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1.
Georgian Med News ; (347): 181-184, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609138

RESUMEN

The immune system of the skin is the first line of defense against various infections, on the other hand, its strategic location as a key barrier between external and internal environment makes the skin an important tool for maintaining homeostasis, so dermatological lesions are often a manifestation of various pathological conditions. Thus, herpesvirus skin diseases, which are the result of reactivation of a latent infection and occur against the background of human immunodeficiency, may be the first manifestation of HIV. Active study of melatonin in recent years in the dermatological field is associated with interest in its biological action, which extends to the skin due to the melatoninergic system, and promising prospects for the development of new treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the serum levels of interleukin 31 in herpesvirus skin diseases on the background of HIV. The current study selected 40 HIV patients who had an acute herpesvirus infection caused by HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, and HHV-8 were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: group I consisted of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, valaciclovir in standard therapeutic doses and melatonin as immunomodulatory therapy. Patients in the melatonin group received two melatonin tablet, 3 mg for 14 days, 6 mg daily (two doses of 3 mg). Group II included patients who received antiretroviral therapy in combination with valaciclovir. Serum levels of IL-31 were measured before and after 14 days of therapeutic intervention. The mean serum level of IL-31 was significantly lower in the melatonin group (p˂0.05). Also, in both groups, serum levels of IL-31 showed a significant increase compared to the indicator of the norm. The results of this study showed that melatonin administration could modify inflammatory cytokines secretion such as IL-31. Given the low toxicity of melatonin and its ability to reduce side effects and increase the efficiency of therapeutic agents, its use may be important and significant in combined therapy in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Melatonina , Enfermedades de la Piel , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Interleucinas/sangre , Melatonina/farmacología , Melatonina/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades de la Piel/tratamiento farmacológico , Valaciclovir
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079497, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589266

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between intravaginal practices (IVPs) and the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women using the dapivirine vaginal ring (DVR) or placebo vaginal ring in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data collected from women at risk of HIV infection recruited into the Ring Study. The latter evaluated the safety and efficacy of the DVR between 2013 and 2016. At baseline, a behavioural questionnaire was administered to obtain information on sexual activity and IVP (exposure) defined as; insertion inside the vagina of any items aimed at cleaning the vagina for any reason before, during or after sex other than practices to manage menses. Each participant self-inserted the DVR/placebo and replaced it every 4 weeks for 2 years. Outcomes were diagnosis of STIs, that is, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), HIV and BV. The incidence rate of STI/BV was estimated, overall, by IVP and trial arm in single-event-per-participant and multiple-event-per-participant analyses. RESULTS: Of the 197 women enrolled, 66 (33.5%) were <25 years of age. Overall, 93 (47.2%) practised at least one form of IVP. During the follow-up, 172 (87.3%) women were diagnosed with an STI/BV at least once. The majority had TV (73.6%, n=145). Overall rate of STI/BV was 51.9/100 person-years, 95% CI 44.7 to 60.3 (IVP: yes, 51.0 (40.8-63.8) vs no, 52.6 (43.0-64.4)). IVPs were not statistically significantly associated with rate of individual STIs/BV. Similar results were observed when the analyses were conducted separately for each trial arm. CONCLUSIONS: IVP was not associated with risk of STIs/BV in the Ring Study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01539226.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivos Anticonceptivos Femeninos , Infecciones por VIH , Pirimidinas , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Trichomonas vaginalis , Vaginosis Bacteriana , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Vaginosis Bacteriana/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Incidencia , Uganda/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/complicaciones
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 460, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627731

