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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 135, 2020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salmonellosis remains an important public health problem globally. The disease is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries that experience poor hygiene and lack of access to clean and safe water. There was an increase in reported cases of Salmonellosis in Njombe Region, Southern Highland of Tanzania between 2015 and 2016 based on clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors contributing to the transmission of this disease in the region. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and factors associated with Salmonella infection among patients who report gastrointestinal complaints. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to February 2018 among patients with gastrointestinal complaints at Kibena Regional Hospital. Stool samples were submitted for isolation of Salmonella spp. Identification was based on conventional biochemical tests and serotyping to differentiate typhoid and non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS). Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors independently associated with Salmonella infection. RESULTS: The prevalence of Salmonella infection among participants with gastrointestinal complaints was 16.5% (95% CI: 12.7-21.1) of them, 83.7, 95% CI: 70.9-91.5 were NTS while 16.3, 95% CI: 8.5-29.0 were Typhoid Salmonella species. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin, whereas 27.8 and 100% were resistant to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin respectively. The odd of Salmonella infection was fourfold higher among participants with formal employment (AOR 3.8, 95% CI, 1.53-9.40). Use of water from wells/rivers (AOR 2.2, 95% CI, 1.07-4.45), drinking untreated water (AOR 2.6, 95% CI, 1.21-5.48) and often eating at a restaurant (AOR 3.4, 95% CI, 1.28-8.93) had increased odds of Salmonella infection. Likewise, having abdominal pain (AOR 8.5, 95% CI, 1.81-39.78) and diarrhea (AOR 2.3, 95% CI, 1.12-4.68) were independent symptoms that predict Salmonella infection. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of Salmonella infection among people who report gastrointestinal complaints and it is clinically predicated by diarhoea and abdominal pain. Employed participants and those eating at restaurant and drinking unsafe water had higher risk of infection. Salmonella spp. causing gastroenteritis has developed resistance to commonly used antibiotics.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ampicilina/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapéutico , Estudios Transversales , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/microbiología , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/etiología , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Salmonella/tratamiento farmacológico , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Combinación Trimetoprim y Sulfametoxazol/uso terapéutico , Fiebre Tifoidea/epidemiología , Fiebre Tifoidea/microbiología , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008036, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106221

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant typhoid fever remains an enormous public health threat in low and middle-income countries. However, we still lack a detailed understanding of the epidemiology and genomics of S. Typhi in many regions. Here we have undertaken a detailed genomic analysis of typhoid in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh to unravel the population structure and antimicrobial resistance patterns in S. Typhi isolated between 2004-2016. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole genome sequencing of 202 S. Typhi isolates obtained from three study locations in urban Dhaka revealed a diverse range of S. Typhi genotypes and AMR profiles. The bacterial population within Dhaka were relatively homogenous with little stratification between different healthcare facilities or age groups. We also observed evidence of exchange of Bangladeshi genotypes with neighboring South Asian countries (India, Pakistan and Nepal) suggesting these are circulating throughout the region. This analysis revealed a decline in H58 (genotype 4.3.1) isolates from 2011 onwards, coinciding with a rise in a diverse range of non-H58 genotypes and a simultaneous rise in isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, potentially reflecting a change in treatment practices. We identified a novel S. Typhi genotype, subclade 3.3.2 (previously defined only to clade level, 3.3), which formed two localized clusters (3.3.2.Bd1 and 3.3.2.Bd2) associated with different mutations in the Quinolone Resistance Determining Region (QRDR) of gene gyrA. SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis of S. Typhi isolates from urban Dhaka, Bangladesh isolated over a twelve year period identified a diverse range of AMR profiles and genotypes. The observed increase in non-H58 genotypes associated with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility may reflect a change in treatment practice in this region and highlights the importance of continued molecular surveillance to monitor the ongoing evolution of AMR in Dhaka. We have defined new genotypes and lineages of Bangladeshi S. Typhi which will facilitate the identification of these emerging AMR clones in future surveillance efforts.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella typhi/efectos de los fármacos , Bangladesh/epidemiología , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genotipo , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infecciones por Salmonella/transmisión , Salmonella typhi/genética , Salmonella typhi/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Tiempo , Viaje , Población Urbana
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220484, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990938

