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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407188

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Combined with cancer screening programs, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) can significantly reduce the high health and economic burden of HPV-related disease in Japan. The objective of this study was to assess the health impact and cost effectiveness of routine and catch-up vaccination of girls and women aged 11-26 years with a 4-valent (4vHPV) or 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine in Japan compared with no vaccination. METHODS: We used a mathematical model adapted to the population and healthcare settings in Japan. We compared no vaccination and routine vaccination of 12-16-year old girls with 1) 4vHPV vaccine, 2) 9vHPV vaccine, and 3) 9vHPV vaccine in addition to a temporary catch-up vaccination of 17-26 years old girls and women with 9vHPV. We estimated the expected number of disease cases and deaths, discounted (at 2% per year) future costs (in 2020 ¥) and discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICER) of each strategy over a time horizon of 100 years. To test the robustness of the conclusions, we conducted scenario and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Over 100 years, compared with no vaccination, 9vHPV vaccination was projected to reduce the incidence of 9vHPV-related cervical cancer by 86% (from 15.24 new cases per 100,000 women in 2021 to 2.02 in 2121). A greater number of cervical cancer cases (484,248) and cancer-related deaths (50,102) were avoided through the described catch-up vaccination program. Routine HPV vaccination with 4vHPV or 9vHPV vaccine prevented 5,521,000 cases of anogenital warts among women and men. Around 23,520 and 21,400 diagnosed non-cervical cancers are prevented by catch-up vaccination among women and men, respectively. Compared with no vaccination, the ICER of 4vHPV vaccination was ¥975,364/QALY. Compared to 4vHPV, 9vHPV + Catch-up had an ICER of ¥1,534,493/QALY. CONCLUSIONS: A vaccination program with a 9-valent vaccine targeting 12 to 16 year-old girls together with a temporary catchup program will avert significant numbers of cases of HPV-related diseases among both men and women. Furthermore, such a program was the most cost effective among the vaccination strategies we considered, with an ICER well below a threshold of ¥5000,000/QALY.


Asunto(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/inmunología , Vacuna Tetravalente Recombinante contra el Virus del Papiloma Humano Tipos 6, 11 , 16, 18/inmunología , Programas de Inmunización/economía , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Vacunación/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Vacuna Tetravalente Recombinante contra el Virus del Papiloma Humano Tipos 6, 11 , 16, 18/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Teóricos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Vacunación/métodos , Adulto Joven
2.
Andrologia ; 52(9): e13791, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790205

RESUMEN

Male infertility is linked to some viral infections including human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). Almost nothing is known about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) effect on fertility. The possible risk factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on fertility comes from the abundance of angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2), receptor entry of the virus, on testes, a reduction in important sex hormone ratios and COVID-19-associated fever. Recent studies have shown a gender difference for COVID-19 rates and comorbidity. In this review, we will discuss the potential effect of COVID-19 on male fertility and talk about what needs to be done by the scientific community to tackle our limited understanding of the disease. On the other side, we will focus on what is known so far about the risk of COVID-19 on pregnancy, neonatal health and the vertical transfer of the virus between mothers and their neonates. Finally, because reproduction is a human right and infertility is considered a health disease, we will discuss how assisted reproductive clinics can cope with the pandemic and what guidelines they should follow to minimise the risk of viral transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Infertilidad Masculina/virología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Salud Reproductiva , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Herpes Simple/complicaciones , Herpes Simple/transmisión , Herpes Simple/virología , Humanos , Infertilidad Masculina/patología , Masculino , Pandemias , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patología
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0227900, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320400

