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2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200003, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130392

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) varies according to the characteristics of the population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the SSB intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with its consumption in adolescents, adults, and older adults in São Paulo. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study including 1,662 individuals aged 12 years or more. SSB were classified into six groups: sugar-sweetened sodas, sweetened coffee and tea, sweetened milk and dairy products, sweetened fruit juice, sweetened fruit drink, and total SSB. The association of each group with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables was assessed using linear regression models. RESULTS: The mean SSB intake was 668.4 mL in adolescents, 502.6 mL in adults, and 358.2 mL in elderly adults. Sodas and sweetened coffee and tea represented had the greatest contribution to energy intake. SSB consumption was lower among female sex and higher among overweight adolescents, among sufficiently active adults, and among lower household per capita income older adults. Consumption of SSB was high, particularly among adolescents. Public policies are required in order to decrease the consumption of these beverages. CONCLUSION: Age group, sex, household per capita income, and body mass index status were associated with SSB intake.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Ingestión de Líquido , Estilo de Vida , /estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
BMJ ; 368: m688, 2020 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188587

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of macronutrient intake with all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the implications for dietary advice. DESIGN: Prospective population based study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 195 658 of the 502 536 participants in UK Biobank completed at least one dietary questionnaire and were included in the analyses. Diet was assessed using Oxford WebQ, a web based 24 hour recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were estimated using standard methodology. Cox proportional models with penalised cubic splines were used to study non-linear associations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality and incidence of CVD. RESULTS: 4780 (2.4%) participants died over a mean 10.6 (range 9.4-13.9) years of follow-up, and 948 (0.5%) and 9776 (5.0%) experienced fatal and non-fatal CVD events, respectively, over a mean 9.7 (range 8.5-13.0) years of follow-up. Non-linear associations were found for many macronutrients. Carbohydrate intake showed a non-linear association with mortality; no association at 20-50% of total energy intake but a positive association at 50-70% of energy intake (3.14 v 2.75 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.28 (60-70% v 50% of energy)). A similar pattern was observed for sugar but not for starch or fibre. A higher intake of monounsaturated fat (2.94 v 3.50 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 0.58, 0.51 to 0.66 (20-25% v 5% of energy)) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fat (2.66 v 3.04 per 1000 person years, 0.78, 0.75 to 0.81 (5-7% v 12% of energy)) and saturated fat (2.66 v 3.59 per 1000 person years, 0.67, 0.62 to 0.73 (5-10% v 20% of energy)) were associated with a lower risk of mortality. A dietary risk matrix was developed to illustrate how dietary advice can be given based on current intake. CONCLUSION: Many associations between macronutrient intake and health outcomes are non-linear. Thus dietary advice could be tailored to current intake. Dietary guidelines on macronutrients (eg, carbohydrate) should also take account of differential associations of its components (eg, sugar and starch).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Dieta , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Grasas de la Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Adulto , Anciano , Fibras de la Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política Nutricional , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
4.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107845, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004533

RESUMEN

Vegetable oils are frequently used as solvents for lipophilic materials; accordingly, the effects of their components should be considered in animal experiments. In this study, the effects of various vegetable oils on the course of Trypanosoma congolense infection were examined in mice. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered four kinds of oils (i.e., coconut oil, olive oil, high oleic safflower oil, and high linoleic safflower oil) with different fatty acid compositions and infected with T. congolense IL-3000. Oil-treated mice infected with T. congolense showed significantly higher survival rates and lower parasitemia than those of control mice. Notably, coconut oil, which mainly consists of saturated fatty acids, delayed the development of parasitemia at the early stage of infection. These results indicated that vegetable oil intake could affect T. congolense infection in mice. These findings have important practical implications; for example, they suggest the potential effectiveness of vegetable oils as a part of the regular animal diet for controlling tropical diseases and indicate that vegetable oils are not suitable solvents for studies of the efficacy of lipophilic agents against T. congolense.