RESUMEN

The growing occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica in poultry has been reported with public health concern worldwide. We reported, recently, the occurrence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovars carrying clinically relevant resistance genes in dairy cattle farms in the Wakiso District, Uganda, highlighting an urgent need to monitor food-producing animal environments. Here, we present the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and sequence type of 51 Salmonella isolates recovered from 379 environmental samples from chicken farms in Uganda. Among the Salmonella isolates, 32/51 (62.7%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 10/51 (19.6%) displayed multiple drug resistance. Through PCR, five replicon plasmids were identified among chicken Salmonella isolates including IncFIIS 17/51 (33.3%), IncI1α 12/51 (23.5%), IncP 8/51 (15.7%), IncX1 8/51 (15.7%), and IncX2 1/51 (2.0%). In addition, we identified two additional replicons through WGS (Whole Genome Sequencing; ColpVC and IncFIB). A significant seasonal difference between chicken sampling periods was observed (p = 0.0017). We conclude that MDR Salmonella highlights the risks posed to animals and humans. Implementing a robust, integrated surveillance system will aid in monitoring MDR zoonotic threats.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Plásmidos/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animales , Antibacterianos/clasificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pollos/microbiología , Granjas , Humanos , Vigilancia Inmunológica , Plásmidos/química , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , Prevalencia , Replicón , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/transmisión , Salmonella enterica/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Estaciones del Año , Uganda/epidemiología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007917, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790418

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Limited epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance data are available on Salmonella enterica from sub-Saharan Africa. We determine the prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in isolates in the Central African Republic (CAR) between 2004 and 2013 and the genetic basis for resistance to third-generation cephalosporin (C3G). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 582 non-duplicate human clinical isolates were collected. The most common serotype was Typhimurium (n = 180, 31% of the isolates). A randomly selected subset of S. Typhimurium isolates were subtyped by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphism (CRISPOL) typing. All but one invasive isolate tested (66/68, 96%) were associated with sequence type 313. Overall, the rates of resistance were high to traditional first-line drugs (18-40%) but low to many other antimicrobials, including fluoroquinolones (one resistant isolate) and C3G (only one ESBL-producing isolate). The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolate and three additional ESBL isolates from West Africa were studied by whole genome sequencing. The blaCTX-M-15 gene and the majority of antimicrobial resistance genes found in the ESBL isolate were present in a large conjugative IncHI2 plasmid highly similar (> 99% nucleotide identity) to ESBL-carrying plasmids found in Kenya (S. Typhimurium ST313) and also in West Africa (serotypes Grumpensis, Havana, Telelkebir and Typhimurium). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the prevalence of ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was low in CAR, we found that a single IncHI2 plasmid-carrying blaCTX-M-15 was widespread among Salmonella serotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, which is of concern.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enterica/clasificación , Salmonella enterica/efectos de los fármacos , Serogrupo , Antibacterianos/farmacología , República Centroafricana/epidemiología , Genes Bacterianos , Genotipo , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Humanos , Plásmidos/análisis , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007782, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609964

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis are major causes of bloodstream infection in children in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed evidence for their zoonotic versus human reservoir. METHODS: Index patients were children with blood culture confirmed Salmonella infection recruited during a microbiological surveillance study in Nanoro, rural Burkina between May 2013 and August 2014. After consent, their households were visited. Stool from household members and livestock (pooled samples per species) as well as drinking water were cultured for Salmonella. Isolates with identical serotype obtained from index patient and any household sample were defined as "paired isolates" and assessed for genetic relatedness by multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). RESULTS: Twenty-nine households were visited for 32/42 (76.2%) eligible index patients: two households comprised two index patients each, and in a third household the index patient had a recurrent infection. Among the 32 index patients, serotypes were Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 26), Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 5) and Salmonella Freetown (n = 1). All Typhimurium isolates were sequence type (ST)313. Median delay between blood culture sampling and household visits was 13 days (range 6-26). Salmonella was obtained from 16/186 (8.6%) livestock samples (13 serotypes) and 18/290 (6.2%) household members (9 serotypes). None of the water samples yielded Salmonella. Paired Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were obtained from three households representing four index patients. MLVA types were identical in two pairs and similar in the third (consisting of two index patients and one household member). WGS showed a strong genetic relatedness with 0 to 2 core genome SNPs difference between pairs on a household level. Livestock samples did not yield any Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Enteritidis, and the latter was exclusively obtained from blood culture. Other serotypes shared by human and/or livestock carriers in the same household were Salmonella Derby, Drac, Tennessee and Muenster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current study provides further evidence of a human reservoir for invasive non-Typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Composición Familiar , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella/clasificación , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Ganado , Masculino , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Filogenia , Salmonella/genética , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Salmonella enteritidis/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/aislamiento & purificación , Serogrupo , Microbiología del Agua , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610770

