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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 50(1): 145-150, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424078

RESUMEN

Penile cancer is relatively rare in North America and Europe (<1% of all malignant neoplasms); however, it remains a significant health concern with a higher propensity of cases in many African, South American, and Asian countries. It occurs primarily in older men with a peak incidence in the 6th decade of life. The etiology of penile cancer is multifactorial and there are many risk factors including lack of neonatal circumcision, chronic inflammation, lichen sclerosis, tobacco use, obesity, poor hygiene, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Pathogenesis of penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) can be broadly dichotomized into HPV related and non-HPV-related pathways which will be discussed in detail in this review.


Asunto(s)
Liquen Escleroso y Atrófico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Pene , Masculino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Anciano , Rayos Ultravioleta , Biomarcadores , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones
2.
Int J Cancer ; 152(2): 249-258, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852007

RESUMEN

We are reporting (a) updated incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women who did not have colposcopic or histopathological disease at baseline and (b) disease outcomes among women treated for CIN and their follow-up HPV status; in a cohort of women living with HIV (WHIV). The median overall follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR 2.8-4.3). The incidence of any CIN and that of CIN 2 or worse disease was 16.7 and 7.0 per 1000 person-years of observation (PYO), respectively. Compared with women who were HPV negative at baseline, women who cleared HPV infection had 23.95 times increased risk of incident CIN 2 or worse lesions (95% CI 2.40-661.07). Women with persistent HPV infection had 138.18 times increased risk of CIN 2 or worse lesions (95% CI 20.30-3300.22). Complete disease regression was observed in 65.6% of the HPV positive women with high-grade CIN and were treated with thermal ablation but HPV persistence was seen in 44.8% of those with high-grade disease. Among those who did not have any disease at baseline and were also HPV negative, about 87% (95% CI 83.79-89.48) women remained HPV negative during consecutive HPV test/s with the median interval of 3.5 years. Long-term surveillance of WHIV treated for any CIN is necessary for the prevention of cervical cancer among them. Our study provides an early indication that the currently recommended screening interval of 3 to 5 years among WHIV may be extended to at least 5 years among HPV negative women. Increasing the screening interval can be cost saving and improve scalability among WHIV to support WHO's cervical cancer elimination initiative.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/efectos adversos , Papillomaviridae , Estudios de Cohortes , India/epidemiología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1009968, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330509

RESUMEN

Helminth infection-driven changes to immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT) is an immune axis that is currently understudied but can have major implications for the control of FRT infections. Here we address how human hookworm infection associates with vaginal immune profile and risk of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Stool, blood, cervical swabs and vaginal flushes were collected from women from the Central region of Togo to screen for hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale) and high carcinogenic risk HPV types, via Kato Katz and PCR, respectively. Cytokine, chemokine and immunoglobulin levels were analysed in cervicovaginal lavages and plasma samples. A pronounced mixed Type 1/Type 2 immune response was detected in the vaginal fluids of women with hookworm infection and this immune signature was a notable feature in hookworm-HPV co-infected women. Moreover, hookworm infection is positively associated with increased risk and load of HPV infection. These findings highlight helminth infection as a significant risk factor for acquiring a sexually transmitted viral infection and potentially raising the risk of subsequent pathology.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis , Infecciones por Uncinaria , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Infecciones del Sistema Genital , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Vagina , Ancylostomatoidea
4.
Br Dent J ; 233(9): 780-786, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369568

RESUMEN

Introduction Head and neck cancer appears to be increasing in incidence, with potential changes in aetiology proposed. This paper aims to provide a narrative overview of the epidemiological literature to describe the disease burden and trends in terms of incidence and mortality both in the UK and globally and to review the evidence on current risk factors.Methods A search was performed on multiple databases (PubMed and Epistemonikos), applying filters to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses which investigated head and neck cancer incidence, mortality and risk factors. International and UK cancer registries and sources were searched for incidence and mortality data.Results Multiple definitions of head and neck cancer are employed in epidemiology. Globally, incidence rates have increased in recent decades, largely driven by oropharyngeal cancer. Mortality rates over the last decade have also started to rise, reflecting the disease incidence and static survival rates. Major risk factors include tobacco smoking alone and in combination with alcohol consumption, betel chewing (particularly in Southeast Asian populations) and the human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal cancer.Conclusions These epidemiological data can inform clinical and preventive service planning for head and neck cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/epidemiología , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/etiología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Papillomaviridae , Incidencia , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología
5.
Vaccine ; 40(50): 7230-7237, 2022 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328880