Asunto(s)
Aceites Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Trypanosoma congolense/efectos de los fármacos , Tripanosomiasis Africana/dietoterapia , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Aceite de Coco/administración & dosificación , Aceite de Coco/química , Aceite de Coco/farmacología , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Ácido Linoleico/análisis , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ácido Oléico/análisis , Aceite de Oliva/administración & dosificación , Aceite de Oliva/química , Aceite de Oliva/farmacología , Parasitemia/prevención & control , Aceites Vegetales/clasificación , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Aceite de Azafrán/administración & dosificación , Aceite de Azafrán/química , Aceite de Azafrán/farmacología , Tripanosomiasis Africana/prevención & control
5.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069478

RESUMEN

The German Society for Nutritional Medicine has recently updated its guideline on clinical nutrition in critically ill patients thereby cooperating with seven other national medical societies. This article provides readers with a concise overview on selected key aspects of this guideline relevant for clinical practice. We will discuss some issues in detail such as the determination of energy expenditure and of calorie and protein intake, the choice of the route of administration (enteral or parenteral), and the handling of micronutrients.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Críticos , Nutrición Enteral , Enfermedad Crítica , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Necesidades Nutricionales , Nutrición Parenteral , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
6.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 53, 2020 02 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059698

RESUMEN

Despite sound basis to suspect that aggressive and early administration of nutritional support may hold therapeutic benefits during sepsis, recommendations for nutritional support have been somewhat underwhelming. Current guidelines (ESPEN and ASPEN) recognise a lack of clear evidence demonstrating the beneficial effect of nutritional support during sepsis, raising the question: why, given the perceived low efficacy of nutritionals support, are there no high-quality clinical trials on the efficacy of permissive underfeeding in sepsis? Here, we review clinically relevant beneficial effects of permissive underfeeding, motivating the urgent need to investigate the clinical benefits of delaying nutritional support during sepsis.


Asunto(s)
Apoyo Nutricional , Sepsis , Enfermedad Crítica , Ingestión de Energía , Nutrición Enteral , Humanos , Necesidades Nutricionales
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 228-232, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074716

RESUMEN

The energy adjustment models in nutritional epidemiological studies could substantially reduce the confounding effect of total energy intake from the intake of dietary components, and it could explore the real relationship between the intake of dietary component and research outcomes. Four energy adjustment models were introduced in this article, including the standard multivariate model, multivariate nutrient residual model, energy partition model, and multivariate nutrient density model. The four energy adjustment models were applied to analyze the association between the intake of saturated fatty acids and the risk of all-cause mortality based on the data of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The consistent results of different energy adjustment models could indicate that the four models could better control the confounding effect of total energy intake.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Ácidos Grasos/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Science ; 367(6474): 146-147, 2020 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919209
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0216516, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978089

RESUMEN

Childhood obesity is an undeniable reality that has rapidly increased in many countries. Obesity at an early age not only increases the risks of chronic diseases but also produces a problem for the whole healthcare system. One way to alleviate this problem is to provide each patient with an appropriate menu that is defined by a mathematical model. Existing mathematical models only partially address the objective and constraints of childhood obesity; therefore, the solutions provided are insufficient for health specialists to prepare nutritional menus for individual patients. This manuscript proposes a multiobjective mathematical programming model to aid in healthy nutritional menu planning that may prevent childhood obesity. This model provides a plan for combinations and amounts of food across different schedules and daily meals. This approach minimizes the major risk factors of childhood obesity (i.e., glycemic load and cholesterol intake). In addition, this approach considers the minimization of nutritional mismatch and total cost. The model is solved using a deterministic method and two metaheuristic methods. Test instances associated with children aged 4-18 years were created with the support of health professionals to complete this numerical study. The quality of the solutions generated using the three methods was similar, but the metaheuristic methods provided solutions in a shorter computational time. These results are submitted to statistical hypothesis tests to be validated. The numerical results indicate proper guidelines for personalized plans for individual children.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Comidas , Planificación de Menú/normas , Leche/metabolismo , Política Nutricional , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2183-2192, 2020 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984741

RESUMEN

Obesity is a global chronic disease linked to various diseases. Increased consumption of added sugars, especially in beverages, is a key contributor to the obesity epidemic. It is essential to reduce or replace sugar intake with low-calorie sweeteners. Here, a natural sweet protein, 3M-brazzein, was investigated as a possible sugar substitute. Mice were exposed to 3M-brazzein or 10% sucrose of equivalent sweetness, in drinking water to mimic human obesity development over 15 weeks. Consumption of 3M-brazzein in liquid form did not cause adiposity hypertrophy, resulting in 33.1 ± 0.4 g body weight and 0.90 ± 0.2 mm fat accumulation, which were 35.9 ± 0.7 g (p = 0.0094) and 1.53 ± 0.067 mm (p = 0.0031), respectively, for sucrose supplement. Additionally, 3M-brazzein did not disrupt glucose homeostasis or affect insulin resistance and inflammation. Due to its naturally low-calorie content, 3M-brazzein could also be a potential sugar substitute that reduces adiposity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidad/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Edulcorantes/metabolismo , Adiposidad , Animales , Peso Corporal , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina , Kluyveromyces/genética , Kluyveromyces/metabolismo , Masculino , Enfermedades Metabólicas/inmunología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/fisiopatología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Obesidad/inmunología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
11.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(3): 633-639, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710276