RESUMEN

An epidemiological investigation and a retrospective case-control study were conducted into an outbreak of Salmonella Havana in alfalfa sprouts, in Adelaide, Australia. In total, 31 cases of S. Havana were notified during June and July 2018 and linked to the outbreak. Eighteen cases and 54 unmatched controls were included in a case-control study. Results from the case-control study indicated an increased risk of illness linked to the consumption of alfalfa sprouts; this was supported by trace-back, sampling and environmental investigations. This outbreak of S. Havana was caused by consumption of alfalfa sprouts from one local sprouts producer. It is unclear as to when in the production of alfalfa sprouts the contamination occurred. However, contaminated seeds and poor pest control are the most likely causes. This investigation highlights the importance of ensuring that producers take appropriate action to minimise the likelihood of contamination and to comply with legislation and standards for primary production and food safety.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Medicago sativa/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enterica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Semillas/microbiología , Australia del Sur/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610774

RESUMEN

An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with closely related Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) patterns was detected by routine surveillance by the Australian Capital Territory Health Protection Service in May 2018. The outbreak consisted of three cases in 2018 (MLVA 03-10-10-09-496) and one in 2016 (MLVA 03-10-09-09-496), who reported eating home-cooked eggs from the same local producer. Environmental investigations found significant problems with egg cleaning, hand hygiene and documentation of food safety procedures on farm. Environmental samples collected from the farm were found to have the same MLVA pattern as the 2018 cases. Although poor farm practices most likely led to contamination of the eggs, this outbreak highlights the need for consumer education about safe handling of eggs in the home.


Asunto(s)
Huevos/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Territorio de la Capital Australiana/epidemiología , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Microbiología de Alimentos , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Repeticiones de Minisatélite , Salud Pública , Salmonella typhimurium , Serogrupo , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 847, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615435

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salmonella outbreaks in childcare facilities are relatively rare, most often occurring secondary to contaminated food products or poor infection control practices. We report an outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul at a pre-school facility in Ayrshire, Scotland with atypical clinical and epidemiological features. METHODS: Following notification of the initial two cases, the multi-disciplinary Incident Management Team initiated enhanced active case finding and two environmental inspections of the site, including food preparation areas. Parent and staff interviews were conducted by the Public Health department covering attendance, symptomatology and risk factors for all probable and confirmed cases. Microbiological testing of stool samples and the facility water tank was conducted. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was performed for positive stool samples at the national reference laboratory. Infection control measures were introduced iteratively due to the atypical progression of the outbreak. RESULTS: There were 15 confirmed cases and 3 children admitted to hospital during the outbreak. However, 35.7% of cases reported extremely mild symptoms. The attack rate was 15.2%, and age of affected children ranged from 18 to 58 months (mean 35 months). All cases were the same Multilocus Sequence Type (MLST50). Epidemiological investigation strongly suggested person-to-person spread within the facility. Existing infection control practices were found to be of a high standard, but introduction of additional evidence-based control measures was inadequate in halting transmission. Facility staff reported concerns about lack of parental disclosure of gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly where these were mild, with 50.0% of cases having attended while symptomatic against public health advice. Voluntary two-week closure of the facility was implemented to halt transmission, following which there were no new cases. WGS results were unavailable until after the decision was taken to close the facility. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported instance of a Salmonella Saintpaul outbreak at a childcare facility, or where person-to-person transmission is indicated. Clinicians should consider the influence of parental under-reporting on gastrointestinal outbreaks in childcare settings, particularly where perceived severity is low and financial or social pressures to attend work may reduce compliance. WGS cannot yet replace conventional microbiological techniques during short, localised outbreaks due to delays receiving results.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Jardines Infantiles , Preescolar , ADN Bacteriano/química , ADN Bacteriano/metabolismo , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Salud Pública , Salmonella/genética , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Escocia/epidemiología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 816-822, Oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056900