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterize HPV genotype distribution in HSIL and ICC- biopsies, of WLWH, in Europe, as compared to HIV-negative women. DESIGN: Cohort- and nested -case control study. METHOD: We characterized HPV genotype distribution by performing PCR on HSIL and ICC biopsies from WLWH (n = 170); 85 cases were compared to 85 HIV-negative matched controls. The proportion of patients that might be protected by HPV vaccines was estimated. RESULTS: Among WLWH (median age 36 years-old, median duration of HIV infection 70,5 months, 79% under cART): the most frequently detected HPV were HPV16 (30%), HPV35 (16%), HPV58 (14,7%), HPV31 (13,5%), and HPV52 (11,7%). HPV16 was less frequently found in WLWH, originating from Central Africa (20,5%) compared to other African regions (35,5%) (p = 0,05) or world regions (38,8%) (p = 0,007). Multiple versus single high-risk HPV infections were associated with younger age (≤35 years)(odds ratio (OR) 2,65 (95%IC: 1,3-5,2,p = 0,002), lymphocyte CD4 count < 350 cells / µL (OR 2,7 (95%IC: 2-8,5; p = 0,005), use of cART for < 18 month OR 2,2 (95%IC: 1,1-4,5),p = 0,04) or a cumulative time with undetectable HIV viral load of less than 12 months (OR 4,2 (95%IC: 2-8.5,p = 0,001). HPV 31, 33 and 35 were more frequently detected in samples from WLWH than in HIV-negative controls (p < 0,05). The 9-valent vaccine would increase HPV protection, in HIV-positive and negative women (p < 0,001). CONCLUSION: WLWH are more frequently infected with high-risk HPV other than 16 and 18 than HIV-negative ones. The use of 9-valent vaccine may prevent HSIL or ICC in up to 85% of the women. Adding HPV 35 to the HPV vaccine panel, might improve vaccine effectiveness in WLWH.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Genotipo , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Biopsia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 993785, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387876

RESUMEN

Background: Diabetes causes metabolic disorders and immune changes that may be potential triggers of cervical cancer. Therefore, diabetes is not a "bystander" to cervical cancer. However, the conclusion that diabetes promotes cervical cancer lacks clinical epidemiological evidence, and the reported potential association between diabetes and cervical cancer is controversial. Methods: We conducted an explorative cross-sectional study of 791 women with cytological HGSIL and HR-HPV, who attended the cervical clinic of the largest academic women's hospital in China from May 2019 to March 2022. After cervical screening, patients who were requiring colposcopy were tested for HbA1c. HbA1c level of 6.5% or higher defines diabetes and HbA1c level of 5.7%-6.4% was defined as prediabetes. The relationship between diabetes and cervical cancer was observed by a dose-response graph. Subgroup analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to estimate the associations between diabetes and cervical cancer. Results: Among HGSIL patients with high-risk HPV infection, compared with women with HbA1c <5.7%, the odds ratio for women with prediabetes was 1.72 (95% CI: 0.87-3.41) and the odds ratio for women with diabetes was 3.29 (95% CI: 1.10-9.80) for cervical cancer. Sensitivity analysis showed that diabetes was significantly associated with cervical cancer in different age groups and different HPV variant. E-value analysis showed robustness to unmeasured confounding. Conclusions: In patients with HR-HPV combined with HGSIL, diabetes and prediabetes are associated with cervical cancer.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Diabetes Mellitus , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Estado Prediabético , Lesiones Intraepiteliales Escamosas , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/complicaciones , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Papillomaviridae , Estudios Transversales , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Hemoglobina A Glucada
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6207701, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389117

RESUMEN

High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the main etiological factor for cervical cancer. Accumulating evidence has suggested the active role of metabolites in the initiation and progression of cancers. This study explored the plasma metabolic profiles of HPV-16 positive (HPV16 (+)), HPV-18 positive (HPV18 (+)), and HPV negative (CTL) individuals using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. C8 ceramide-1-Phosphate (d18 : 1/8 : 0) was found to inhibit cervical cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro, evidenced by CCK8 experiments, a cell migration test, RT-qPCR, and western blotting. The underlying mechanism demonstrated that C8 inhibited proliferation and migration in cervical cancer cells via the MAPK/JNK1 signaling pathway. These findings may contribute to the clinical treatment of HR-HPV-induced cervical cancer by intervening in its initiation and progression.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Femenino , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Cuello del Útero , Metabolómica
8.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1146, 2022 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344942

