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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246591, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468519

RESUMEN

There are different opinions around the World regarding the zoonotic capability of H3N8 equine influenza viruses. In this report, we have tried to summarize the findings of different research and review articles from Chinese, English, and Mongolian Scientific Literature reporting the evidence for equine influenza virus infections in human beings. Different search engines i.e. CNKI, PubMed, ProQuest, Chongqing Database, Mongol Med, and Web of Knowledge yielded 926 articles, of which 32 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Analyzing the epidemiological and Phylogenetic data from these articles, we found a considerable experimental and observational evidence of H3N8 equine influenza viruses infecting human being in different parts of the World in the past. Recently published articles from Pakistan and China have highlighted the emerging threat and capability of equine influenza viruses for an epidemic in human beings in future. In this review article we have summarized the salient scientific reports published on the epidemiology of equine influenza viruses and their zoonotic aspect. Additionally, several recent developments in the start of 21st century, including the transmission and establishment of equine influenza viruses in different animal species i.e. camels and dogs, and presumed encephalopathy associated to influenza viruses in horses, have documented the unpredictable nature of equine influenza viruses. In sum up, several reports has highlighted the unpredictable nature of H3N8 EIVs highlighting the need of continuous surveillance for H3N8 in equines and humans in contact with them for novel and threatening mutations.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Subtipo H3N8 del Virus de la Influenza A , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Animales , China , Enfermedades de los Caballos/transmisión , Caballos , Humanos , Subtipo H3N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/transmisión , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Pakistán , Filogenia , Zoonosis
2.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105193, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536503

RESUMEN

As a novel member of the Orthomyxoviridae, influenza D virus (IDV) was firstly isolated from swine. However, cattle were found to serve as its primary reservoir. The study of IDV emergence can shed light into the dynamics of zoonotic infections and interspecies transmission. Although there is an increasing number of strains and sequenced IDV strains, their origin, epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics remain unclear. In this study, we reconstruct the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of IDVs. Molecular detection of swine tissue samples shows that six IDV positive samples were identified in the Eastern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest three major IDV lineages designated as D/Japan, D/OK and D/660 as well as intermediate lineages. IDVs show strong association with geographical location indicating a high level of local transmission, which suggests IDVs tend to establish a local lineage of in situ evolution. In addition, the D/OK lineage widely circulates in swine in Eastern China, and all of the Chinese virus isolates form a distinct sub-clade (D/China sub-lineage). Furthermore, we identified important amino acids in the HEF gene under positive selection that might affect its receptor binding cavity relevant for its broader cell tropism. The combined results highlight that more attention should be paid to the potential threat of IDV to livestock and farming in China.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae , Thogotovirus , Animales , Bovinos , Evolución Molecular , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Filogenia , Porcinos , Thogotovirus/genética
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1181: 338933, 2021 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556218

RESUMEN

Influenza viruses are highly variable pathogens that infect a wide range of mammalian and avian species. According to the internal conserved proteins (nucleoprotein: NP, and matrix proteins: M), these viruses are classified into type A, B, C, and D. Influenza A virus in swine is of significant importance to the industry since it is responsible for endemic infections that lead to high economic loses derived from poor weight gain, reproductive disorders, and the role it plays in Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex (PRDC). To date, swine influenza virus (SIV) diagnosis continues to be based in complex and expensive technologies such as RT-qPCR. In this study, we aimed to improve actual tools by the implementation of aptamers as capture molecules. First, three different aptamers have been selected using as target the recombinant NP of Influenza A virus expressed in insect cells. Then, these molecules have been used for the development of an Enzyme-Linked AptaSorbent Assay (ELASA) in combination with specific monoclonal antibodies for Influenza A detection. A total of 171 field samples (nasal swabs) have been evaluated with the newly developed assay obtaining a 79.7% and 98.1% sensitivity and specificity respectively, using real time RT-PCR as standard assay. These results suggest that the assay is a promising method that could be used for Influenza A detection in analysis laboratories facilitating surveillance labours.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Humanos , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3174-3179, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288514