RESUMEN

To determine Salmonella spp. prevalence/seroprevalence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and risk factor identification associated with its presence in Colombian swine farms. 504 samples (Faeces, swabs and environment samples) were obtained from 21 farms distributed in four geographical regions in Colombia. Salmonella spp. microbiological and molecular detection were determined by two Salmonella spp. MDS3M™ and MALDI-TOF MS assays, respectively. In addition, for serological evaluation 231 serum samples were analyzed employing ELISA Salmonella Pigtype®-Salmonella Ab (QUIAGEN®). Additionally, 41 isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using broth microdilution technique (Panel B1016-180 Beckman Coulter NC72®) and verified with WHONET 2016 software. Risk factors were assessed from a survey and analyzed for statistical significance by U Mann-Whitney test. An 8.9% prevalence (n=45) and 38.1% (n=88) seroprevalence were determined. All isolates presented 100% antimicrobial susceptibility against amikacin. However, resistance against penicillin, tetracycline, cefuroxime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was present in more than 50% of evaluated strains. Risk factors associated with Salmonella spp. presence were surface water use, rough-surfaced on floors, presence of hoppers as feeders and worker's boots. Bacteria were present in animals and environmental samples from evaluated farms. Animal contact and/or exposure with the microorganism were also evident in obtained serological response. Bacteria presence depended on management practices and infrastructure, likewise antibiotic use, supplemented in the diet may have induced an increase in Salmonella spp. antimicrobial resistance.(AU)


Para determinar Salmonellaspp. prevalência/soroprevalência, padrões de resistência antimicrobiana e identificação de fatores de risco associados à sua presença em granjas suínas colombianas. Foram obtidas 504 amostras (fezes, zaragatoas e amostras do ambiente) de 21 fazendas distribuídas em quatro regiões geográficas da Colômbia. Salmonella spp., a detecção microbiológica e molecular foi determinada por 2 Salmonella spp. Ensaios MDS3M™ e MALDI-TOF MS, respectivamente. Além disso, para avaliação sorológica, foram analisadas 231 amostras de soro empregando ELISA Salmonella Pigtype® - Salmonella Ab (QUIAGEN®). Além disso, 41 isolados foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade antimicrobiana usando a técnica de microdiluição em caldo (Painel B1016-180 Beckman Coulter NC72®) e verificados com o software WHONET 2016. Os fatores de risco foram avaliados em uma pesquisa e analisados quanto à significância estatística pelo teste U Mann-Whitney. Foram determinadas prevalências de 8,9% (n=45) e 38,1% (n=88). Todos os isolados apresentaram 100% de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana à amicacina. No entanto, resistência à penicilina, tetraciclina, cefuroxima e trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol estava presente em mais de 50% das cepas avaliadas. Fatores de risco associados à Salmonella spp., presença de uso de água de superfície, superfície áspera no chão, presença de tremonhas como alimentadores e botas de trabalho. Bactérias estavam presentes em animais e amostras ambientais de fazendas avaliadas. O contato animal e/ou a exposição ao microrganismo também foram evidentes na resposta sorológica obtida. A presença de bactérias dependia de práticas de manejo e infraestrutura, assim como o uso de antibióticos suplementados na dieta pode ter induzido um aumento de Salmonella spp. resistência antimicrobiana.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Colombia/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Sus scrofa/microbiología
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108305, 2019 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476731