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that perinatal HIV infection and exposure affect salivary pH and flow rate in children in most parts of the world, but not against the background of caries and the African demographic. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of HIV infection as well as exposure on salivary properties and their influence upon the dental caries experience among school-aged children in Nigeria. METHOD: This cross-sectional study assessed the salivary flow rates and salivary pH of HIV infected and exposed school-aged (4-11) children receiving care at a Nigerian tertiary hospital. A total of 266 consenting participants which comprised of three groups as follows: (1) HIV Infected (HI) (n = 87), (2) HIV Exposed and Uninfected (HEU) (n = 82) and (3) HIV Unexposed and Uninfected (HUU) (n = 97) were recruited for the study. Questionnaires completed by parents/guardians were used for data collection. Three calibrated dentists performed oral examinations for dental caries. International Caries Detection and Assessment Scores (ICDAS) was used and presented as dmft/DMFT. Salivary pH was measured using MColourpHast™ pH indicator strips, while salivary flow rate was determined by collecting unstimulated whole saliva using the suction method. Data analysis relied on comparative statistics to determine the correlation between HIV exposure and infection on salivary pH and flow rates. RESULT: Across the groups, (HI, HEU, and HUU) mean pH of the HI was significantly less than that of HEU and HUU. Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference in the SFR across the three groups (p = 0.004). Other variables such as gender, age and oral hygiene status expressed by the gingival inflammatory scores had no significant influence on the pH and SFR of study participants. There was a rather unexpected positive correlation of DMFT of HI and HEU groups with increasing salivary flow rate; though, the relationship was weak and not significant. CONCLUSION: Perinatal HIV exposure and infection significantly impact salivary pH and flow rate among school-aged children in Nigeria. The findings of this study imply that HIV infection influenced the salivary pH, while HIV maternal exposure (without infection) impacted salivary flow rates when compared to the controls.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Infecciones por VIH , Niño , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Saliva , Familia
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1335693, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628844

RESUMEN

Introduction: We aimed to investigate the overlapping epidemiologies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis in sexual networks of men who have sex with men (MSM), and to explore to what extent the epidemiology of one sexually transmitted infection (STI) relates to or differs from that of another STI. Methods: An individual-based Monte Carlo simulation model was employed to simulate the concurrent transmission of STIs within diverse sexual networks of MSM. The model simulated sexual partnering, birth, death, and STI transmission within each specific sexual network. The model parameters were chosen based on the current knowledge and understanding of the natural history, transmission, and epidemiology of each considered STI. Associations were measured using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (SRCC) and maximal information coefficient (MIC). Results: A total of 500 sexual networks were simulated by varying the mean and variance of the number of partners for both short-term and all partnerships, degree correlation, and clustering coefficient. HSV-2 had the highest current infection prevalence across the simulations, followed by HIV, chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea. Threshold and saturation effects emerged in the relationship between STIs across the simulated networks, and all STIs demonstrated moderate to strong associations. The strongest current infection prevalence association was between HIV and gonorrhea, with an SRCC of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.80-0.87) and an MIC of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74-0.88). The weakest association was between HSV-2 and syphilis, with an SRCC of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.48-0.59) and an MIC of 0.57 (95% CI, 0.49-0.65). Gonorrhea exhibited the strongest associations with the other STIs while syphilis had the weakest associations. Across the simulated networks, proportions of the population with zero, one, two, three, four, and five concurrent STI infections were 48.6, 37.7, 11.1, 2.4, 0.3, and < 0.1%, respectively. For lifetime exposure to these infections, these proportions were 13.6, 21.0, 22.9, 24.3, 13.4, and 4.8%, respectively. Conclusion: STI epidemiologies demonstrate substantial overlap and associations, alongside nuanced differences that shape a unique pattern for each STI. Gonorrhea exhibits an "intermediate STI epidemiology," reflected by the highest average correlation coefficient with other STIs.


Asunto(s)
Chlamydia , Gonorrea , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Sífilis , Masculino , Humanos , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Gonorrea/complicaciones , Sífilis/epidemiología , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Homosexualidad Masculina , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología
6.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 249: 10059, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628843