RESUMEN

Influenza A virus (IAV) was a neglected swine pathogen in South America before the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm2009). The A(H1N1)pdm2009 strain has widely spread among the Chilean swine population and co-circulates with endemic H1N2 and H3N2 viruses. The presence of IAV as a swine pathogen in Chilean swine before the 2009 pandemic is unknown. To understand the IAV in swine prior to 2009, aY retrospective study of samples from pigs affected with respiratory diseases was conducted. Ninety formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lung tissues belonging to 21 intensive pig production companies located in five different administrative regions of Chile, collected between 2005 and 2008, were evaluated. The tissues were tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC), identifying that 9 out of 21 farms (42.8%) and 31 out of 90 (34.4%) samples were IAV positive. Only three out of the 31 IHC-positive samples were positive upon RNA extraction and rtRT-PCR analysis. Partial nucleotide sequences were obtained from one sample and characterized as an H3N2 subtype closely related to a human seasonal H3N2 IAVs that circulated globally in the mid-90s. These results indicate that IAV was circulating in swine before 2009 and highlight the value of conducting retrospective studies through genomic strategies to analyse historical samples.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Virus de la Influenza A , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Chile/epidemiología , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Filogenia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
5.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065839

RESUMEN

Equine influenza virus (EIV) is one of the most important respiratory pathogens of horses as outbreaks of the disease lead to significant economic losses worldwide. In this review, we summarize the information available on equine influenza (EI) in South America. In the region, the major events of EI occurred almost in the same period in the different countries, and the EIV isolated showed high genetic identity at the hemagglutinin gene level. It is highly likely that the continuous movement of horses, some of them subclinically infected, among South American countries, facilitated the spread of the virus. Although EI vaccination is mandatory for mobile or congregates equine populations in the region, EI outbreaks continuously threaten the equine industry. Vaccine breakdown could be related to the fact that many of the commercial vaccines available in the region contain out-of-date EIV strains, and some of them even lack reliable information about immunogenicity and efficacy. This review highlights the importance of disease surveillance and reinforces the need to harmonize quarantine and biosecurity protocols, and encourage vaccine manufacturer companies to carry out quality control procedures and update the EIV strains in their products.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/virología , Virus de la Influenza A , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Geografía Médica , Caballos , Virus de la Influenza A/clasificación , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Filogenia , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , ARN Viral , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , América del Sur/epidemiología
6.
Anim Health Res Rev ; 22(1): 56-71, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075870

RESUMEN

Influenza is an extremely contagious respiratory disease, which predominantly affects the upper respiratory tract. There are four types of influenza virus, and pigs and chickens are considered two key reservoirs of this virus. Equine influenza (EI) virus was first identified in horses in 1956, in Prague. The influenza A viruses responsible for EI are H7N7 and H3N8. Outbreaks of EI are characterized by their visible and rapid spread, and it has been possible to isolate and characterize H3N8 outbreaks in several countries. The clinical diagnosis of this disease is based on the clinical signs presented by the infected animals, which can be confirmed by performing complementary diagnostic tests. In the diagnosis of EI, in the field, rapid antigen detection tests can be used for a first approach. Treatment is based on the management of the disease and rest for the animal. Regarding the prognosis, it will depend on several factors, such as the animal's vaccination status. One of the important points in this disease is its prevention, which can be done through vaccination. In addition to decreasing the severity of clinical signs and morbidity during outbreaks, vaccination ensures immunity for the animals, reducing the economic impact of this disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos , Subtipo H3N8 del Virus de la Influenza A , Subtipo H7N7 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/prevención & control , Caballos , Humanos , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria
7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253297, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133472

RESUMEN

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is the cause of an important waterborne disease of farmed Atlantic salmon. Detection of virus in water samples may constitute an alternative method to sacrificing fish for surveillance of fish populations for the presence of ISA-virus. We aimed to evaluate different membrane filters and buffers for concentration and recovery of ISAV in seawater, prior to molecular detection. One litre each of artificial and natural seawater was spiked with ISAV, followed by concentration with different filters and subsequent elution with different buffers. The negatively charged MF hydrophilic membrane filter, combined with NucliSENS® lysis buffer, presented the highest ISAV recovery percentages with 12.5 ± 1.3% by RT-qPCR and 31.7 ± 10.7% by RT-ddPCR. For the positively charged 1 MDS Zeta Plus® Virosorb® membrane filter, combined with NucliSENS® lysis buffer, the ISAV recovery percentages were 3.4 ± 0.1% by RT-qPCR and 10.8 ± 14.2% by RT-ddPCR. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were estimated to be 2.2 x 103 ISAV copies/L of natural seawater for both RT-qPCR and RT-ddPCR. The ISAV concentration method was more efficient in natural seawater.