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) are sensitive to chemo-radiation therapy and have favorable survival outcomes compared with HPV-negative cancers. These tumors are usually not related to tobacco and alcohol exposure. Therefore, diagnosing HPV-positive OPSCCs for the appropriate disease management is crucial, and no suitable markers are available for detecting early malignancies in HPV-infected tissues. In this study, we attempt to find HPV-specific epigenetic biomarkers for OPSCCs. METHODS: A total of 127 surgical samples were analyzed for HPV positivity and promoter methylation of a panel of genes. HPV detection was performed by PCR detection of HPV E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. In addition, promoter methylation of a total of 8 genes (DAPK, FHIT, RASSF1A, TIMP3, AGTR1, CSGALNACT2, GULP1 and VGF) was analyzed by quantitative-methylation specific PCR (QMSP), and their associations with HPV positivity or RB/p16 expressions were evaluated. RESULTS: AGTR1 and FHIT were frequently methylated in HPV-positive OPSCC samples with a good area under the curve (AUC over 0.70). In addition, these genes' promoter methylation was significantly associated with p16 positive and RB negative cases, which were the characteristics of OPSCC cases with favorable survival outcomes. Either AGTR1 or FHIT methylated cases were significantly associated with HPV-positive cancers with 92.0% sensitivity (P < 0.001). Also, they had significantly better overall survival (P = 0.047) than both unmethylated cases. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of AGTR1 and FHIT methylation demonstrated a suitable detection marker of OPSCCs derived from the HPV-infected field, familiar with p16-positive and RB-negative phenotypes.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Proteínas Oncogénicas Virales , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/genética , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Proteínas Oncogénicas Virales/genética , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/complicaciones , Inhibidor p16 de la Quinasa Dependiente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/metabolismo , ADN Viral/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362165

RESUMEN

Ingenol mebutate (IM) is highly effective in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced anogenital warts (AGW) leading to fast ablation within hours. However, the exact mode of action is still largely unknown. We performed dermoscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy (CLM), histology, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence to gain insights in mechanisms of IM treatment in AGW. In addition, we used in vitro assays (ELISA, HPV-transfection models) to further investigate in vivo findings. IM treatment leads to a strong recruitment of neutrophils with thrombosis of small skin vessels within 8 h, in a sense of immunothrombosis. In vivo and in vitro analyses showed that IM supports a prothrombotic environment by endothelial cell activation and von Willebrand factor (VWF) secretion, in addition to induction of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis). IM superinduces CXCL8/IL-8 expression in HPV-E6/E7 transfected HaCaT cells when compared to non-infected keratinocytes. Rapid ablation of warts after IM treatment can be well explained by the observed immunothrombosis. This new mechanism has so far only been observed in HPV-induced lesions and is completely different from the mechanisms we see in the treatment of transformed keratinocytes in actinic keratosis. Our initial findings indicate an HPV-specific effect, which could be also of interest for the treatment of other HPV-induced lesions. Larger studies are now needed to further investigate the potential of IM in different HPV tumors.


Asunto(s)
Condiloma Acuminado , Diterpenos , Queratosis Actínica , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Anomalías Cutáneas , Verrugas , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Condiloma Acuminado/tratamiento farmacológico , Diterpenos/farmacología , Diterpenos/uso terapéutico , Queratosis Actínica/tratamiento farmacológico , Papillomaviridae , Necrosis
11.
Nat Cancer ; 3(11): 1300-1317, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434392