RESUMEN

People living with HIV (PLWH) usually suffer from co-infections and co-morbidities including respiratory tract infections. SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to cause respiratory infections. There are uncertainties in the disease severity and immunological response among PLWH who are co-infected with COVID-19. This review outlines the current knowledge on the clinical outcomes and immunological response to SARS-CoV-2 among PLWH. Literature was searched in Google scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and Science Direct conforming with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines from studies published from January 2020 to June 2023. A total of 81 studies from 25 countries were identified, and RT-PCR was used in confirming COVID-19 in 80 of the studies. Fifty-seven studies assessed risk factors and clinical outcomes in HIV patients co-infected with COVID-19. Thirty-nine of the studies indicated the following factors being associated with severe outcomes in HIV/SARS-CoV-2: older age, the male sex, African American race, smoking, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, low CD4+ count, high viral load, tuberculosis, high levels of inflammatory markers, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes, interruption, and delayed initiation of ART. The severe outcomes are patients' hospitalization, admission at intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and death. Twenty (20) studies, however, reported no difference in clinical presentation among co-infected compared to mono-infected individuals. Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated in 25 studies, with some of the studies reporting high levels of inflammatory markers, T cell exhaustion and lower positive conversion rate of IgG in PLWH. There is scanty information on the cytokines that predisposes to severity among HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infected individuals on combined ART. More research work should be carried out to validate co-infection-related cytokines and/or immune markers to SARS-CoV-2 among PLWH.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Población Negra , Citocinas
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e51449, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630534

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Limited studies have explored the impact of the Omicron variant on SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and associated factors among people living with HIV, particularly in China. The adjustment of preventive policies since December 2022 in China presents an opportunity to evaluate the real-world factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 infection and related hospitalization among people living with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization rates, and associated factors among people living with HIV following the adjustment of preventive policies from December 2022 to February 2023 in southeastern China. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone or web-based survey was conducted among people living with HIV in 5 cities in southeastern China from December 2022 to February 2023. Demographic information, SARS-CoV-2 infection and related hospitalization, and HIV-specific characteristics were collected from existing databases and special investigations. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associated factors for infection and hospitalization rates of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, subgroup analyses were conducted for the association between vaccination and infection across different vaccination statuses and time since the last vaccination. RESULTS: Among people living with HIV with a COVID-19 testing history, the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate was 67.13% (95% CI 65.81%-68.13%), whereas the hospitalization rate was 0.71% (95% CI 0.46%-0.97%). Factors such as age, latest CD4 cell count, latest HIV viral load, and transmission route were found to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, while age, cancer, latest CD4 cell count, and latest HIV viral load were associated with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization. In terms of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, compared to unvaccinated people living with HIV, there was a lower infection rate among those who had been vaccinated for <3 months in the booster vaccination group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.98; P=.04); and there was also a lower risk of hospitalization among people living with HIV who had received vaccination in the past 6-12 months (aOR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.81; P=.02) and more than 12 months ago (aOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.72; P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: After the ease of prevention and control measures in China, we observed a high SARS-CoV-2 infection rate but a low hospitalization rate. General risk factors, such as higher age and vaccination status, and HIV-related parameters, such as the latest CD4 cell count and HIV viral load, were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization. A booster vaccination campaign for booster doses should be considered among people living with HIV in confronting possible COVID-19 epidemic emergencies in the near future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Transversales , Prueba de COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , China/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 27(4): e26238, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566493