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Identify the prevalence of HPV infections in the uterine cervix and oral cavity and HPV16 variants in HIV+ women. METHODS: A total of 174 HIV+ women attended an HIV+ specialized clinic in Mexico City. Cells were obtained from the oral cavity and cervix to extract DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the HPV sequence with generic primers. We detected specific HPV types using the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra II Kit (INNOGENETICS). The identification of variants was studied by sequencing the E6 gene with a Big Dye Terminator Kit and an Applied Biosystems 3500/3500xL genetic analyzer. RESULTS: HPV infection was very high in the uterine cervix (168/174, 96.6%) and oral cavity (161/174, 92.5%). The prevalence of HPV concurrent infections in the cervix and oral cavity was 155/174 (89.1%). We found hrHPVs to be more prevalent than low-risk HPVs (lrHPVs) in the oral cavity (90.2% versus 45.4%) and that infections simultaneously affected the cervix (94.3% versus 36.2%) and oral cavity (85.1% versus 20.1%). Surprisingly, only European variants of HPV type 16 were found in the uterine cervix of women and the oral cavity of all tested samples (52 oral cavity samples and 52 uterine cervix samples). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of HPV, multiple infections and presence of the EP350G intravariant in both anatomical regions are strongly related to the persistence of the virus, which is fundamental for the development of cancer. Therefore, it is very important to control and monitor this high-risk population as well as implement programs for the early detection of HPV and vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Papillomavirus Humano 16/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Cuello del Útero/virología , ADN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Boca/virología , Proteínas Oncogénicas Virales/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Prevalencia , Proteínas Represoras/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología
4.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 342-347, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241905

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2016, WHO estimated 376 million new cases of the four main curable STIs: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Further, an estimated 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus. STIs may lead to severe reproductive health sequelae. Low-income and middle-income countries carry the highest global burden of STIs. A large proportion of urogenital and the vast majority of extragenital non-viral STI cases are asymptomatic. Screening key populations and early and accurate diagnosis are important to provide correct treatment and to control the spread of STIs. This article paints a picture of the state of technology of STI point-of-care testing (POCT) and its implications for health system integration. METHODS: The material for the STI POCT landscape was gathered from publicly available information, published and unpublished reports and prospectuses, and interviews with developers and manufacturers. RESULTS: The development of STI POCT is moving rapidly, and there are much more tests in the pipeline than in 2014, when the first STI POCT landscape analysis was published on the website of WHO. Several of the available tests need to be evaluated independently both in the laboratory and, of particular importance, in different points of care. CONCLUSION: This article reiterates the importance of accurate, rapid and affordable POCT to reach universal health coverage. While highlighting the rapid technical advances in this area, we argue that insufficient attention is being paid to health systems capacity and conditions to ensure the swift and rapid integration of current and future STI POCT. Unless the complexity of health systems, including context, institutions, adoption systems and problem perception, are recognised and mapped, simplistic approaches to policy design and programme implementation will result in poor realisation of intended outcomes and impact.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevención & control , Sífilis/transmisión , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/transmisión
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4920, 2020 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188884

RESUMEN

For Brazil, there are no nationwide data on HPV prevalence against which the impact of the HPV immunization program can be measured in the future. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of genital HPV infection among adolescents and young adults in Brazil. A cross-sectional, multicentric, nationwide survey was conducted between September 2016 and November 2017. Sexually active unvaccinated women and men aged 16 to 25 years old were recruited from 119 public primary care units, including all 26 state capitals and the Federal District. All participants answered a face-to-face interview and provided biological samples for genital HPV analysis. We used an automated DNA extraction method and HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array genotyping test (Roche). Of 7,694 participants, 53.6% (95% CI 51.4-55.8) were positive for any HPV type. The prevalence of high-risk HPV types was significantly higher in women (38.6% vs. 29.2%, P < 0·001). The HPV types included in the quadrivalent vaccine were detected in 1002 (14.8%) specimens, with a different pattern of HPV infection between sexes. Characteristics associated with overall HPV detection included female gender, self-declaration of race as brown/pardo, lower socioeconomic class, single or dating, current smoking and having 2 or more sex partners in the past year. We found a high prevalence of HPV, with significant differences between regions. Our data provide information that may be considered when developing HPV prevention policies and constitute a baseline against which the impact of the HPV immunization program in Brazil can be measured in future years.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Prevalencia , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
7.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(1): 48-53, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567654

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Transgender men (TM) have a male, masculine, or nonfemale gender identity, yet were assigned female sex at birth on the basis of their external genitalia. The majority of TM are at risk of infection with one of several high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), acquired primarily through sexual contact, that cause 99.7% of cervical cancers. This study aimed to explore the association between sexual behaviors and current cervical hr-HPV infection in TM with a cervix. METHODS: The primary aim of this analysis was to test for an association between participant self-report of sexual contact with a penis in the past 1 year and current infection with cervical hr-HPV as measured by provider-collected cervical HPV DNA assay. This is a secondary analysis of a bio-behavioral sexual health study conducted at a health center in Boston, MA from 2015 to 2016. Analysis was conducted using logistic regression with significance level set at P less than 0.05; the primary analysis was adjusted for self-reported age, current tobacco use, years of testosterone use, and HPV vaccination status. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of hr-HPV was 15.9%. In adjusted analyses, participants reporting receptive penile vaginal sex with any of their most recent 3 sexual partners in the past 12 months had more than 5 times greater odds of current hr-HPV infection than those reporting no penile sex of any kind during this timeframe (odds ratio, 5.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-17.02). CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal-receptive penile sex in the last 12 months was associated with a 5-fold increased odds of cervical high-risk HPV infection among TM. Findings can inform future population level study of associations between sexual behaviors and hr-HPV risk, which could lead to more individualized approaches to screening.