RESUMEN

Five-year survival for human papilloma virus-unrelated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas remain below 50%. We assessed the safety of administering combination hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy with single-dose durvalumab (anti-PD-L1) neoadjuvantly (n = 21) ( NCT03635164 ). The primary endpoint of the study was safety, which was met. Secondary endpoints included radiographic, pathologic and objective response; locoregional control; progression-free survival; and overall survival. Among evaluable patients at an early median follow-up of 16 months (448 d or 64 weeks), overall survival was 80.1% with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) (62.0%, 100.0%), locoregional control and progression-free survival were 75.8% with 95% CI (57.5%, 99.8%), and major pathological response or complete response was 75% with 95% exact CI (51.6%, 100.0%). For patients treated with 24 Gy, 89% with 95% CI (57.1%, 100.0%) had MPR or CR. Using high-dimensional multi-omics and spatial data as well as biological correlatives, we show that responders had: (1) an increase in effector T cells; (2) a decrease in immunosuppressive cells; and (3) an increase in antigen presentation post-treatment.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Radiocirugia , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/terapia , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Radiocirugia/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/terapia
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241538, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367724

RESUMEN

Importance: Patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with radiotherapy often experience substantial toxic effects, even with modern techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) has a potential advantage over IMRT due to reduced dose to the surrounding organs at risk; however, data are scarce given the limited availability and use of IMPT. Objective: To compare toxic effects and oncologic outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic OPC treated with IMPT vs IMRT with or without chemotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic OPC who received curative-intent radiotherapy with IMPT or IMRT at a single-institution tertiary academic cancer center from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2021, with follow-up through December 31, 2021. Exposures: IMPT or IMRT with or without chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the incidence of acute and chronic (present after ≥6 months) treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and oncologic outcomes, including locoregional recurrence (LRR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Fisher exact tests and χ2 tests were used to evaluate associations between toxic effects and treatment modality (IMPT vs IMRT), and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare LRR, PFS, and OS between the 2 groups. Results: The study included 292 patients with OPC (272 [93%] with human papillomavirus [HPV]-p16-positive tumors); 254 (87%) were men, 38 (13%) were women, and the median age was 64 years (IQR, 58-71 years). Fifty-eight patients (20%) were treated with IMPT, and 234 (80%) were treated with IMRT. Median follow-up was 26 months (IQR, 17-36 months). Most patients (283 [97%]) received a dose to the primary tumor of 70 Gy. Fifty-seven of the patients treated with IMPT (98%) and 215 of those treated with IMRT (92%) had HPV-p16-positive disease. There were no significant differences in 3-year OS (97% IMPT vs 91% IMRT; P = .18), PFS (82% IMPT vs 85% IMRT; P = .62), or LRR (5% IMPT vs 4% IMRT; P = .59). The incidence of acute toxic effects was significantly higher for IMRT compared with IMPT for oral pain of grade 2 or greater (42 [72%] IMPT vs 217 [93%] IMRT; P < .001), xerostomia of grade 2 or greater (12 [21%] IMPT vs 68 [29%] IMRT; P < .001), dysgeusia of grade 2 or greater (16 [28%] IMPT vs 134 [57%] IMRT; P < .001), grade 3 dysphagia (4 [7%] IMPT vs 29 [12%] IMRT; P < .001), mucositis of grade 3 or greater (10 [53%] IMPT vs 13 [70%] IMRT; P = .003), nausea of grade 2 or greater (0 [0%] IMPT vs 18 [8%] IMRT; P = .04), and weight loss of grade 2 or greater (22 [37%] IMPT vs 138 [59%] IMRT; P < .001). There were no significant differences in chronic toxic effects of grade 3 or greater, although there was a significant difference for chronic xerostomia of grade 2 or greater (6 IMPT [11%] vs 22 IMRT [10%]; P < .001). Four patients receiving IMRT (2%) vs 0 receiving IMPT had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube for longer than 6 months. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, curative-intent radiotherapy with IMPT for nonmetastatic OPC was associated with a significantly reduced acute toxicity burden compared with IMRT, with few chronic toxic effects and favorable oncologic outcomes, including locoregional recurrence of only 5% at 2 years. Prospective randomized clinical trials comparing these 2 technologies and of patient-reported outcomes are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Terapia de Protones , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada , Xerostomía , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/efectos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/métodos , Terapia de Protones/efectos adversos , Terapia de Protones/métodos , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/etiología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patología , Xerostomía/etiología
13.
J Reprod Immunol ; 154: 103763, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399874