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). While chronic viral hepatitis has been extensively studied in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is limited information about the burden of metabolic disorders on liver disease in PLHIV. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected between October 2020 and July 2022 from the IeDEA-Sentinel Research Network, a prospective cohort enrolling PLHIV ≥40 years on antiretroviral treatment (ART) for ≥6 months from eight clinics in Asia, Americas, and central, East, southern and West Africa. Clinical assessments, laboratory testing on fasting blood samples and liver stiffness measurement (LSM)/controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) by vibration-controlled transient elastography were performed. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed factors associated with liver fibrosis (LSM ≥7.1 kPa) and steatosis (CAP ≥248 dB/m). Population attributable fraction (PAF) of each variable associated with significant liver fibrosis was estimated using Levin's formula. RESULTS: Overall, 2120 PLHIV (56% female, median age 50 [interquartile range: 45-56] years) were included. The prevalence of obesity was 19%, 12% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 29% had hypertension and 53% had dyslipidaemia. The overall prevalence of liver fibrosis and steatosis was 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-8.4) and 28.4% (95% CI 26.5-30.7), respectively, with regional variability. Male sex at birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.62, CI 1.10-2.40), overweight/obesity (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.69-3.75), T2DM (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.46-3.47) and prolonged exposure to didanosine (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.46-6.49) were associated with liver fibrosis. Overweight/obesity and T2DM accounted for 42% and 11% of the PAF for liver fibrosis, while HBsAg and anti-HCV accounted for 3% and 1%, respectively. Factors associated with steatosis included overweight/obesity (OR 4.25, 95% CI 3.29-5.51), T2DM (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.47-2.88), prolonged exposure to stavudine (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.27-2.26) and dyslipidaemia (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.16). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic disorders were significant risk factors for liver disease among PLHIV in LMICs. Early recognition of metabolic disorders risk factors might be helpful to guide clinical and lifestyle interventions. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the causative natures of these findings.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dislipidemias , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Transversales , Países en Desarrollo , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Dislipidemias/complicaciones
9.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 6(2): e230102, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573125

RESUMEN

Purpose To assess early subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) burden and its relation to myocardial function in asymptomatic persons living with HIV (PLWH) who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods In this prospective, HIPAA-compliant study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01656564 and NCT01399385) conducted from April 2010 to May 2013, 74 adult PLWH without known CVD and 25 matched healthy controls underwent coronary MRI to measure coronary vessel wall thickness (VWT) and echocardiography to assess left ventricular function. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to evaluate statistical associations. Results For PLWH, the mean age was 49 years ± 11 (SD), and the median Framingham risk score was 3.2 (IQR, 0.5-6.6); for matched healthy controls, the mean age was 46 years ± 8 and Framingham risk score was 2.3 (IQR, 0.6-6.1). PLWH demonstrated significantly greater coronary artery VWT than did controls (1.47 mm ± 0.22 vs 1.34 mm ± 0.18; P = .006) and a higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (77 ± 16 vs 70 ± 13; P = .04). Compared with controls, PLWH showed altered association between coronary artery VWT and both E/A (ratio of left ventricular-filling peak blood flow velocity in early diastole [E wave] to that in late diastole [A wave]) (P = .03) and LVMI (P = .04). In the PLWH subgroup analysis, coronary artery VWT increase was associated with lower E/A (P < .001) and higher LVMI (P = .03), indicating restricted diastolic function. In addition, didanosine exposure was associated with increased coronary artery VWT and decreased E/A ratio. Conclusion Asymptomatic low-CVD-risk PLWH demonstrated increased coronary artery VWT in association with impaired diastolic function, which may be amenable to follow-up studies of coronary pathogenesis to identify potential effects on the myocardium and risk modification strategies. Keywords: Coronary Vessel Wall Thickness, Diastolic Function, HIV, MRI, Echocardiography, Atherosclerosis Clinical trial registration nos. NCT01656564 and NCT01399385 Supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2024.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diástole , Estudios Prospectivos , Corazón , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones
10.
Indian J Tuberc ; 71(2): 147-152, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Modelling studies have indicated that approximately 20% of all tuberculosis (TB) cases may suffer from diabetes mellitus (DM). DM increases the risk of developing active TB disease by 2-3 times. People living with HIV (PLHIV) are more likely to develop TB disease, and TB is a leading cause of hospitalization and death among PLHIV. Despite the substantial burden of DM and HIV in India, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of DM and HIV among active cases of TB, and its impact on the treatment outcome for TB. This study evaluated the burden of HIV and DM in TB cases from Odisha during 2019, and its impact on the TB treatment outcome. METHODS: The study utilized data on TB patients of Odisha during 2019, from the NIKSHAY portal, the health management information system (HMIS) of TB in India. This is a retrospective observational registry-based cohort study, which evaluated a linkage between socio-demographic predictors, clinical diagnostic and treatment predictors, time of treatment predictors, and co-morbidity with TB. Data were retrieved electronically in Microsoft-Excel and analysis was done using STATA 16 (StataCorp. 2019, College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC). RESULTS: Data for 47,831 TB cases of Odisha as study population was extracted from the Nikshay application for the year 2019. The highest prevalence (31.1%, 14,863/47,831) of TB was observed among young participants aged 15-30 years, whereas the prevalence was least among children <14 years (4.4%, 2124/47,831). Males had a higher prevalence of TB (66.7%, 31,878/47,831). Of the 47,831 TB cases included in the study, 7.6% (3659/47,831) had diabetes mellitus (DM), along with TB. 1.2% (571/47,831) had HIV along with TB, while only 0.08% (37/47,831) had both DM and HIV along with TB. 88.2% (3148/3569) of cases with DM and TB had a favorable outcome, compared to 82.3% (449/541) of cases with HIV and TB. People with TB who did not have DM had a significantly higher favorable outcome (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5-1.8) compared to those with TB and DM. Similarly, TB cases who did not have HIV infection had a significantly higher favorable outcome (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0) compared to those with TB and HIV. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that presence of DM and/or HIV in TB patients had an impact on the TB treatment outcome. There is a crucial need to prevent comorbidities such as DM and HIV from occurring and to prioritize early diagnosis and management of these conditions.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Infecciones por VIH , Tuberculosis , Masculino , Niño , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , India/epidemiología , VIH
11.
AIDS ; 38(6): 825-833, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578959