Asunto(s)
Cuello del Útero/virología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Pene/virología , Conducta Sexual , Personas Transgénero , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Adulto , ADN Viral/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vagina/virología , Adulto Joven
8.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 29(1): e13181, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639253

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The expanding use of human papilloma virus (HPV) testing within cervical screening requires an evaluation of public understanding of HPV. This study aimed to explore HPV awareness and knowledge using a previously psychometrically validated measure in a sample of UK women aged 25 years and over. METHODS: An anonymous web-based cross-sectional survey design was used, and responses were recorded for 246 women (mean age = 37.59, SD = 9.20). RESULTS: Findings indicated limits to women's understanding of HPV, its transmission, treatment and link with cancer. The mean HPV knowledge score was 9.35 (4.43), and the mean HPV testing score was 3.34 (1.91). Multivariate analyses revealed that information seeking following cervical screening and being a student is associated with higher HPV knowledge and that having a positive HPV test result and having university education is associated with higher HPV testing knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight that there is a lack of knowledge and misunderstanding relating to HPV and its link with cancer in adult women in the UK. The findings suggest that public health HPV information campaigns are urgently needed, especially with a drop in UK cervical screening attendance rates, and with the upcoming change to HPV primary testing within the UK NHS cervical screening programme.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prueba de Papanicolaou , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/terapia , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Frotis Vaginal
9.
Acta Med Port ; 32(12): 776-781, 2019 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851887

RESUMEN

Over the last few decades, behavioral changes in sexual practices have made oral transmission of traditional sexually transmissible infections increasingly recognized. Patients harboring a sexually transmissible infection may first present lesions on the oral cavity, as these may be visible and interfere with basic functions such as speech or swallowing. Moreover, the oral cavity may function as a reservoir for future spread of these infections. In order to successfully control this problem, a greater focus on oral sex should be persued, along with promotion of the use of condom and education on safe oral sex practices. Furthermore, examination of the oral cavity should is essential when evaluating any patient suspected of harboring a sexually transmissible infection. In this article, oral transmission of several viral and bacterial infections is reviewed, including human papillomavirus infection, genital herpes, syphilis and gonorrhea, among others.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de la Boca/complicaciones , Sexo Seguro , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/patología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Herpes Simple/diagnóstico , Herpes Simple/transmisión , Humanos , Enfermedades de la Boca/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de la Boca/patología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/patología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/patología , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/patología , Sífilis/transmisión
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 388-394, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089306

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Host immunogenetic setting is involved in the regulation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of condyloma acuminatum (CA). We investigated the correlation of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−607C/A and −137G/C) of IL-18 with the susceptibility of CA in a large Chinese cohort. Out of 408 CA patients analyzed, 300 had HPV infection transmitted through sexual contact (SC) and 108 through non-sexual contact (NSC). In addition, 360 healthy volunteers were enrolled as controls. SNPs at positions −607C/A and −137G/C in IL-18 promoter were analyzed. Comparing CA patients to healthy controls, no dominant relevance was found between the IL-18 promoter −607 C/A or −137G/C polymorphisms and the CA disease either identified genotypically (p > 0.05) or by allelically (p > 0.05). However, the IL-18 promoter −137G/C polymorphism genotype and allele frequencies in the NSC CA group, but not between in the SC group, were significantly higher than in the controls. There was no dominant relevance between IL-18-607C/A polymorphism genotype and allele frequencies among SC, NSC CA patients, and controls. Our study demonstrates that polymorphism −137G/C in IL-18 promoter is significantly correlated with risk of CA in NSC patients.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Condiloma Acuminado/genética , Interleucina-18/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Polimorfismo Genético , Condiloma Acuminado/virología , China , Estudios de Cohortes , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , Alelos , Genotipo
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1529, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729969