RESUMEN

In recent years, the number of human salmonellosis cases in Western Australia (WA) has increased more dramatically than in any other Australian state. In 2017, the number of cases in WA was more than double the five-year average, and eggs had emerged as the key culprit for several Salmonella foodborne disease outbreaks. To better understand such an epidemiologically intriguing situation, our research goal was to investigate the prevalence, serovar diversity, multilocus sequence types, and antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella contamination in retail eggs produced and sold in WA. A total of 200 visually clean and intact retail egg samples (each containing a dozen eggs) were purchased for one year (2017-2018) from supermarkets in metropolitan Perth, the capital of WA. For each sample, the contents and shells of the 12 eggs were separately pooled and cultured according to standard methods. Overall, Salmonella was detected in 11.5% (23/200) of the tested egg samples. Salmonella was isolated from 4.5% (9/200) and 3% (6/200) of eggshells and egg contents, respectively. In 4% (8/200) of the samples, Salmonella was recovered from both eggshell and egg contents. Isolates from positive retail egg samples were serotyped as either S. Typhimurium (52.2% [12/23]) or S. Infantis (39.1% [9/23]). Both serotypes were concurrently recovered from two different retail egg samples. We retained a set of both S. Typhimurium (n = 29) and S. Infantis (n = 12) isolates from all Salmonella-positive retail packs (n = 23) for further characterization. Only two (S. Typhimurium) isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, of which one carried ß-lactamase resistance gene blaTEM-1b. The remaining isolates (39/41) were susceptible to all 14 antimicrobials included in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) testing panel. Multilocus sequence typing and serotyping were perfectly mirrored, as all S. Typhimurium isolates were characterized as sequence type (ST)-19, and all S. Infantis isolates were ST-32. This study points to the noteworthy Salmonella prevalence rate in retail egg samples in WA. Our results illustrate minimal public health risks arising from antimicrobial resistance Salmonella from Australian eggs.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Cáscara de Huevo/microbiología , Huevos/microbiología , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Australia , Genómica , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Salmonella/clasificación , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicación Alimentaria por Salmonella/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
11.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(9): 617-624, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413185

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure to animals and foods thereof is a poorly characterised risk factor for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, the main causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the Western world. We performed a population-based registry study in the Netherlands to assess whether differences exist in the incidence of reported salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis cases among occupational groups, and whether they can be explained by differences in the magnitude of exposure to these pathogens, as defined by serology. METHODS: Person-level occupational data for all Dutch residents were linked to lab-confirmed salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis data, and to serological data from a previous national serosurvey. SIRs for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis among occupational sectors and specific high-risk occupations were calculated based on the total employed population. Moreover, Salmonella and Campylobacter seroincidence rates were compared among sectors and high-risk occupations. RESULTS: Occupational exposure to live animals or manure and working in the sale of animal-derived food products were associated with significantly increased risks of salmonellosis (SIR 1.55-1.82) and campylobacteriosis (SIR 1.36-1.65). Moreover, incidences were significantly higher in specific industrial sectors, as well as healthcare and social work sectors. Mean seroincidence rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.30 infections/person-year for Campylobacter, and from 0.36 to 0.99 for Salmonella, with only slightly higher rates for people in high-risk occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in reported salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis incidence exist among occupational sectors, with the highest incidence in those persons occupationally exposed to live animals. These differences are only partially reflected in the serology.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Campylobacter/inmunología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Estiércol , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Salmonella/inmunología , Infecciones por Salmonella/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(9): 1690-1697, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441747

RESUMEN

We used phylogenomic and risk factor data on isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Mississippi and Typhimurium definitive type 160 (DT160) collected from human, animal, and environmental sources to elucidate their epidemiology and disease reservoirs in Australia and New Zealand. Sequence data suggested wild birds as a likely reservoir for DT160; animal and environmental sources varied more for Salmonella Mississippi than for Salmonella Typhimurium. Australia and New Zealand isolates sat in distinct clades for both serovars; the median single-nucleotide polymorphism distance for DT160 was 29 (range 8-66) and for Salmonella Mississippi, 619 (range 565-737). Phylogenomic data identified plausible sources of human infection from wildlife and environmental reservoirs and provided evidence supporting New Zealand-acquired DT160 in a group of travelers returning to Australia. Wider use of real-time whole-genome sequencing in new locations and for other serovars may identify sources and routes of transmission, thereby aiding prevention and control.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Australia/epidemiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Viaje , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zoonosis
13.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(7): 701-728, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313525