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the physiological drivers of reduced cardiorespiratory fitness in people with HIV (PWH) will inform strategies to optimize healthspan. Chronotropic incompetence is common in heart failure and associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness yet is understudied in PWH. The objective was to determine the prevalence of chronotropic incompetence and its relationship with cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN: Participants were PWH at least 50 years of age with no prior history of heart failure or coronary heart disease who were enrolled in a randomized exercise trial. Baseline cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and calculate the chronotropic index from heart rate values. Chronotropic incompetence was defined as an index less than 80%. RESULTS: The 74 participants were on average 61 years old, 80% Black or African American, and 93% men. Chronotropic incompetence was present in 31.1%. VO2peak was significantly lower among participants with chronotropic incompetence compared with participants without chronotropic incompetence [mean (SD) ml/min/kg: 20.9 (5.1) vs. 25.0 (4.5), P = 0.001]. Linear regression showed that chronotropic incompetence and age were independent predictors of VO2peak, but smoking and comorbidity were not. The chronotropic index correlated with VO2peak (r = 0.48, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Among older PWH without heart failure or coronary heart disease, chronotropic incompetence was present in approximately one-third of individuals and was associated with clinically relevant impaired cardiorespiratory fitness. Investigation of chronotropic incompetence in large cohorts which includes PWH and heart failure may contribute to strategies that promote healthy aging with HIV infection and offer a preclinical window for intervention.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Enfermedad Coronaria , Infecciones por VIH , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología
12.
Indian J Med Res ; 159(2): 206-212, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577859