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with certain types of oropharyngeal cancers and yet, the level of knowledge that dental professionals and the lay public have in terms of HPV transmission, oral sexual activities, and oral cancer development needs exploration. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge held by practicing dental professionals as well as the lay public regarding Human Papillomavirus (HPV) transmission through oral sex and subsequent oropharyngeal cancer development. METHODS: Textual data were collected from a public forum with dental professionals in. Vancouver, who discussed the HPV-oral sex-oral cancer triad, and from survey data gathered from 212 lay public participants (also in Vancouver) who answered a 13-item questionnaire on the perceived risks of oral sex in terms of HPV infection and oropharyngeal cancer development. The data were analyzed statistically by age group, gender, and sexual orientation using descriptive statistics, while an ANOVA test was used to compare variation in the responses to the survey (p-value = 0.05). RESULTS: The forum engaged 46 health care professionals, many of whom were aware of the potential risks for head and neck cancer development due to HPV infection, while also questioning "how to effectively talk about HPV with patients." The survey revealed that 34.5% of the participants believed that oral sex is an activity with no or low risk for the transmission of HPV, while 84% of participants believed the same sexual practices were of low or no-risk for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) transmission. Most participants (82%) never discussed oral sexual activities with their physicians or dentists/dental hygienists. CONCLUSIONS: The general public remains mostly unaware of the potential links between HPV infection and oropharyngeal cancer. Physicians and dental providers should discuss oral sexual practice with their patients to raise awareness.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neoplasias de la Boca/psicología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/psicología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adulto , Personal de Odontología/psicología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias de la Boca/virología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virología , Papillomaviridae , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(6): 388-394, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634439

RESUMEN

Host immunogenetic setting is involved in the regulation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of condyloma acuminatum (CA). We investigated the correlation of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-607C/A and -137G/C) of IL-18 with the susceptibility of CA in a large Chinese cohort. Out of 408 CA patients analyzed, 300 had HPV infection transmitted through sexual contact (SC) and 108 through non-sexual contact (NSC). In addition, 360 healthy volunteers were enrolled as controls. SNPs at positions -607C/A and -137G/C in IL-18 promoter were analyzed. Comparing CA patients to healthy controls, no dominant relevance was found between the IL-18 promoter -607 C/A or -137G/C polymorphisms and the CA disease either identified genotypically (p > 0.05) or by allelically (p > 0.05). However, the IL-18 promoter -137G/C polymorphism genotype and allele frequencies in the NSC CA group, but not between in the SC group, were significantly higher than in the controls. There was no dominant relevance between IL-18-607C/A polymorphism genotype and allele frequencies among SC, NSC CA patients, and controls. Our study demonstrates that polymorphism -137G/C in IL-18 promoter is significantly correlated with risk of CA in NSC patients.


Asunto(s)
Condiloma Acuminado/genética , Interleucina-18/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Alelos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , China , Estudios de Cohortes , Condiloma Acuminado/virología , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas
13.
Elife ; 82019 10 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621578

RESUMEN

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the most common sexually transmitted infectious agents. Because of the species specificity of HPVs, study of their natural transmission in laboratory animals is not possible. The papillomavirus, MmuPV1, which infects laboratory mice (Mus musculus), can cause infections in the female cervicovaginal epithelium of immunocompetent mice that progress to cancer. Here, we provide evidence that MmuPV1 is sexually transmitted in unmanipulated, immunocompetent male and female mice. Female 'donor' mice experimentally infected with MmuPV1 in their lower reproductive tract were housed with unmanipulated male mice. The male mice were then transferred to cages holding 'recipient' female mice. One third of the female recipient mice acquired cervicovaginal infections. Prolonged infections were verified by histopathology and in situ hybridization analyses of both male and recipient female mice at the study endpoint. These findings indicate that MmuPV1 is a new model animal papillomavirus with which to study sexually transmission of papillomaviruses.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/transmisión , Enfermedades Virales de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones
14.
Papillomavirus Res ; 8: 100187, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600572