RESUMEN

To evaluate the suitability of the new nutritional composition of renewed commercial Formula A (protein reduced to 2.2 g/100 kcal, arachidonic acid increased to 13.2 mg/100 kcal, and docosahexaenoic acid maintained at 20 mg/100 kcal), we examined whether the growth of Formula A-fed infants was equivalent to that of breastfed infants. In this observational study, 1,053 infants were followed-up to 12 months. Growth, stool consistency, and the health condition of 99 infants fed with Formula A and 295 breastfed infants were compared. Body weight, body mass index, and head circumference of Formula A-fed infants were similar to those of breastfed infants. Additionally, there were no differences in the stool consistency and the health condition (infection and allergy prevalence) between the two groups. Formula A-fed infants grew as well as breastfed infants, suggesting the appropriate nutritional composition of Formula A. The findings may contribute to further improvements in infant formulas.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ingestión de Energía , Fórmulas Infantiles/química , Ácido Araquidónico/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Lactancia Materna , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Estudios de Seguimiento , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 33-47, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829012

RESUMEN

Obesity is caused by an imbalance of energy intake and expenditure. It is characterized by a higher accumulation of body fat with a chronic low-grade inflammation. Many reports have shown that gut microbiota in the host plays a pivotal role in mediating the interaction between consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) and onset of obesity. Accumulative evidence has suggested that the changes in the composition of gut microbiota may affect the host's energy homeostasis, systemic inflammation, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. As one of the major components in human diet, polyphenols have demonstrated to be capable of modulating the composition of gut microbiota and reducing the HFD-induced obesity. The present review summarizes the findings of recent studies on dietary polyphenols regarding their metabolism and interaction with bacteria in the intestine as well as the underlying mechanisms by which they modulate the gut microbiota and alleviate the HFD-induced obesity.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Obesidad/microbiología , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Animales , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Obesidad/metabolismo
13.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 366-374, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835963

RESUMEN

Ultra-endurance athletes accumulate an energy deficit throughout their events and those competing in self-sufficient multi-stage races are particularly vulnerable due to load carriage considerations. Whilst urinary ketones have previously been noted in ultra-endurance exercise and attributed to insufficient carbohydrate (CHO) availability, not all studies have reported concomitant CHO intake. Our aim was to determine changes in blood glucose and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations over five days (240 km) of a self-sufficient multi-stage ultramarathon in combination with quantification of energy and macronutrient intakes, estimated energy expenditure and evaluation of energy balance. Thirteen runners (8 male, 5 female, mean age 40 ± 8 years) participated in the study. Glucose and ß-hydroxybutyrate were measured every day immediately post-running, and food diaries completed daily. CHO intakes of 301 ± 106 g·day-1 (4.3 ± 1.8 g·kg-1·day-1) were not sufficient to avoid ketosis (5-day mean ß-hydroxybutyrate: 1.1 ± 0.6 mmol.L-1). Furthermore, ketosis was not attenuated even when CHO intake was high (9 g·kg-1·day-1). This suggests that competing in a state of ketosis may be inevitable during multi-stage events where load reduction is prioritised over energy provisions. Attenuating negative impacts associated with such a metabolic shift in athletes unaccustomed to CHO and energy restriction requires further exploration.


Asunto(s)
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangre , Glucemia/metabolismo , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ingestión de Energía , Cetosis/fisiopatología , Resistencia Física/fisiología , Carrera/fisiología , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Soporte de Peso
14.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 285: 113290, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563646

RESUMEN

Monitoring metabolic activity in wild living animals has become of particular interest in the field of ecological research. Methods for the repeated non-invasive sampling of individuals are needed. Thyroid hormones (TH) are involved in the regulation of metabolic activity, and their measurement can be used as a proxy to monitor metabolic changes. During periods of low energy intake, serum TH levels are reduced, leading to a decrease in metabolic activity. Using urine samples collected during a food restriction experiment in captive bonobos we validated a total triiodthyronin (TT3) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the monitoring of metabolic changes. We found that the majority of immune reactivity of the assay in the urine samples could be explained through immunoreactivity to T3. Furthermore, urinary T3 was stable through repeated freeze-thaw cycles but prolonged exposure to room temperature lead to degradation. Most importantly, we found that for all animals urinary total T3 levels were higher when more digestible energy was consumed. We concluded that urinary total T3 measurements are a suitable method for monitoring metabolic changes in bonobos and potentially in a wide range of animal species.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía , Pan paniscus/metabolismo , Pan paniscus/orina , Triyodotironina/orina , Animales , Péptido C/orina , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 272-281, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629524