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a multisystem disease and cause of a global pandemic. Lately, cases of disease progression of HPV-infected CIN under SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported giving rise to the hypothesis of direct virus-infection induced pro-carcinogenic effect of SARS-CoV-2. We herein present a case of rapid progression from HPV-induced CIN 2 to microinvasive carcinoma within three months under COVID-19 without direct virus infection. Histopathologic evaluation, Fluorescence-in-situ hybridization and qRT-PCR against SARS-CoV-2 RNA as well as gene expression analysis were performed from the available FFPE-tissue and accompanied by an analysis of white blood cell differential. No signs of direct SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 typical alterations of cervical tissue were found. As expected, p53 decreased in expression with progression of dysplasia, while APOBEC3A and VISTA showed a decrease in expression contrary to observations in dysplasia progression. PD-L1 was expressed consistently or increased slightly but did not show the expected strong induction of expression. DNMT1 showed an increase in expression in CIN III and a slight decrease in carcinoma, while DNMT3a is consistently expressed in CIN II and decreased in carcinoma. Blood tests after COVID-19 showed substantial reduction of lymphocytes, eosinophils, T-cells, and NK-cells. Our results hint at an indirect effect of COVID-19 on the cervical neoplasm. We conclude that the immune system might be preoccupied and exhausted by the concurring COVID-19 disease, leading to less immunological pressure on the HPV-infected cervical dysplasia enabling rapid disease progression. Further, indirect proangiogenic and proinflammatory micromilieu due to the multisystemic effects of COVID-19 might play an additional role.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Femenino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , ARN Viral , Leucocitos , Progresión de la Enfermedad
14.
Virol J ; 19(1): 194, 2022 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 is one of the prevalent oncogenic HPV genotypes in East Asia. Chinese women have the highest susceptibility to the HPV52 type, but research data on HPV52 genetic variability and its carcinogenicity in China is lacking. METHODS: The present study aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HPV52 currently circulating among Chinese women by PCR sequencing the entire E6 and E7 oncogenes. HPV52 sequence alignment, genetic heterogeneity analyses and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree construction were performed by BioEdit software and MEGA X software. RESULTS: Between 2016 and 2018, the overall HPV infection rate was 21.3%, of which HPV52 was the most prevalent high-risk type (17.2%) in the Taizhou area, China. A total of 339 single HPV52-positive samples were included in this study. We obtained 27 distinct variation patterns of HPV52 with the accession GenBank numbers ON529577-ON529603. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 96.6% of HPV52 variants belonged to lineage B, which seemed to be uniquely defined by G350T, A379G (K93R) in the E6 gene and C751T, A801G in the E7 gene. Due to the dominance of lineage B in our study population, the results could not be used to assess the association of the HPV52 (sub)lineage with the risk of cervical lesions. In addition, no significant trends were observed between the nucleotide substitutions of HPV52 variants and the risk of cervical carcinogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that HPV52 variants were strongly biased towards lineage B. These results confirmed that cervical lesions in the Taizhou area are highly attributable to HPV52, which may be due to the high infection rate of lineage B in the population.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Oncogénicas Virales , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Femenino , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Proteínas Oncogénicas Virales/genética , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Oncogenes , China/epidemiología
15.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(11): 3931-3937, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444607

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most important malignancies, worldwide. Oncogenic viruses, such as human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are linked to these cancers and studies suggest a possible interaction between HPV and EBV during co-infections to promote oncogenesis. Nonetheless, these reports are controversial and demand more investigations in this regard. The present work to assessed the prevalence of HPV and co-infection with EBV in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were collected from 166 archived oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma samples from Ahvaz Imam Khomeini hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, from March 2013 and December 2019. Nested-PCR was used to detect the viruses and type-specific PCR/nested-PCR and sequencing were performed for virus genotyping. RESULTS: Out of the 166 specimens, 84.33% and 16.42% were from oral cavity and oropharynx, respectively; of which, 32 cases (19.3%) were HPV-positive (16.42% of oral cavity and 34.6% of oropharynx). HPV was detected in 36.36%, 25%, and 16.42% of base of tongue, tonsil, and oral tongue tumors, respectively. HPV was more associated with well differentiated tumors (24;18.04%) in compared to moderately and poorly differentiated ones. Regarding HPV-16 genotyping, 7 (21.8%) out of the 32 samples were found to be HPV-16 (4/26 (15.38%) for oropharynx and 3/140 (2.14%) for oral cavity). Moreover, 90 samples were evaluated for EBV infection and co-infection; of which, 4 (4.4%) subjects tested positive for EBV, including two cases with HPV co-infection. All the positive cases were EBV type B, from oral cavity, and histologically well differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: HPV was more associated with oropharyngeal cancer. This association has been linked to various factors such as repeated oral and oropharyngeal exposure to HPV due to change in patterns of sexual behaviors; a phenomenon that may demand routine HPV vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Coinfección , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Neoplasias de la Boca , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/complicaciones , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Boca/epidemiología
16.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(11): 3915-3922, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444605