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global cause of ill health. Sputum microscopy for confirmation of presumptive pulmonary TB (PTB) has a reportedly low sensitivity of 22-43 per cent for single smear and up to 60 per cent under optimal conditions. National TB Elimination Programme in India recommends the use of cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT) and culture for microbiological confirmation in presumptive PTB individuals with sputum smear negative test. The use of lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) is usually recommended for the diagnosis of TB in HIV-positive individuals with low CD4 counts or those who are seriously ill. The objective of this study was to detect urinary LAM using cage nanotechnology that does not require a physiologic or immunologic consequence of HIV infection for LAM quantification in human urine in 50 HIV-seronegative sputum smear-negative PTB individuals. METHODS: To study the diagnostic value of urinary LAM in sputum smear negative PTB individuals, a cage based nanotechnology ELISA technique was used for urinary LAM in three different groups of participants. Fifty smears negative PTB clinically diagnosed, 15 smear positive PTB and 15 post TB sequel individuals. Sputum was tested by smear, CBNAAT, and culture along with urine LAM before treatment. The results were interpreted by ROC curve in comparison to the standard tests like CBNAAT and culture. RESULTS: The mean urinary LAM value was 0.84 ng/ml in 37 culture-positive [Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb)] and 0.49 ng/ml in 13 culture-negative (M.tb) smear-negative individuals with PTB, respectively. In 47 smear-negative PTB cases with microbiologically confirmed TB by CBNAAT, the mean urinary LAM was 0.76 ng/ml. The mean urinary LAM in post-TB sequel individuals was 0.47 ng/ml. As per the receiver operating characteristic curve, cut-off value of urinary LAM in individuals with smear-negative PTB microbiologically confirmed by: (i) CBNAAT was 0.695 ng/ml and (ii) culture was 0.615 ng/ml. INTERPRETATION CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that individuals with smear-negative PTB and a urinary LAM value of >0.615 ng/ml were most likely to have microbiological confirmed TB while those with a LAM value <0.615 ng/ml >0.478 ng/ml are less likely and those with a value <0.478 ng/ml are unlikely to have microbiological confirmed TB.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Tuberculosis , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Esputo/microbiología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Tuberculosis/microbiología , Lipopolisacáridos
14.
AIDS ; 38(6): 929-931, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578964

RESUMEN

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) has rarely been reported in people with HIV (PWH). We describe the prevalence and characteristics of patients with PDB in the French multicenter Dat'AIDS cohort. Among 49 698 PWH actively followed in 2022, 9 had a diagnosis of PDB. The overall prevalence of PDB was 0.02% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.03]. The prevalence of PDB in PWH is very low and does not appear to differ from the non-HIV population.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Infecciones por VIH , Osteítis Deformante , Humanos , Osteítis Deformante/epidemiología , Osteítis Deformante/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(14): e37649, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579091

RESUMEN

The co-occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus and malaria presents a complex medical scenario, significantly impacting the quality of life for affected individuals. This comprehensive review synthesizes current knowledge, challenges, and strategies concerning the concurrent management of these infections to improve overall well-being. Epidemiological insights reveal the prevalence and demographic trends, highlighting geographical areas of concern and socioeconomic factors contributing to the burden of co-infection. Pathophysiological interactions elucidate the compounding effects, altering disease progression and treatment outcomes. Healthcare challenges underscore the necessity for integrated care models, evaluating existing healthcare frameworks and their efficacy in addressing dual infections. In-depth analysis of interventions explores pharmacological, behavioral, and preventive measures, evaluating their efficacy and safety in co-infected individuals. Additionally, the review assesses psychosocial support mechanisms, emphasizing community-based interventions and peer networks in enhancing holistic care. Consideration is given to the role of antiretroviral therapy, malaria prevention strategies, and the evolving landscape of healthcare delivery in optimizing outcomes for this vulnerable population. The paper concludes by emphasizing the significance of multidisciplinary approaches and integrated care models, stressing the need for continued research and collaborative efforts to advance interventions and improve the quality of life for those navigating the complexities of human immunodeficiency virus and malaria co-infection.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Malaria , Humanos , VIH , Calidad de Vida , Coinfección/epidemiología , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología
18.
AIDS Res Ther ; 21(1): 20, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581028