RESUMEN

To enhance efforts related to controlling foodborne pathogens in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), information on epidemiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (hereafter termed "Salmonella") is limited. We quantified the overall regional and country-specific Salmonella prevalence in different human populations and identified the most common serotypes. Published literature of Salmonella prevalence was systematically reviewed and reported following the Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Pooled Salmonella prevalence measures were estimated using a random-effects model. We identified 46 research reports that reported 84 Salmonella prevalence measures in 15 out of 24 countries in MENA. There were 252,831 tested humans with 6,356 Salmonella-positive cases. The pooled Salmonella prevalence in MENA was estimated at 6.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.4%-7.9%). The highest pooled Salmonella prevalence measures were in Morocco (17.9%, 95% CI: 5.7%-34.8%, 1997-2012), Tunisia (10.2%, 95% CI: 4.3%-18.0%, 1988-2009) and Sudan (9.2%, 95% CI: 6.5%-12.2%, 2006-2008), while the lowest were in Jordan (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.1%-3.0%, 1993-2010), Oman (1.2%, 95% CI: 1.2%-1.3%, 1998-2002) and Palestine (1.2%, 95% CI: 0.4%-2.1%, 1999-2011). In MENA, Salmonella pooled prevalence in gastrointestinal symptomatic, gastrointestinal asymptomatic and food handlers population groups was 13.0% (95% CI: 7.6%-19.6%), 11.4% (95% CI: 2.2%-25.7%) and 3.8% (95% CI: 1.0%-8.0%), respectively. Salmonella prevalence was 14.5% (95% CI: 8.7%-26.1%) in studies tested <100 subjects, whereas 4.6% (95% CI: 3.6%-5.8%) in studies tested ≥100 subjects. Salmonella Enteritidis (29.8%) and Typhimurium (23.6%) were the most common serotypes. Salmonella was a common foodborne pathogen in MENA countries, particularly in North African countries. Findings inform the scientific community, the public and the decision-makers with Salmonella prevalence and gaps in evidence in MENA to support control and prevention strategies and could leverage more research studies.


Asunto(s)
Portador Sano , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , África del Norte , Animales , Humanos , Medio Oriente , Zoonosis
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007297, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) serovars S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis are major etiologic agents of invasive bacterial disease among infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, including in Mali. Early studies of iNTS serovars in several countries indicated that S. Typhimurium was more prevalent than S. Enteritidis, including in Mali before 2008. We investigated genomic and associated phenotypic changes associated with an increase in the relative proportion of iNTS caused by S. Enteritidis versus S. Typhimurium in Bamako, Mali, during the period 2002-2012. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comparative genomics studies identified homologs of tetracycline resistance and arsenic utilization genes that were associated with the temporal shift of serovars causing iNTS shift, along with several hypothetical proteins. These findings, validated through PCR screening and phenotypic assays, provide initial steps towards characterizing the genomic changes consequent to unknown evolutionary pressures associated with the shift in serovar prevalence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work identified a shift to S. Enteritidis from the more classic S. Typhimurium, associated with iNTS in Bamako, Mali, during the period 2002-2012. This type of shift in underlying iNTS pathogens are of great importance to pediatric public health in endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, this work demonstrates the utility of combining epidemiologic data, whole genome sequencing, and functional characterization in the laboratory to identify and characterize genomic changes in the isolates that may be involved with the observed shift in circulating iNTS agents.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Evolución Molecular , Genotipo , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Genómica , Humanos , Malí/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Salmonella typhimurium/clasificación , Salmonella typhimurium/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Virulencia/genética
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007485, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220112

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a cause of both poultry- and egg-associated enterocolitis globally and bloodstream-invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Distinct, multi-drug resistant genotypes associated with iNTS disease in sSA have recently been described, often requiring treatment with fluoroquinolone antibiotics. In industrialised countries, antimicrobial use in poultry production has led to frequent fluoroquinolone resistance amongst globally prevalent enterocolitis-associated lineages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty seven S. Enteritidis isolates from patients with iNTS disease and two poultry isolates, collected between 2007 and 2015 in the Ashanti region of Ghana, were whole-genome sequenced. These isolates, notable for a high rate of diminished ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS), were placed in the phyletic context of 1,067 sequences from the Public Health England (PHE) S. Enteritidis genome database to understand whether DCS was associated with African or globally-circulating clades of S. Enteritidis. Analysis showed four of the major S. Enteritidis clades were represented, two global and two African. All thirteen DCS isolates, containing a single gyrA mutation at codon 87, belonged to a global PT4-like clade responsible for epidemics of poultry-associated enterocolitis. Apart from two DCS isolates, which clustered with PHE isolates associated with travel to Spain and Brazil, the remaining DCS isolates, including one poultry isolate, belonged to two monophyletic clusters in which gyrA 87 mutations appear to have developed within the region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Extensive phylogenetic diversity is evident amongst iNTS disease-associated S. Enteritidis in Ghana. Antimicrobial resistance profiles differed by clade, highlighting the challenges of devising empirical sepsis guidelines. The detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in phyletically-related poultry and human isolates is of major concern and surveillance and control measures within the region's burgeoning poultry industry are required to protect a human population at high risk of iNTS disease.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Salmonelosis Animal/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enteritidis/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/veterinaria , Enterocolitis/epidemiología , Enterocolitis/microbiología , Enterocolitis/veterinaria , Femenino , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia , Aves de Corral , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonelosis Animal/microbiología , Salmonella enteritidis/clasificación , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961803