Asunto(s)
Filtración/métodos , Enfermedades de los Peces/virología , Isavirus , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Agua de Mar/virología , Animales , Tampones (Química) , Filtración/instrumentación , Enfermedades de los Peces/prevención & control , Membranas Artificiales , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Salmo salar/virología
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11276, 2021 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050216

RESUMEN

Surveillance of swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) allows timely detection and identification of new variants with potential zoonotic risks. In this study, we aimed to identify swIAV subtypes that circulated in pigs in Belgium and the Netherlands between 2014 and 2019, and characterize their genetic and antigenic evolution. We subtyped all isolates and analyzed hemagglutinin sequences and hemagglutination inhibition assay data for H1 swIAV, which were the dominant HA subtype. We also analyzed whole genome sequences (WGS) of selected isolates. Out of 200 samples, 89 tested positive for swIAV. swIAV of H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected. Analysis of WGS of 18 H1 swIAV isolates revealed three newly emerged genotypes. The European avian-like H1 swIAV (lineage 1C) were predominant and accounted for 47.2% of the total isolates. They were shown to evolve faster than the European human-like H1 (1B lineage) swIAV, which represented 27% of the isolates. The 2009 pandemic H1 swIAV (lineage 1A) accounted for only 5.6% of the isolates and showed divergence from their precursor virus. These results point to the increasing divergence of swIAV and stress the need for continuous surveillance of swIAV.


Asunto(s)
Epítopos/genética , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Animales , Bélgica/epidemiología , Evolución Biológica , Evolución Molecular , Genotipo , Pruebas de Inhibición de Hemaglutinación , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/genética , Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos , Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 345, 2021 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985436

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infectious Salmonid Anaemia Virus (ISAV) causes a notifiable disease that poses a large threat for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture worldwide. There is no fully effective treatment or vaccine, and therefore selective breeding to increase resistance to ISAV is a promising avenue for disease prevention. Genomic selection and potentially genome editing can be applied to enhance host resistance, and these approaches benefit from improved knowledge of the genetic and functional basis of the target trait. The aim of this study was to characterise the genetic architecture of resistance to ISAV in a commercial Atlantic salmon population and study its underlying functional genomic basis using RNA Sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 2833 Atlantic salmon parr belonging to 194 families were exposed to ISAV in a cohabitation challenge in which cumulative mortality reached 63% over 55 days. A total of 1353 animals were genotyped using a 55 K SNP array, and the estimate of heritability for the trait of binary survival was 0.13-0.33 (pedigree-genomic). A genome-wide association analysis confirmed that resistance to ISAV was a polygenic trait, albeit a genomic region in chromosome Ssa13 was significantly associated with resistance and explained 3% of the genetic variance. RNA sequencing of the heart of 16 infected (7 and 14 days post infection) and 8 control fish highlighted 4927 and 2437 differentially expressed genes at 7 and 14 days post infection respectively. The complement and coagulation pathway was down-regulated in infected fish, while several metabolic pathways were up-regulated. The interferon pathway showed little evidence of up-regulation at 7 days post infection but was mildly activated at 14 days, suggesting a potential crosstalk between host and virus. Comparison of the transcriptomic response of fish with high and low breeding values for resistance highlighted TRIM25 as being up-regulated in resistant fish. CONCLUSIONS: ISAV resistance shows moderate heritability with a polygenic architecture, but a significant QTL was detected on chromosome 13. A mild up-regulation of the interferon pathway characterises the response to the virus in heart samples from this population of Atlantic salmon, and candidate genes showing differential expression between samples with high and low breeding values for resistance were identified.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces , Isavirus , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Salmo salar , Animales , Enfermedades de los Peces/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Isavirus/genética , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Salmo salar/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(7): 2753-2761, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037823

RESUMEN

Swine influenza virus (SIV) belongs to family Orthomyxoviridae and can cause acute respiratory infection in pigs. Several pandemic H1N1 human fatal influenza cases were reported in India. Though pigs are predisposed to both avian and human influenza virus infections with the potential to generate novel reassortants, there are only a few reports of SIV in Indian pigs. We conducted a serological survey to assess the status of H1N1 infection in pigs of various states in India, between 2009 and 2016. Based on Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, seroprevalence rate of H1N1 virus ranged between 5.2% (2009) and 36.3% (2011). Widespread prevalence of antibody was observed in eastern Uttar Pradesh from 6.2 to 37.5% during the study period. Co-circulation of seasonal H1N1 virus along with pandemic H1N1 virus was indicated by the presence of specific antibodies against seasonal H1N1 virus in eastern part of Uttar Pradesh. Seroprevalence rate in pigs and influenza infection trend in human shows the possible spill over transmission of influenza to pigs from human. Hence, besides serological surveillance, continuous and systematic molecular surveillance should be implemented in pig population to reduce/quantify the risk and emergence of pandemic influenza.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
11.
Vet J ; 272: 105674, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941332