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and to examine the association of HPV in histological grades of dysplasia using p16 and Anti-E6 oncoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study focused on clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant disorders. Clinical parameters such as age, gender, habits, occupation, duration, site, and the type of the lesions were examined and the incisional biopsy was done on the selected cases for the histopathological diagnosis. Selected cases of OPMDs were screened immunohistochemically for HPV 16 and HPV 18 (high-risk group) positivity using p16INK4a and Anti-E6 oncoprotein. The immunohistochemical p16 expression was evaluated based on (a) percentage of p16 positive cases and (b) pattern of p16 staining in various grades of OPMD. RESULTS: Anti-E6 oncoprotein (HR-HPV) expression level was only detected in 11 cases (37%), and positive expression of p16 was found in three cases (10%), with variation in cell proportion and intensity. Subsequently, the association between p16 expression level and clinicopathological characteristic factors was analyzed and a significant association was found between age and histopathology. CONCLUSION: There was an association between HPV and OPMD. Both biomarker tests, HPV E6 and p16 immunocytochemistry had a specific role in the detection of HR-HPV. Anti-E6 immunocytochemistry can be a valuable test with higher specificity for HPV DNA detection in oral epithelial dysplasia without losing sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Inhibidor p16 de la Quinasa Dependiente de Ciclina , Hiperplasia , Proteínas Oncogénicas
17.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 384, 2022 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316680

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a costing tool, the Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool, to estimate the comprehensive cost of cervical cancer primary, secondary and tertiary prevention in low- and middle-income countries. The tool was piloted in the United Republic of Tanzania, a country with a high incidence of cervical cancer with 62.5 cases per 100,000 women in 2020. This paper presents the costing tool methods as well as the results from the pilot in Tanzania. METHODS: The C4P tool estimates the incremental costs of cervical cancer prevention and control programmes. It estimates the financial (monetary costs to the government) and economic costs (opportunity costs). For the pilot, the study team collected data on costs and programme assumptions for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 14-year-old girls and scaling up of cervical cancer screening (visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV-DNA testing) and treatment for women for 2020-2024. Assumptions were made on how vaccination coverage would increase over the 5 years as well as developing additional screening and treatment capacity through health personnel training and infrastructure strengthening. RESULTS: The total financial and economic costs of the comprehensive programme during 2020-2024 are projected to be US$68 million and US$124 million, respectively. The financial and economic costs of a fully immunized girl with HPV vaccine are estimated to be US$6.68 and US$17.31, respectively, while the costs per woman screened for cervical cancer are, on average, US$4.02 and US$5.83, respectively; US$6.44 and US$9.37 for pre-cancer treatment, respectively; and US$101 and US$107 for diagnosis of invasive cancer, respectively. The cost of treating and managing invasive cancer range from US$7.05 and US$7.83 for outpatient palliative care to US$800.21 and US$893.80 for radiotherapy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The C4P costing tool can assist national cervical cancer programmes to estimate monetary resources needed as well as opportunity costs of reducing national cervical cancer incidence through primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapéutico , Vacunación , Análisis Costo-Beneficio
18.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364788

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: About 87% of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients (mostly oropharyngeal cancer-OPC) are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). Recent studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between HPV infection and nutritional disorders in HNC patients. Therefore, we formed a hypothesis that nutritional disorders or their severity in HNC patients may be associated with the occurrence of HPV infection due to known molecular differences in involved tissue. This literature review aimed to evaluate the influence of HPV infection on the occurrence and severity of nutritional disorders in HNC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed database was used to search papers with the keywords "HPV", "HNC", and "nutritional disorders" in different variants and combinations. CONCLUSIONS: The data available in the discussed papers indicate, among other things, that HPV-positive patients may be at higher risk of malnutrition, critical weight loss, and necessity for gastrostomy after radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (C-RT). It should be highlighted that despite some studies demonstrating positive results, currently available data regarding the influence of HPV infection on the occurrence and severity of nutritional disorders in HNC remain limited and inconclusive, and thus further research on this issue is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Trastornos Nutricionales , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Papillomaviridae , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/complicaciones , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/epidemiología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/complicaciones , Quimioradioterapia
19.
S Afr Med J ; 112(7): 478-486, 2022 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217858