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) provide not only type-specific incidence rates (IR), but also IRs of HPV groupings (e.g. the nonavalent grouping). We made an inventory of the different approaches used to calculate such IRs and assessed their impact on the estimated IRs of HPV groupings. METHODS: We performed a systematic review assessing all approaches used in literature to estimate IRs. Subsequently we applied these approaches to data of a Dutch cohort study on HPV in men who have sex with men (H2M). IRs were estimated for six different HPV groupings. RESULTS: The systematic review yielded six different approaches (A-F) for estimating the IRs, varying in exclusion criteria at baseline, and the definitions of an incident event and person-time. Applying these approaches to the H2M dataset (n = 749), we found differences in the number of participants at risk, number of incidents events, person-time, and IR. For example, for the nonavalent grouping, depending on the approach chosen, the IR varied between 3.09 and 6.54 per 100 person-months. CONCLUSION: In published studies different epidemiological assumptions are used to estimate IRs of grouped HPV types, leading to widely differing estimates of IRs. IRs between different studies may therefore not be comparable.


Asunto(s)
Genotipo , Papillomaviridae/clasificación , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 88: 110-112, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521851

RESUMEN

Human papillomavirus virus-like particles (HPV VLPs) have distinctive immunogenic properties that generate a durable antibody response, producing high-quality neutralizing antibodies. By vaccination, i.e., intramuscular injection of these HPV VLPs, the viral survival strategy of avoiding exposure to the systemic immune system is completely overruled, and large amounts of vaccine-induced systemic antibodies are generated. These systemic circulating antibodies are easily transuded to the genital mucosa and are detectable in female genital secretions. It is well accepted that these antibodies interact with the virions presented by an infected partner and inhibit infection. However, much less attention has been paid to the role of anti-HPV vaccine-induced antibodies in an HPV-infected individual where infectious virions are encountered by neutralizing antibodies in mucosal secretions. There is a clear need to further investigate and document this role. Indeed, if HPV vaccination of HPV-infected women has an effect on HPV transmission, auto-inoculation, and relapse after treatment, this may influence how we model, assess, and implement HPV vaccination programmes.


Asunto(s)
Papillomaviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/inmunología , Vacunación
16.
JAAPA ; 32(9): 26-31, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403488

RESUMEN

Exposure of the oral cavity and oropharynx to human papillomavirus (HPV) often results in an asymptomatic, transient oral infection that is cleared by the body's immune system; however, a small percentage of these oral infections can persist in a dormant state. Depending on the HPV genotype, a persistent oral infection may lead to benign or malignant disease. High-risk HPV types 16 and 18, which cause most cervical and anal cancers, also are the cause of the rising rate of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the United States. This article focuses on the epidemiology, transmission, risk factors, and clinical presentation of HPV-associated oropharyngeal SCC, and provides an update on HPV vaccination in the context of the new head and neck cancer epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/epidemiología , Humanos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapéutico , Factores de Riesgo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/virología
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1108-1121, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340720

RESUMEN

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) contribute to most cervical cancers and are considered to be sexually transmitted. However, papillomaviruses are often found in cancers of internal organs, including the stomach, raising the question as to how the viruses gain access to these sites. A possible connection between blood transfusion and HPV-associated disease has not received much attention. Here we show, in rabbit and mouse models, that blood infected with papillomavirus yields infections at permissive sites with detectable viral DNA, RNA transcripts, and protein products. The rabbit skin tumours induced via blood infection displayed decreased expression of SLN, TAC1, MYH8, PGAM2, and APOBEC2 and increased expression of SDRC7, KRT16, S100A9, IL36G, and FABP9, as seen in tumours induced by local infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blood from infected mice can transmit the infection to uninfected animals. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of papillomavirus infections and virus-induced hyperplasia in the stomach tissues of animals infected via the blood. These results indicate that blood transmission could be another route for papillomavirus infection, implying that the human blood supply, which is not screened for papillomaviruses, could be a potential source of HPV infection as well as subsequent cancers in tissues not normally associated with the viruses.