RESUMEN

From late 2018 to 2019, equine influenza virus (EIV) strains of Florida sublineage clade 1 (Fc1), which had until then been circulating mainly in the United States, suddenly spread across Europe causing many outbreaks, and Florida sublineage clade 2 (Fc2) strains, which had been circulating mainly in Europe, have not been detected in Europe since 2018. Since 2010, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has recommended that EIV vaccines contain an Fc1 strain that is like A/equine/South Africa/4/2003 or A/equine/Ohio/2003. Accordingly, Japanese vaccines contain A/equine/Ibaraki/1/2007 as the Fc1 strain. To evaluate the effectiveness of these vaccines against the Fc1 strains detected in Europe in 2019, we performed virus neutralization tests using horse antisera. Challenge viruses used were Irish strain A/equine/Tipperary/1/2019 and two recombinant viruses generated by reverse genetics. Recombinant viruses possessing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) derived from A/equine/Tipperary/1/2019 (rA/equine/Tipperary/1/2019) or British strain A/equine/Essex/1/2019 (rA/equine/Essex/1/2019) were generated. Equine antisera against A/equine/South Africa/2003 and A/equine/Ibaraki/2007 were produced by experimental infection. Antibody titers against A/equine/Tipperary/1/2019, rA/equine/Tipperary/1/2019, and rA/equine/Essex/1/2019 were 2.5- to 6.3-fold lower than those against the homologous vaccine strains A/equine/South Africa/4/2003 or A/equine/Ibaraki/2007. These results suggest that the ongoing evolution of the Fc1 viruses may impact on antigenicity and although antibodies against current vaccine strains neutralize the 2019 strains, ongoing surveillance is essential for optimum choice of candidate vaccine strains.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/virología , Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Florida , Caballos , Subtipo H3N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Vacunación/veterinaria
12.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(5): 503-515, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987931

RESUMEN

Swine influenza A viruses (S-IAV) circulate in wild boar populations worldwide. Subtypes primarily reflect those actually present within the respective pig industry. Accordingly, infections with swine H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 have been reported for several regions of Germany. As pigs are susceptible not only to S-IAV but also to avian and human influenza A viruses, it is necessary to consider the possibility that new reassortant viruses with pandemic potential may arise in these new hosts. Therefore, in this study the impact of recent IAV epidemics on antibody prevalences in Bavarian wild boar was assessed. Important events considered were the H1N1pdm09 pandemic, which affected humans and swine, and the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 panzootic in 2016 and 2017, affecting wild and domestic birds. IAV seroprevalences were determined analysing 1,396 samples from before and after the H5N8 panzootic, from various regions in Bavaria, a large administrative region in the South of Germany. Taken together, seroprevalences varied markedly from 1.44% to 12.59%, relative to region and time. However, no discrete correlation was found to population density either in wild boar or in pigs. Antibodies against H1N1 were the most prevalent. In addition, antibodies were detected reacting against H1N2 and against H1pdmNx reassortant viruses, already known to circulate in domestic pigs in Bavaria and notably also against the avian influenza A virus H5N8; the latter in samples taken in 2017. These results confirm the exposure of wild boar to IAV of diverse origin and the increasing variability of S-IAV present in the field. The necessity for continuous IAV surveillance not only of domestic swine but also of wildlife is emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Virus de la Influenza A , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Sus scrofa/virología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/clasificación , Especificidad de Anticuerpos , Alemania/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
13.
Microb Pathog ; 157: 104885, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991641

RESUMEN

To prevent and control H3N8 subtype equine influenza, we prepared virus-like particles (VLPs) comprising the HA, NA and M1 proteins of H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) through the insect cell-baculovirus expression system. The results of Western blot and hemagglutination analyses demonstrated that the constructed VLPs comprising HA, NA and M1 proteins have good hemagglutination activity. Immunoelectron microscope revealed that the VLPs share similar morphology and structure with natural virus particles. The hyperimmune serum from horses immunized with the VLPs were injected into mice by means of artificial passive immunization and then challenge, or challenge following by injecting hyperimmune serum. The results showed that the equine hyperimmune serum has good preventive and therapeutic efficacy against the infection of H3N8 EIV. The study provides a technical foundation for the development of H3N8 EIV VLP vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos , Subtipo H3N8 del Virus de la Influenza A , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Vacunas de Partículas Similares a Virus , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Enfermedades de los Caballos/prevención & control , Caballos , Subtipo H3N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Ratones , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria
14.
Microb Pathog ; 157: 104992, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044053