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-based primary screening guidelines are based on screening test performance and prevalence data generated in high-resource areas with low HIV infection rates. There is an urgent need for local data on infection and disease prevalence, as well as screening test performance, among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative South African (SA) women, in order to inform updated screening guidelines. Objectives. This study describes the baseline characteristics of participants in the cross-sectional phase of the multicentric DIAgnosis in Vaccine And Cervical Cancer Screen (DiaVACCS) screening trial. The objective was to determine the prevalence of positive screening and pre-invasive disease using different tests and strategies in the SA HIV-positive and HIV-negative population. METHODS: A total of 1  104 women aged 25 - 65 years and eligible for screening were included, 465 HIV positive and 639 HIV negative. Visual inspection and molecular and cytological screening tests were done on self-sampled and healthcare worker-collected specimens. All participants who screened positive and 49.1% of those who screened negative were invited for colposcopy and biopsy, and those qualifying for treatment were recalled for large loop excision of the transformation zone as part of the trial. The worst histology result for each participant was used, and for untested women, multiple imputation was used to estimate verification biasadjusted histology values. RESULTS: Visual inspection was positive in 50.4% of HIV-positive v. 20.9% of HIV-negative women, cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) in 39.9% v. 17.0%, and high-risk HPV DNA in 41.2% v. 19.6%. Overall, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion-positive cytology peaked in the age group 30 - 39 years at 16.7%. After adjustment for verification bias, histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ was suspected in 44.7% v. 23.5% and CIN3+ in 23.3% v. 10.2% of HIV-positive and negative women, respectively. Invasive cancer was diagnosed in 15 women (1.95% of histological studies performed), and verification bias adjustment suggested 20 cases (1.8% of the study population). CONCLUSION: The baseline findings from the DiaVACCS trial confirm a high prevalence of HPV-related cervical pathology in the SA HIV-negative screening population, showing a clear need to reach these women with a screening programme. Among HIV-positive women, prevalence values were almost doubled. The prevalence of existing invasive cervical cancer was 1 - 2% of all women. Further analysis of the performance of single and multiple screening tests between the two subgroups will contribute to the choice of the most effective strategies to identify women at risk of developing invasive cancer.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Vacunas , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Frotis Vaginal
20.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 39(1): 1294-1299, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191925

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of focused ultrasound (FUS) therapy and cryotherapy for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). METHODS: In this retrospective study, data pertaining to women treated for cervical SIL with FUS therapy or cryotherapy at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 21 April 2018 and 31 August 2020 were obtained. The patients were followed up after 3-6 and 6-12 months. The proportions of women with no evidence of disease, recurrent disease, clearance of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and adverse effects or complications were determined. RESULTS: Of the 250 women with complete data who were included in the study, 144 and 106 received FUS therapy and cryotherapy, respectively. Overall, FUS therapy was observed to be more effective than cryotherapy (91.7 vs. 79.2%, p = 0.005). Statistically significant differences were noted in the treatment efficacy for patients with low-grade SIL (LSIL) (92.3 vs. 80.2%, p = 0.011). However, there were no significant differences in the treatment efficacy for patients with high-grade SIL (HSIL) (88.9 vs. 75.0%, p = 0.390). The recurrence rates in patients with LSIL treated with FUS therapy or cryotherapy showed no significant differences at the 6-12-month follow-up (1.0 vs. 6.0%, p = 0.163). Furthermore, there was no recurrence in patients with HSIL, either in the FUS or cryotherapy group. FUS therapy and cryotherapy resulted in similar HPV clearance at the 3-6-month follow-up (77.1 vs. 64.8%, p = 0.057). No statistically significant differences were observed in the complication rates between the two groups (3.5 vs. 1.9%, p = 0.717). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that FUS therapy is superior to cryotherapy in the treatment of cervical LSIL.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Lesiones Intraepiteliales Escamosas , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/terapia , Crioterapia , Femenino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/terapia
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