RESUMEN

Salmonella Typhimurium and S. Stanley are the most prevalent serogroup B serovars to infect humans in Taiwan. The aim was to determine possible factors to influence the prevalence between S. Typhimurium and S. Stanley. Genotypes were determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis and the intracellular survival, phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of human monocyte THP-1 cell and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1ßexpression in peripheral blood CD14+ cells after infection were analyzed. 182 S. Stanley was clonal disseminated with main pulsotypes 2 from 2004 to 2007. Overall S. Typhimurium evolved more genotypes, while S. Stanley conserved in genotypes. Human blood CD14+ monocytes expressed TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß differently among serovars and bacterial conditions (live vs. killed). Live S. Stanley and S. Typhimurium suppressed the TNF-α and IL-6 expression compared to killed bacteria. However, live S. Typhimurium stimulated more IL-1ß expression than the killed bacteria, but S. Stanley expressed similar IL-1ß levels in both conditions. Furthermore, S. Stanley and S. Typhimurium differed in intracellular survival in the THP-1 cells, an early decrease for S. Stanley, not for S. Typhimurium. Additionally, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in THP-1 cells was found agsinst S. Stanley infection, not found in S. Typhimurium. However, some isolates of S. Stanley could recover from early loss to become more in the monocytes than S. Typhimurium. Difference in phagocytized number, intracellular survival, ROS production and IL-1ß expression may contribute to prevalence different between two serovars.


Asunto(s)
Monocitos/inmunología , Fagocitosis/inmunología , Infecciones por Salmonella/inmunología , Salmonella typhimurium/inmunología , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Línea Celular Tumoral , Electroforesis en Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/biosíntesis , Interleucina-6/biosíntesis , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/aislamiento & purificación , Células THP-1 , Taiwán , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/biosíntesis
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007293, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986214

