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1.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 27(1): 100-108, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814888

RESUMEN

Following spinal cord injury (SCI), individuals are at high risk for obesity and several chronic cardiometabolic disorders due to a deterioration in body composition, hypometabolic rate, and endometabolic dysregulation. Countermeasures to the consequences of an SCI include adopting a healthy diet that provides adequate nutrition to maintain good body habitus and cardiometabolic health. A proper diet for individuals with SCI should distribute carbohydrates, protein, and fat to optimize a lower energy intake requirement and should stress foods with low caloric yet high nutrient density. The purpose of this article is to present available evidence on how nutritional status after SCI should advance future research to further develop SCI-specific guidelines for total energy intake, as it relates to percent carbohydrates, protein, fat, and all vitamins and minerals, that take into consideration the adaptations after SCI.


Asunto(s)
Dietética/métodos , Ingestión de Energía , Estado Nutricional , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/dietoterapia , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/complicaciones , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/dietoterapia , Humanos
2.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 684-689, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843635

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Is to determine the actual energy costs of servicemen on the qualification course of special operations of the Armed Forces of Ukraine to substantiate the adequate nutritional and energy value of their diet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The actual average daily energy consumption of 85 servicemen of the qualification course (hereinafter - Q-course) of special operations of AF of Ukraine was determined by time-table and instrumental methods. By laboratory, calculation and questionnaire methods, the compensatory possibilities of their actual nutrition were assessed. RESULTS: Results: The data obtained indicate that the highest indicators of energy expenditures among servicemen were during the first phase of selection of the Q-course at the level of an average value of 6853 ± 963.9 kilocalories (hereinafter - kcal) per day. At the same time, the calorie content of actual food consumed only by 55.7% provided compensation for the average daily energy costs. In this regard, we have developed and implemented "Organizational and Methodological Guidelines for Rational Nutrition of Servicemen of SOF of AF of Ukraine". CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The actual nutrition of the military personnel on the Q-course of SOF of AF of Ukraine does not fully compensate for their real energy losses. The nutritional and energy value of the daily diet requires revision and bringing it into line with the actual energy consumption, depending on the preparation phases.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar , Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Ucrania
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923258

RESUMEN

In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the diet and its nutritional quality in Spanish households during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave and to compare them with the same period in 2019. Data on monthly foods and beverages household purchases in 2019 and 2020 were obtained from the nationwide Food Consumption Surveys. In April, there was an average increase, compared with 2019, of more than 40% for all food groups, with significant peaks in: alcoholic beverages (75%), appetizers (60%), eggs (59%), sugar and sweets (52%), and vegetables (50%). In March, the greatest peak was for pulses, with a 63% increment. The mean energy value of purchased foods in April was 2801 kcal/person/day, corresponding to an increase of 771 kcal/person/day (+38%), compared to the same month of 2019 (March and May: +520 kcal (+26%), June: +343 kcal (+18%)). Regarding nutrient density, there was a reduction in calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, riboflavin, vitamins B12, D, A, especially retinol, and an increase in fibre, sodium, folic acid, carotenes and vitamin E. Alcohol content per 1000 kcal increased by more than 20% from April to July. Food purchase patterns in Spanish households changed during lockdown and after it, with no appreciable improvement in the quality of the diet.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Dieta/métodos , Conducta Alimentaria , Valor Nutritivo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Bebidas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Energía , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Pandemias , España/epidemiología , Verduras
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 13, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886951

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and evaluate its potential in reflecting the dietary share of UPF in Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted in São Paulo with a convenience sample of 300 adults. Using a tablet, participants answered a 3-minute electronic self-report questionnaire on the consumption of 23 subgroups of UPF commonly consumed in Brazil, regarding the day prior the survey. Each participant score corresponded to the number of subgroups reported. The dietary share of UPF on the day prior to the survey, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, was calculated based on data collected on a 30-minute complete 24-hour dietary recall administered by trained nutritionists. The association between the score and the dietary share of UPF was evaluated using linear regression models. The Pabak index was used to assess the agreement in participants' classification according to the fifths of Nova score and the fifths of dietary share of UPF. RESULTS: The average dietary share of UPF increased linearly and significantly with the increase of the Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods. We found a substantial agreement in participants' classification according to the fifths of the distribution of scores and the fifths of the dietary share of UPF (Pabak index = 0.67). Age was inversely associated with a relatively high frequency of UPF consumption (upper fifth of the distribution) for both score and dietary share of UPF. CONCLUSION: The Nova score for the consumption of ultra-processed foods, obtained in a quick and practical manner, shows a good potential in reflecting the dietary share of UPF in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Comida Rápida , Manipulación de Alimentos , Adulto , Brasil , Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803566