RESUMEN

Previous studies have shown that chimeric bat influenza viruses can be generated by reverse genetic system. However, the roles of the surface or internal genes of chimeric bat influenza viruses in viral replication and virulence in different host species were still not completely understood. In this study, we generated a chimeric H9N2 bat virus with both HA and NA surface genes from the avian A2093/H9N2 virus and compared its replication and virulence with the chimeric H1N1 bat virus with both HA and NA from the PR8/H1N1 virus in vitro and in mice. The chimeric H1N1 virus showed significantly higher replication in mammalian and avian cells and significantly higher virulence in mice than the chimeric H9N2 virus. Moreover, the chimeric H9N2 virus with the bat influenza internal M gene showed a higher replication in mammalian cells than in avian cells. While the chimeric H9N2 virus with the avian-origin viral M gene displayed a higher replication than that with the bat influenza M gene in avian cells, which likely resulted from increased receptor binding ability to α 2,3 sialic acid linked glycans of the former virus. Our study indicates that bat influenza internal genes are permissive in both mammalian and avian cells, and the bat influenza internal M gene shows more compatibility in mammals than in the avian host. Although the surface genes play more critical roles for viral replication in different host substrates, influenza M gene also potentially impacts on replication, virulence and host tropism.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Subtipo H9N2 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Animales , Subtipo H9N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Mamíferos , Ratones , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Virulencia , Replicación Viral
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 258: 109071, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965701

RESUMEN

The synergism of the influenza virus and respiratory tract pathogens is known to exacerbate diseases in both humans and animals. The mechanism of the co-infection of associated respiratory tract pathogens is explored in this study. Co-infection has a directional effect when influenza virus or other pathogens occur in a different order. In the present study, we used a mouse animal model to study the synergism of influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infection in different orders of administration. We found that the group infected with bacteria alone did not show any clinical symptoms, but the group infected with the virus alone showed 100 % mortality and clinical signs typical in infected mice. In the bacteria infected following virus pre-exposure group, the mice died before the virus-infected group and showed severer clinical signs. When the influenza virus was administered after the bacteria, the infected mice showed reduced mortality compared with mice administered the influenza virus alone. The results indicated that the order of infection significantly affected the outcome of the co-infection of these two pathogens in the mice. However, the underlying mechanism was unclear. Therefore, a transcriptome analysis of mouse lungs was conducted to explore the potential mechanism. The results showed that inflammation and cell damage signaling pathways were upregulated, which may have contributed to the increased mortality in the secondary bacterial infection group. Upregulated innate immunity may have been a major cause of reduced mortality when the bacteria were inoculated before the virus infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/complicaciones , Streptococcus suis , Animales , Coinfección , Perros , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/inmunología , Inmunidad Innata , Inflamación/metabolismo , Células de Riñón Canino Madin Darby , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/complicaciones , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos , Regulación hacia Arriba
16.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101730, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957484

RESUMEN

Hunters are at a higher risk for exposure to zoonotic pathogens due to their close interactions with wildlife and arthropod vectors. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to explore the viromes of two tick species, Amblyomma dissimile and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, removed from hunted wildlife in Trinidad and Tobago. We identified sequences from 3 new viral species, from the viral families Orthomyxoviridae, Chuviridae and Tetraviridae in A. dissimile.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos , Iguanas , Ixodidae/virología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Orthomyxoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Orthomyxoviridae/clasificación , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Filogenia , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/parasitología , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria , Trinidad y Tobago , Proteínas Virales/análisis
17.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805956

RESUMEN

Bats are natural reservoirs for many viruses, including several that are zoonotic. Two unusual H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viruses have been found in New World bats. Although neither of these viruses have been isolated, infectious clone technology has permitted significant progress to understand their biology, which include unique features compared to all other known influenza A viruses. In addition, an H9N2-like influenza A virus was isolated from Old World bats and it shows similar characteristics of normal influenza A viruses. In this review, current status and perspective on influenza A viruses identified in bats is reviewed and discussed.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Orthomyxoviridae/clasificación , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Animales , Humanos , Subtipo H9N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Gripe Humana/virología , Ratones , Orthomyxoviridae/inmunología , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/inmunología , Zoonosis Virales/transmisión , Replicación Viral
18.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808674

