/virología , Pollos/parasitología , Pollos/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Ecuador , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Heces/parasitología , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/inmunología , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/inmunología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/parasitología
15.
J Pregnancy ; 2018: 5037181, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174955

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma hominis is considered an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the lower urogenital tract; in females the infection is associated with severe pregnancy and postpartum complications, including abortion, endometritis, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence effectors remain poorly characterized. A number of studies in the last decade have demonstrated that M. hominis can establish an endosymbiotic relationship with Trichomonas vaginalis, a urogenital parasitic protozoon, also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Recently, two bacterial genes (alr and goiB) associated with amniotic cavity invasion and a single gene (goiC) associated with intra-amniotic infections and high risk of preterm delivery have been identified in M. hominis isolated from a group of pregnant patients. In this work we demonstrate that a high number of M. hominis intracellularly associated with T. vaginalis have goiC gene, in association with alr and goiB. In addition, we demonstrate that metronidazole treatment of M. hominis-infected T. vaginalis allows delivering viable intracellular goiC positive M. hominis from antibiotic-killed protozoa and that free M. hominis can infect human cell cultures. Results suggest that molecular diagnostic strategies to identify both pathogens and their virulence genes should be adopted to prevent severe complications during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Metronidazol/farmacología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/microbiología , Trichomonas vaginalis/efectos de los fármacos , Líquido Amniótico/microbiología , Membranas Extraembrionarias/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Mycoplasma hominis/aislamiento & purificación , Trabajo de Parto Prematuro/microbiología , Embarazo , Trichomonas vaginalis/inmunología , Trichomonas vaginalis/aislamiento & purificación , Vagina/microbiología
16.
Mol Ecol ; 27(18): 3714-3726, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074652

RESUMEN

The way that some parasites and pathogens persist in the hostile environment of their host for long periods remains to be resolved. Here, longitudinal field surveys were combined with laboratory experiments to investigate the routes of transmission and infection dynamics of such a pathogen-a wild rodent haemotropic bacterium, specifically a Mycoplasma haemomuris-like bacterium. Fleaborne transmission, direct rodent-to-rodent transmission and vertical transmission from fleas or rodents to their offspring were experimentally quantified, and indications were found that the main route of bacterial transmission is direct, although its rate of successful transmission is low (~20%). The bacterium's temporal dynamics was then compared in the field to that observed under a controlled infection experiment in field-infected and laboratory-infected rodents, and indications were found, under all conditions, that the bacterium reached its peak infection level after 25-45 days and then decreased to low bacterial loads, which persist for the rodent's lifetime. These findings suggest that the bacterium relies on persistency with low bacterial loads for long-term coexistence with its rodent host, having both conceptual and applied implications.


Asunto(s)
Gerbillinae/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Siphonaptera/microbiología , Animales , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Mycoplasma
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531145

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic food provisioning of wildlife can alter the frequency of contacts among hosts and between hosts and environmental sources of pathogens. Despite the popularity of garden bird feeding, few studies have addressed how feeders influence host contact rates and disease dynamics. We experimentally manipulated feeder density in replicate aviaries containing captive, pathogen-naive, groups of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) and continuously tracked behaviours at feeders using radio-frequency identification devices. We then inoculated one bird per group with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg), a common bacterial pathogen for which feeders are fomites of transmission, and assessed effects of feeder density on house finch behaviour and pathogen transmission. We found that pathogen transmission was significantly higher in groups with the highest density of bird feeders, despite a significantly lower rate of intraspecific aggressive interactions relative to the low feeder density groups. Conversely, among naive group members that never showed signs of disease, we saw significantly higher concentrations of Mg-specific antibodies in low feeder density groups, suggesting that birds in low feeder density treatments had exposure to subclinical doses of Mg. We discuss ways in which the density of garden bird feeders could play an important role in mediating the intensity of Mg epidemics.This article is part of the theme issue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Epidemias , Pinzones/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Agresión , Alimentación Animal/provisión & distribución , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Enfermedades de las Aves/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves/transmisión , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Femenino , Pinzones/microbiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animales , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/inmunología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/inmunología , Virginia/epidemiología
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 216: 60-66, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519526