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex on the requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy utilization in growing Saanen goats. A database from 7 comparative slaughter studies that included 238 Saanen goats was gathered to provide information for the development of prediction equations of energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy utilization. The experimental design provided different levels of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and empty body weight (EBW). The data were analyzed so that sex (e.g., intact males, castrated males, and females; n = 98, 80, and 60, respectively) was a fixed effect, and blocks nested in the studies and goat sex were random effects. For the development of linear and nonlinear equations, we used the MIXED and NLMIXED procedures in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Nonlinear regression equations were developed to predict heat production (HP, kcal/kg0.75 of EBW; dependent variable) from MEI (kcal/kg0.75 of EBW; independent variable). Using the comparative slaughter technique, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEM) was calculated as the value of HP at MEI equal to zero. Additionally, NEM was evaluated based on the degree of maturity. The metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance was calculated as the value at which HP is equal to MEI. Efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km) was calculated as the ratio between NEM and the metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance. Efficiency of energy utilization for growth (kg) was assumed to be the slope of the linear regression of retained energy (RE) on MEI above the maintenance stage (model intercept equal to 0). Efficiencies of RE as protein (kp) and as fat (kf) were calculated using the multiple linear regression of MEI above the maintenance (model intercept equal to 0) on RE as protein and as fat, respectively. Sex affected NEM (75.0 ± 1.76 kcal/kg0.75 of EBW for males and 63.6 ± 2.89 kcal/kg0.75 of EBW for females) and sex did not affect km (0.63). In contrast, sex no longer affected NEM when degree of maturity was considered on its estimation. The kg was different between sexes (0.31 for castrated males and females, and 0.26 for intact males), but kp (0.21) and kf (0.80) were similar between sexes. These results may be useful for improving robustness of the energy requirement recommendations for dairy goats.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Privación de Alimentos/fisiología , Cabras/fisiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Femenino , Cabras/crecimiento & desarrollo , Masculino , Necesidades Nutricionales , Distribución Aleatoria , Factores Sexuales
16.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4039, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851223

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oxidative profile, nutritional status and food intake (caloric value; macronutrients; vitamins A, E and C; and zinc), and to correlate oxidative stress with nutritional status in patients who were candidates for liver transplant. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, analytical, and descriptive study with 51 candidates for liver transplant. Sociodemographic and clinical data, anthropometric parameters, food consumption, and a 10mL blood sample were collected from each patient. Oxidative stress was analyzed by the thiobarbituric acid method. The consumption of macronutrients, caloric value and micronutrients (zinc, vitamins A, E and C) were qualitatively analyzed, and zinc was also quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age was 49.17±8.17 years. The highest percentage of malnutrition was according to arm muscle circumference (56.86%), followed by arm circumference (52.94%), triceps skin fold (50.98%), and body mass index (1.96%). The mean malondialdehyde level was 14.80±8.72µM/L, presenting a negative correlation with the body mass index for patients with liver cirrhosis according to IMC-Campillo values (p=0.001; r=-0.430). Low energy, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin A and E consumption were observed in more than 50% of subjects. CONCLUSION: This study showed an association of nutritional status through body mass index for patients with liver cirrhosis according to IMC-Campillo, with oxidative stress in patients with liver cirrhosis on a liver transplant waiting list.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal/metabolismo , Trasplante de Hígado/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Receptores de Trasplantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Antropometría , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal/cirugía , Ingestión de Energía , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdehído/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación Nutricional , Valores de Referencia , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
17.
Neurology ; 94(2): e123-e132, 2020 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852815

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To help determine whether midlife obesity is a cause of dementia and whether low body mass index (BMI), low caloric intake, and physical inactivity are causes or merely consequences of the gradual onset of dementia by recording these factors early in a large 20-year prospective study and relating them to dementia detection rates separately during follow-up periods of <5, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, and 15+ years. METHODS: A total of 1,136,846 UK women, mean age 56 (SD 5) years, were recruited in 1996 to 2001 and asked about height, weight, caloric intake, and inactivity. They were followed up until 2017 by electronic linkage to National Health Service records, detecting hospital admissions with mention of dementia. Cox regression yielded adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for first dementia detection during particular follow-up periods. RESULTS: Fifteen years after the baseline survey, only 1% were lost to follow-up, and 89% remained alive with no detected dementia, of whom 18,695 had dementia detected later, at a mean age of 77 (SD 4) years. Dementia detection during years 15+ was associated with baseline obesity (BMI 30+ vs 20-24 kg/m2: RR 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.26, p < 0.0001) but not clearly with low BMI, low caloric intake, or inactivity at baseline. The latter 3 factors were associated with increased dementia rates during the first decade, but these associations weakened substantially over time, approaching null after 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Midlife obesity may well be a cause of dementia. In contrast, behavioral changes due to preclinical disease could largely or wholly account for associations of low BMI, low caloric intake, and inactivity with dementia detection during the first decade of follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Demencia/epidemiología , Ingestión de Energía , Conducta Sedentaria , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
18.
Maturitas ; 131: 1-7, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787141