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the symptoms of low energy availability (LEA) and risk of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) symptoms in para-athletes using a multi-parameter approach. (2) Methods: National level para-athletes (n = 9 males, n = 9 females) completed 7-day food and activity logs to quantify energy availability (EA), the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to assess bone mineral density (BMD), and hormonal blood spot testing. (3) Results: Based on EA calculations, no athlete was at risk for LEA (females < 30 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; and males < 25 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; thresholds for able-bodied (AB) subjects). Overall, 78% of females were "at risk" for LEA using the LEAF-Q, and 67% reported birth control use, with three of these participants reporting menstrual dysfunction. BMD was clinically low in the hip (<-2 z-score) for 56% of female and 25% of male athletes (4) Conclusions: Based on calculated EA, the risk for RED-S appears to be low, but hormonal outcomes suggest that RED-S risk is high in this para-athlete population. This considerable discrepancy in various EA and RED-S assessment tools suggests the need for further investigation to determine the true prevalence of RED-S in para-athlete populations.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/efectos adversos , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Deficiencia Relativa de Energía en el Deporte/etiología , Deportes para Personas con Discapacidad/fisiología , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adulto , Antropometría , Densidad Ósea , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Hormonas/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Paratletas , Factores de Riesgo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos en la Nutrición Deportiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1273-1278, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900260

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Salagaras, BS, Mackenzie-Shalders, KL, Nelson, MJ, Fraysse, F, Wycherley, TP, Slater, GJ, McLellan, C, Kumar, K, and Coffey, VG. Comparisons of daily energy intake vs. expenditure using the GeneActiv accelerometer in elite Australian Football athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1273-1278, 2021-To assess validity of the GeneActiv accelerometer for use within an athlete population and compare energy expenditure (EE) with energy and macronutrient intake of elite Australian Football athletes during a competition week. The GeneActiv was first assessed for utility during high-intensity exercise with indirect calorimetry. Thereafter, 14 professional Australian Football athletes (age, 24 ± 4 [SD] y; height, 1.87 ± 0.08 m; body mass, 86 ± 10 kg) wore the accelerometer and had dietary intake assessed via dietitian-led 24-hour recalls throughout a continuous 7 days of competition period (including match day). There was a significant relationship between metabolic equivalents and GeneActiv g·min-1 (SEE 1.77 METs; r2 = 0.64; p < 0.0001). Across the in-season week a significant difference only occurred on days 3 and 4 (day 3: energy intake [EI] EI 137 ± 31 kJ·kg-1·d-1; 11,763 ± 2,646 kJ·d-1 and EE: 186 ± 14 kJ·kg-1·d-1; 16,018 ± 1973 kJ·d-1; p < 0.05; d = -1.4; day 4: EI: 179 ± 44 kJ·kg-1·d-1, 15,413 ± 3,960 kJ·d-1 and EE: 225 ± 42 kJ·kg-1·d-1; 19,313 ± 3,072 kJ·d-1; d = -0.7). Carbohydrate intake (CI) was substantially below current sports nutrition recommendations on 6 of 7 days with deficits ranging from -1 to -7.2 g·kg-1·d-1 (p < 0.05), whereas daily protein and fat intake was adequate. In conclusion, the GeneActiv provides effective estimation of EE during weekly preparation for a professional team sport competition. Australian Footballers attempt to periodize dietary EI to varying daily training loads but fail to match expenditure on higher-training load days. Specific dietary strategies to increase CI may be beneficial to achieve appropriate energy balance and macronutrient distribution, particularly on days where athletes undertake multiple training sessions.


Asunto(s)
Fútbol Americano , Acelerometría , Adulto , Atletas , Australia , Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos en la Nutrición Deportiva , Adulto Joven
8.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810256

RESUMEN

Due to limited data about the impact of lockdown on health status, the present study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on changes in dietary habits, physical activity and serum markers in healthy adults. A total of 38 asymptomatic adults aged from 23 to 59 with a normal BMI (22.5 kg/m2) participated in baseline and post-lockdown measurements that included dietary and physical activity assessment, anthropometric measurements and blood samples; and the lockdown survey which included dietary assessment and questionnaires about changes in lifestyle and physical activity. A decreased diet quality during lockdown was observed (Healthy Eating Index reduced from 64.59 to 61.08), which returned to near baseline post-lockdown. Energy intake decreased during lockdown (p = 0.002) and returned to baseline post-lockdown. Despite lower physical activity levels during lockdown (p = 0.035), we observed no significant changes in body composition. However, we observed a significant increase in serum glucose (p = 0.005), total cholesterol (p = 0.003), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (p = 0.049) post-lockdown. Increase in serum glucose levels was pronounced in subjects with higher increase in energy intake (p = 0.039), increased omega-6 fatty acids intake (p = 0.016), those who were exposed to several risky contacts (p = 0.018, compared to those with less risky contacts) and those who were not active in nature (p = 0.008, compared to those active in nature). Increased serum LDL was correlated to decreased monounsaturated fatty acids intake (p = 0.028). Within the limits of this preliminary report, changes in serum markers observed among healthy subjects point to a possible impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on adults' health to be confirmed in larger groups.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Composición Corporal , /epidemiología , Dieta/psicología , Ingestión de Energía , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional , Eslovenia/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804597