RESUMEN

Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is considered to be an emerging and neglected tropical disease in Africa. We studied this in two tertiary hospitals-Al Farwaniya and Al Amiri-in Kuwait, a subtropical country, from April 2013-May 2016. NTS bacteremia was present in 30 of 53,860 (0.75%) and 31 of 290,36 (1.33%) blood cultures in the two hospitals respectively. In Al Farwaniya hospital, one-third of the patients were from some tropical developing countries of Asia. About 66% of all patients (40/61) had diarrhea, and of these, 65% had the corresponding blood serovar isolated from stool culture. A few patients had Salmonella cultured from urine. Patients were either young or old. Most of the patients had co-morbidities affecting the immune system. Two patients each died in both hospitals. The number of different serovars cultured in each hospital was 13, and most infections were due to S. Enteritidis (all sequence type [ST]) 11) and S. Typhimurium (all ST19) except in a subgroup of expatriate patients from tropical developing countries in Al Farwaniya hospital. About a quarter of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. Most patients were treated with a cephalosporin with or without other antibiotics. S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolates were typed by pulsed field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and a selected number of isolates were whole-genome sequenced. Up to four different clades were present by PFGE in either species. Whole-genome sequenced isolates showed antibiotic-resistance genes that showed phenotypic correlation, and in some cases, phenotypes showed absence of specific genes. Whole-genome sequenced isolates showed presence of genes that contributed to blood-stream infection. Phylogeny by core genome analysis showed a close relationship with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis from other parts of the world. The uniqueness of our study included the finding of a low prevalence of infection, mortality and multidrug-resistance, a relatively high prevalence of gastrointestinal infection in patients, and the characterization of selected isolates of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis serovars by whole-genome sequencing that shed light on phylogeny, virulence and resistance. Similarities with studies from developing countries especially Africa included infection in patients with co-morbidities affecting the immune system, predominance of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis serovars and presence of drug-resistance in isolates.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/patología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/patología , Salmonella/clasificación , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Sangre/microbiología , Preescolar , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Kuwait/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epidemiología Molecular , Tipificación Molecular , Prevalencia , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Serogrupo , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Orina/microbiología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 330, 2019 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Invasive Salmonella infections result in significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Asia, typhoid and paratyphoid fever are reported to be the major invasive Salmonella infections, while invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are believed to be uncommon. Data from Sarawak, in Malaysian Borneo, are limited. METHODS: A retrospective study identifying all children aged < 15 years with invasive Salmonella infections from 2011 to 2016 was conducted in Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak. Population incidences, clinical and bacterial characteristics were examined. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were identified during the 6-year study period: 43 had iNTS infection and 1 had typhoid fever. The average annual iNTS incidence was 32.4 per 100,000 children aged < 5 years. None of the children had malaria or HIV infection, and only 7% were severely malnourished. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Java were the commonest NTS serovars identified. Pneumonia was the most common manifestation of iNTS disease, present in 20 (47%) children. Other manifestations included gastroenteritis, fever without a source, septic arthritis and meningitis. Salmonella Enteritidis was identified in 76% of those with pneumonia, significantly more frequently than in children with other manifestations. Over 25% of children with iNTS developed severe disease and nearly 10% suffered long term morbidity or mortality. While 78% of Salmonella Java isolates were multi-drug resistant, nearly all other isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials, including ampicillin. CONCLUSIONS: Bintulu Division in Sarawak observed a very high incidence of childhood iNTS infections. Enteric fever was uncommon. The epidemiology of invasive Salmonella infections in Malaysian Borneo differs considerably from that of neighbouring countries in Asia.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Borneo/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Neumonía/diagnóstico , Neumonía/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonella enteritidis/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/aislamiento & purificación , Serogrupo , Fiebre Tifoidea/diagnóstico , Fiebre Tifoidea/epidemiología
20.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(4): 382-392, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891945

RESUMEN

Salmonella Kentucky is among the most frequently isolated S. enterica serovars from food animals in the United States. Recent research on isolates recovered from these animals suggests there may be geographic and host specificity signatures associated with S. Kentucky strains. However, the sources and genomic features of human clinical S. Kentucky isolated in the United States remain poorly described. To investigate the characteristics of clinical S. Kentucky and the possible sources of these infections, the genomes of all S. Kentucky isolates recovered from human clinical cases in the State of Maryland between 2011 and 2015 (n = 12) were sequenced and compared to a database of 525 previously sequenced S. Kentucky genomes representing 12 sequence types (ST) collected from multiple sources on several continents. Of the 12 human clinical S. Kentucky isolates from Maryland, nine were ST198, two were ST152, and one was ST314. Forty-one per cent of isolates were recovered from patients reporting recent international travel and 58% of isolates encoded genomic characteristics similar to those originating outside of the United States. Of the five isolates not associated with international travel, three encoded antibiotic resistance genes conferring resistance to tetracycline or aminoglycosides, while two others only encoded the cryptic aac(6')-Iaa gene. Five isolates recovered from individuals with international travel histories (ST198) and two for which travel was not recorded (ST198) encoded genes conferring resistance to between 4 and 7 classes of antibiotics. Seven ST198 genomes encoded the Salmonella Genomic Island 1 and substitutions in the gyrA and parC genes known to confer resistance to ciprofloxacin. Case report data on food consumption and travel were, for the most part, consistent with the inferred S. Kentucky phylogeny. Results of this study indicate that the majority of S. Kentucky infections in Maryland are caused by ST198 which may originate outside of North America.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ciprofloxacino/farmacología , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Maryland/epidemiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Salmonelosis Animal/transmisión , Salmonella enterica/genética , Serogrupo , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
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