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV testing remains an important tool in identifying people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). An early diagnosis of HIV can lead to a prolonged life expectancy if treatment is initiated promptly. Indicator conditions can be the first sign of an HIV infection and should therefore be recognised and consequently a HIV test should be carried out. Testing should occur in all individuals as sexuality can be experienced by everyone, and stigma can lead to the exclusion of vulnerable groups, leading to a gap in diagnosis and treatment [1, 2]. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old man, who identifies as bisexual and has had an intellectual disability since birth, presented at our health care centre for HIV testing. A decade ago, the patient was diagnosed with Stage III Diffuse Large B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, an AIDS defining cancer. The patient presented at a Haematology and Oncology department 3 months prior, due to a weight loss of 10 kg over the past 5 months. Oral thrush, an HIV-indicator condition, had been diagnosed by the otolaryngologists shortly before. During this medical evaluation, pancytopenia was identified. Despite the presence of indicator conditions, the patient was never tested for HIV in the past. Staff members from the care facility for intellectually disabled suggested conducting a HIV test in our clinic through the public health department, where HIV positivity was revealed. The AIDS-defining diagnosis, along with a CD4 + cell count of 41/µl, suggests a prolonged period of HIV positivity. CONCLUSION: Due to the presence of existing indicator conditions, an earlier HIV diagnosis was possible. We contend that most of the recent illnesses could have been prevented if earlier testing had been carried out. Therefore, patients presenting with AIDS indicator conditions, including those with mental disabilities, should be given the opportunity to be tested for HIV. HIV/AIDS trainings should be made available to health care professionals as well as to personnel interacting with vulnerable groups.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Discapacidad Intelectual , Salud Sexual , Masculino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Discapacidad Intelectual/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Prueba de VIH
19.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581190

RESUMEN

AIM: This matched case-control study aimed to provide epidemiologic evidence of increased burden of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function decline among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a history of heavy alcohol consumption. METHODS: Cases were participants with HIV (PWH; n = 75, 33%), and controls were participants without HIV (PWoH; n = 150, 67%). PWH were matched to PWoH by age and sex in the ratio of 1:2. Eligible participants responded to the respiratory health National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey questionnaire [prolonged coughs (≥3 months), bringing up of phlegm (≥3 months), and a history of wheezing or whistling in the chest (past year)]. The effects of both alcohol and HIV on participants' pulmonary function were determined using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: History of heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent among PWH (40%) compared to PWoH (27%). PWH who had a history of heavy alcohol consumption had a higher prevalence of coughing most days (45% vs. 4%, P = .0010), bringing up phlegm most days (31% vs. 0%, P = .0012), and wheezing or whistling in the chest (40% vs. 20%, P = .058) compared to participants who did not heavily consume alcohol. Furthermore, a history of heavy alcohol consumption was associated with decreased forced expiratory volume (ml) in 1 s/forced vital capacity among PWH (ß = - 0.098 95% C.I. -0.16, -0.04, P = .03) after adjusting for having smoked at least 100 cigarettes in life. CONCLUSION: A history of heavy alcohol use increased respiratory symptoms and suppressed pulmonary function among people living with HIV. This study provides epidemiological evidence of the respiratory symptom burden of people living with HIV who have a history of heavy alcohol consumption.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , VIH , Humanos , Encuestas Nutricionales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Ruidos Respiratorios , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612584

RESUMEN

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-associated diseases include Kaposi sarcoma (KS), multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder (GLPD), Kaposi sarcoma inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS), HHV8-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HHV8+ DLBCL), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and extra-cavitary PEL (ECPEL). We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative male treated for cutaneous KS, who developed generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, pleural and abdominal effusions, renal insufficiency, and pancytopenia. The excised lymph node showed features of concomitant involvement by micro-KS and MCD, with aggregates of HHV8+, Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-negative, IgM+, and lambda+ plasmablasts reminiscent of microlymphoma. Molecular investigations revealed a somatically hypermutated (SHM) monoclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH), accounting for 4% of the B-cell population of the lymph node. Mutational analyses identified a pathogenic variant of KMT2D and variants of unknown significance in KMT2D, FOXO1, ARID1A, and KMT2A. The patient died shortly after surgery. The histological features (HHV8+, EBV-, IgM+, Lambda+, MCD+), integrated with the molecular findings (monoclonal IGH, SHM+, KMT2D mutated), supported the diagnosis of a monoclonal HHV8+ microlymphoma, with features intermediate between an incipient HHV8+ DLBCL and an EBV-negative ECPEL highlighting the challenges in the accurate classification of HHV8-driven lymphoid proliferations.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Castleman , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr , Infecciones por VIH , Herpesvirus Humano 8 , Sarcoma de Kaposi , Masculino , Humanos , Herpesvirus Humano 8/genética , Sarcoma de Kaposi/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Inmunoglobulina M
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