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have reported associations between dietary intake and mental health. Dietary fiber is one nutrient that may modulate mental health, specifically depression risk, through the gut microbiome. We prospectively examined the association between dietary fiber intake and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) scores, a proxy for depressive symptoms, in a cohort of 14,129 post-menopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study. METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed at baseline [1986] using a 127-item food frequency questionnaire. Mental health-related QOL scores were assessed at the follow-up questionnaire [2004] using the Mental Health (MH) component and Mental Health Composite (MCS) scales derived from the SF-36 Health Survey. The association between dietary fiber intake and mean QOL scores was examined using linear regression, with adjustment for age, alcohol intake, energy intake, waist-to-hip ratio, physical activity, smoking status, and education. RESULTS: The median dietary fiber intake was 19.0 g/day, ranging from 1.1 to 89.4 g/day. Multivariable-adjusted mean MH scores were higher among those with higher fiber intake (P for trend = 0.02). For MCS score, the association with fiber intake observed in a model adjusted for age and energy intake became insignificant after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is one of the first prospective analyses of the association between higher dietary fiber intake and increased MH QOL scores later in life. Given a plausible biological mechanism underlying the association between fiber intake and mental health, additional studies are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Salud Mental , Salud de la Mujer , Anciano , Depresión , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Iowa , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(1): 84-93, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422677

RESUMEN

Despite high energy content, nut consumption has not been associated with weight gain in epidemiological and clinical investigations. Since a satiety effect a decreased sense of hunger in the following meals has been proposed as the mechanism of nuts against obesity, the present meta-analysis was performed to examine how nut consumption affects "energy intake", "hunger", and "fullness". "Weight" was not included among the search terms but weight data were extracted from the collected articles in order to help interpreting the results. A total of 1048 trials were found, of which 31 passed the eligibility process. Daily energy intake was mostly assessed by 3-day food records, and hunger and fullness were estimated by visual analog scale (VAS). Nut consumption was associated with increased energy intake (mean difference (MD) (nuts - control) = 76.3 kcal; 95% CI: 22.7, 130 kcal; P = 0.005). In contrast, hunger suppressed following nut consumption (MD = -6.54 mm VAS; 95% CI: -12.7, -0.42 mm VAS; P = 0.03). Nuts did not affect sense of fullness and weight in the overall estimate. Subgroup analysis based on participants' BMI revealed that energy intake of overweight/obese individuals was increased following nut consumption while such effect was not observed in normal weight participants. In conclusion, pooled estimates of available clinical trials showed increased energy intake following nut consumption in overweight/obese individuals but not in persons with normal weight. Nut consumption was associated with decreased hunger but no effect was observed on fullness and weight.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Hambre , Nueces , Saciedad , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18314, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804379

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations of nutrient intake on glaucoma in subjects of Japanese descent living in Los Angeles, CA.In this cross-sectional study, 581 Japanese American participants in Los Angeles underwent an interview, fundus photography, comprehensive physical, and blood examinations, along with determining the body mass index status and any confounding factors. CDSketch was used to measure the cup-disc ratio and rim width of each fundus in the retinal photographs. A multivariate logistic regression test with adjustment for confounding factors was used to assess the association between glaucoma and nutrient intake.A total of 61 of 581 participants were diagnosed with glaucoma in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a high intake of iron (odds ratio [OR]: 1.303, P = .004), low intake of vitamin A (OR: 0.365, P = .019), and vegetable fat (OR: 0.957, P = .004) were associated with an increased risk of glaucoma.Current findings showed that high iron intake and low vitamin A and vegetable fat intake appeared to be associated with an increased risk of glaucoma in subjects of Japanese descent living in the Los Angeles populations.


Asunto(s)
Americanos Asiáticos , Glaucoma/etnología , Glaucoma/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Estudios Transversales , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Humanos , Hierro en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Japón/etnología , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Verduras , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/epidemiología
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