Asunto(s)
Sangre/virología , Papillomaviridae/fisiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Animales , ADN Viral/genética , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Desnudos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/genética , Conejos
18.
Vaccine ; 37(29): 3883-3891, 2019 06 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155416

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at high risk to contract human papillomavirus (HPV). While an effective vaccination exists, its use among YMSM is markedly lower compared to non-MSM and women. This study compares scaling up HPV vaccination in conjunction with other prevention strategies. METHODS: An agent-based model of urban YMSM (≤26 years of age) reflective of the demography of Philadelphia, PA, simulated for up to ten years of follow-up to examine anal and oral transmission of the HPV genotypes covered in the nonavalent (9v) vaccine: 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58. Starting HPV prevalences ranged from a high of 18% (type 6) to a low of 6% (type 31); overall 65% of individuals carried any HPV genotype. Simulated levels of vaccination were ranged from 0% to 13% (present-day level), 25%, 50%, 80% (Healthy People 2020 target), and 100% in conjunction with condom use and HIV seroadaptive practices. The primary outcome was the relative reduction in HPV infection. RESULTS: Compared to present-day vaccination levels (13%), scaling-up vaccination led to expected declines in 10-year post-simulation HPV prevalence. Anal HPV (any 9v types) declined by 9%, 27%, 46%, and 58% at vaccination levels of 25%, 50%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Similarly, oral HPV (any 9v types) declined by 11%, 33%, 57%, and 71% across the same levels of vaccine uptake. Comparing the prevention strategies, condoms blocked the greatest number of anal transmissions when vaccination was at or below present-day levels. For oral transmission, vaccination was superior to condom use at all levels of coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Public health HPV preventions strategies should continue to emphasize the complementary roles of condoms and vaccination, especially for preventing oral infection. Improving vaccination coverage will ultimately have the greatest impact on reducing HPV infection among YMSM.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Simulación por Computador , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Philadelphia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
19.
J Infect Dis ; 220(6): 980-989, 2019 08 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074795

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission dynamics, which have important public health implications for designing HPV vaccination strategies, is scarce in undeveloped areas. METHODS: From May to July 2014, 390 couples were enrolled from the general population in Liuzhou, China. Exfoliated cells from male penis shaft/glans penis/coronary sulcus (PGC) and perianal/anal canal (PA) sites and from female vaginal, vulvar, and PA sites were collected biannually for 1 year. RESULTS: The HPV type-specific concordance rate between couples was 15.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.5%-25.0%). For anogenital HPV transmission, the male-to-female transmission rate (11.5 [95% CI, 4.3-30.7] per 1000 person-months) was similar to the female-to-male transmission rate (11.3 [95% CI, 5.9-21.7] per 1000 person-months). The concordance rates between male PGC site and female vaginal, vulvar, and PA sites were 20.0%, 21.8%, and 14.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than expected by chance. Infections transmitted from males to females seemed mainly originated from male genital sites, whereas for female-to-male transmission, the vaginal, vulvar, and PA sites might be all involved. CONCLUSIONS: Among the heterosexual couples with relatively conservative sexual behavior, the anogenital HPV transmission rate for females to males is similar to that of males to females. In addition to the vagina and vulva, the female PA site is also an important reservoir for HPV transmission.


Asunto(s)
Heterosexualidad , Papillomaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Canal Anal/virología , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Genitales Femeninos/virología , Genitales Masculinos/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Pene/virología , Prevalencia , Conducta Sexual , Vagina/virología , Vulva/virología
20.
J Infect Dis ; 220(7): 1152-1161, 2019 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We studied the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load (VL) and HPV concordance. METHODS: The HITCH cohort study included young, heterosexual, recently formed, sexually active couples. Questionnaires and genital samples were collected at 0 and 4 months. Samples were tested for HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR; Linear Array). VLs of HPV6/11/16/18/31/42/51 were quantified using type-specific real-time PCR. Correlations between VL and type-specific HPV prevalence and incidence were evaluated using multilevel, mixed-effects linear/logistic regression models. RESULTS: We included 492 couples. VLs were higher in penile than vaginal samples. VL at subsequent visits correlated significantly within men (r, 0.373), within women (r, 0.193), and within couples (r range: 0.303-0.328). Men with high VL had more type-specific persistent HPV infections (odds ratio [OR], 4.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-10.5]). High VL in men was associated with prevalent (OR, 5.3 [95% CI, 2.5-11.2]) and incident (OR, 6.7 [95% CI, 1.5-30.7]) type-specific HPV infections in their partner. Women's VL was associated with type-specific HPV prevalence in their partner at the same (OR, 5.9) and subsequent (OR, 4.7) visit. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent HPV infections have limited VL fluctuations. VL between sex partners are correlated and seem predictive of transmission episodes.


Asunto(s)
Heterosexualidad/fisiología , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Parejas Sexuales , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiología , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética , ADN Viral/genética , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Genotipo , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proteínas Oncogénicas Virales/genética , Papillomaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
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