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds. Epidemiological analysis did not reveal an infection source other than semen. In both farms the primary clinical cases were M. bovis mastitis in cows inseminated with the semen of the same bull four weeks before the onset of the disease. One semen straw derived from the semen tank on the farm and other semen lots of this bull were positive for M. bovis. In contrast, semen samples were negative from other bulls that had been used for insemination in previous or later oestrus to those cows with M. bovis mastitis. Furthermore, cgMLST of M. bovis isolates supported the epidemiological results. To our knowledge this is the first study describing the introduction of M. bovis infection into a naive dairy herd via processed semen. The antibiotics used in semen extenders should be re-evaluated in order to provide farms with M. bovis-free semen or tested M. bovis-free semen should be available.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Mastitis Bovina/etiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Mycoplasma bovis/aislamiento & purificación , Semen/microbiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Mastitis Bovina/epidemiología , Mastitis Bovina/microbiología , Mastitis Bovina/transmisión , Leche , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma bovis/genética , Mycoplasma bovis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Prevalencia
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 214: 75-80, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408036

RESUMEN

Species of hemoplasmas have been described worldwide, but little information is available for wild felids. Between February 2000 and January 2010, blood samples were collected from 30 jaguars (Panthera onca) and 22 domestic cats (Felis catus) from the Cerrado, Pantanal and Amazon biomes of Brazil. In all samples molecular tests were performed for Mycoplasma haemofelis/Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhf/Mhc), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt). Twenty-two (73.4%) jaguars and four domestic cats (18.2%) tested positive for infection with at least one feline hemoplasma: 73.4% jaguars from the three areas were positive for CMhm, 13.6% jaguars from the Pantanal and 50.0% from the Amazon were positive for Mhf/Mhc, and 9.1% of individuals from the Pantanal tested positive for CMt. Domestic cats from the Cerrado (28.6%) and the Pantanal (30.0%) were positive for feline hemoplasma. All but one jaguar from the three sites are healthy. One female adult jaguar showed low body weight and dehydration. This is the first record of feline hemoplasmas in free-ranging jaguars. The high prevalence of CMhm suggest the participation of jaguars in the maintenance of this hemoplasma in nature. Although susceptible to Mhf/Mhc and CMt, jaguars did not appear to participate in the maintenance of these agents in the environment. The involvement of domestic cats in the transmission of any of these hemoplasmas cannot be excluded.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/epidemiología , Mycoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Panthera/microbiología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Gatos , Femenino , Mycoplasma/genética , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/sangre , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión
20.
J Feline Med Surg ; 20(3): 256-261, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478400

RESUMEN

OVERVIEW: Haemoplasmas are haemotropic bacteria that can induce anaemia in a wide range of mammalian species. Infection in cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis is the most pathogenic of the three main feline haemoplasma species known to infect cats. ' Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and ' Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' are less pathogenic but can result in disease in immunocompromised cats. Male, non-pedigree cats with outdoor access are more likely to be haemoplasma infected, and ' Candidatus M haemominutum' is more common in older cats. All three haemoplasma species can be carried asymptomatically. Transmission: The natural mode of transmission of haemoplasma infection is not known, but aggressive interactions and vectors are possibilities. Transmission by blood transfusion can occur and all blood donors should be screened for haemoplasma infection. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: PCR assays are the preferred diagnostic method for haemoplasma infections. Treatment with doxycycline for 2-4 weeks is usually effective for M haemofelis-associated clinical disease (but this may not clear infection). Little information is currently available on the antibiotic responsiveness of ' Candidatus M haemominutum' and ' Candidatus M turicensis'.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Infecciones por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma , Animales , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Gatos , Femenino , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/veterinaria , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
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