RESUMEN

Reassortment among co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAVs) is an important source of viral diversity and can facilitate expansion into novel host species. Indeed, reassortment played a key role in the evolution of the last three pandemic IAVs. Observed patterns of reassortment within a coinfected host are likely to be shaped by several factors, including viral load, the extent of viral mixing within the host and the stringency of selection. These factors in turn are expected to vary among the diverse host species that IAV infects. To investigate host differences in IAV reassortment, here we examined reassortment of two distinct avian IAVs within their natural host (mallards) and a mammalian model system (guinea pigs). Animals were co-inoculated with A/wildbird/California/187718-36/2008 (H3N8) and A/mallard/Colorado/P66F1-5/2008 (H4N6) viruses. Longitudinal samples were collected from the cloaca of mallards or the nasal tract of guinea pigs and viral genetic exchange was monitored by genotyping clonal isolates from these samples. Relative to those in guinea pigs, viral populations in mallards showed higher frequencies of reassortant genotypes and were characterized by higher genotype richness and diversity. In line with these observations, analysis of pairwise segment combinations revealed lower linkage disequilibrium in mallards as compared to guinea pigs. No clear longitudinal patterns in richness, diversity or linkage disequilibrium were present in either host. Our results reveal mallards to be a highly permissive host for IAV reassortment and suggest that reduced viral mixing limits avian IAV reassortment in a mammalian host.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H3N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Gripe Aviar , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Animales , Perros , Patos , Femenino , Cobayas , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/virología , Estudios Longitudinales , Células de Riñón Canino Madin Darby , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Virus Reordenados
19.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 60, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883034

RESUMEN

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are common causes of respiratory infection in pigs. The objective of this study was to characterize the circulation of IAVs between weaning and market age on the basis of development of antibody response and molecular epidemiology of detected viruses. Two batches of weaned pigs were followed in the nursery and finisher barns with a sample of 81 and 75 pigs. Nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from individual pigs for virological and serological analyses. A H3N2 subtype virus, of cluster IV, was detected in Study 1, with a maximum of 97.9% identity to HA gene of viruses previously isolated in Ontario. In Study 2, a H1N1 subtype virus, of 2009 H1N1 pandemic lineage, was detected, with a maximum of 97.8% identity to HA gene of viruses previously isolated in Ontario. On the basis of HA gene, it was observed that pigs were being detected with the same virus over time. The existence of antibody titers for IAV other than the isolated one confirmed that more than one subtype can circulate in the same population. In Study 1, pigs with higher numbers of IAV detection had lower serological titers for the same virus that was confirmed to circulate in the nursery (P < 0.01). Thorough knowledge of all endemic viral strains is fundamental for development of infection and disease control, particularly in complex production systems. This may include consideration of sampling and testing strategies which could detect circulation of all IAV variants, even if they have low prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Formación de Anticuerpos , Femenino , Incidencia , Epidemiología Molecular , Ontario/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Prevalencia , Sus scrofa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Destete
20.
Vaccine ; 39(14): 1943-1950, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715905

RESUMEN

Swine influenza is an important disease for the swine industry. Currently used whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines can induce vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) in pigs when the vaccine strains mismatch with the infected viruses. Live attenuated influenza virus vaccine (LAIV) is effective to protect pigs against homologous and heterologous swine influenza virus infections without inducing VAERD but has safety concerns due to potential reassortment with circulating viruses. Herein, we used a chimeric bat influenza Bat09:mH3mN2 virus, which contains both surface HA and NA gene open reading frames of the A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) and six internal genes from the novel bat H17N10 virus, to develop modified live-attenuated viruses (MLVs) as vaccine candidates which cannot reassort with canonical influenza A viruses by co-infection. Two attenuated MLV vaccine candidates including the virus that expresses a truncated NS1 (Bat09:mH3mN2-NS1-128, MLV1) or expresses both a truncated NS1 and the swine IL-18 (Bat09:mH3mN2-NS1-128-IL-18, MLV2) were generated and evaluated in pigs against a heterologous H3N2 virus using the WIV vaccine as a control. Compared to the WIV vaccine, both MLV vaccines were able to reduce lesions and virus replication in lungs and limit nasal virus shedding without VAERD, also induced significantly higher levels of mucosal IgA response in lungs and significantly increased numbers of antigen-specific IFN-γ secreting cells against the challenge virus. However, no significant difference was observed in efficacy between the MLV1 and MLV2. These results indicate that bat influenza vectored MLV vaccines can be used as a safe live vaccine to prevent swine influenza.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Texas , Vacunas Atenuadas
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