RESUMEN

The aim of our study was to analyse vegetables, potatoes and their products as sources of energy and nutrients in the average diet in Poland. Representative data of the 2016 Household Budget Survey from 36,886 households were used. This is the largest study sample in Poland, so we generalized the conclusions to the whole population using the statement 'average diet'. We analysed three main product groups: vegetables, vegetable products, and potatoes and potatoes products, dividing them into 14 subgroups (e.g., tomatoes, cabbage, carrots, other vegetables, and mushrooms). The percentages of energy, protein, carbohydrates, total fat, nine vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin E), seven minerals (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium and zinc), and fibre from the analysed food subgroups are presented. Additionally, the influence of household characteristics on the supply of energy and nutrients from each subgroup of vegetables, potatoes, and their products was evaluated using cluster analysis. In the analysis, R programme and Kohonen neural networks were applied. Our study showed that vegetables, potatoes, and their products provide 7.3% of daily dietary energy supply. Vegetables contribute more than 20% of the supply of six nutrients: vitamin C (51.8%), potassium (32.5%), folate (31.0%), vitamin A (30.6%), vitamin B6 (27.8%), and magnesium (20.2%), as well as fibre (31.8%). Cluster analysis distinguished three clusters that differed in nutritional supply from vegetables, potatoes, and their products. Educational level, income measured by quintile groups, village size, socio-economic characteristics, urbanization degree, and land use were the most important factors determining differences between clusters.


Asunto(s)
Solanum tuberosum , Verduras , Dieta , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Nutrientes , Valor Nutritivo , Polonia
10.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673240

RESUMEN

School meals for grade 1 to 4 pupils in Latvia are financed by the government, but with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, and following the remote learning process, there were problems related to the delivery of these meals for pupils. The current situation in Latvia has been exacerbated again due to the spread of the pandemic; there is a great necessity to find well-thought-out solutions to ensure school lunches outside the school. The aim of this study was to develop recommendation-based one-week food packs for grade 1 to 4 pupils, providing the necessary amount of nutrients and energy. Four food packs were designed to provide five-day lunch meals for pupils, preparing a warm lunch at home. Protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, sugar, dietary fiber, sodium, salt and calcium content of meals were analyzed according to standard methods. During the project, the most appropriate solution for food packs was explored. The four designed food packs will provide support to municipalities, because the composition of food packs complies with the nutrition and energy value regulation and does not exceed the planned budget. Parents will receive the developed recipe book in addition to a one-week food pack.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía , Servicios de Alimentación , Almuerzo , Pandemias , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Instituciones Académicas
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670431

RESUMEN

A reduction in daily caloric or nutrient intake has been observed to promote health benefits in mammals and other vertebrates. Feed Restriction (FR), whereby the overall food intake of the organism is reduced, has been explored as a method to improve metabolic and immune health, as well as to optimize productivity in farming. However, less is known regarding the molecular and physiological consequences of FR. Using the model organism, Danio rerio, we investigated the impact of a short-term (month-long) FR on growth, gut morphology and gene expression. Our data suggest that FR has minimal effects on the average growth rates, but it may affect weight and size heterogeneity in a sex-dependent manner. In the gut, we observed a significant reduction in gut circumference and generally lower mucosal heights, whereas other parameters remained unchanged. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis identified numerous metabolic, reproductive, and immune response pathways that were affected by FR. These results broaden our understanding of FR and contribute towards growing knowledge of its effects on vertebrate health.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos , Ingestión de Energía , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Intestinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Caracteres Sexuales , Pez Cebra/crecimiento & desarrollo , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Femenino , Intestinos/anatomía & histología , Masculino , Pez Cebra/anatomía & histología
12.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682853

RESUMEN

The vast majority of dietary and eating behavior assessment methods are based on self-reports. They are burdensome and also prone to measurement errors. Recent technological innovations allow for the development of more accurate and precise dietary and eating behavior assessment tools that require less effort for both the user and the researcher. Therefore, a new sensor-based device to assess food intake and eating behavior was developed. The device is a regular dining tray equipped with a video camera and three separate built-in weighing stations. The weighing stations measure the weight of the bowl, plate, and drinking cup continuously over the course of a meal. The video camera positioned to the face records eating behavior characteristics (chews, bites), which are analyzed using artificial intelligence (AI)-based automatic facial expression software. The tray weight and the video data are transported at real-time to a personal computer (PC) using a wireless receiver. The outcomes of interest, such as the amount eaten, eating rate and bite size, can be calculated by subtracting the data of these measures at the timepoints of interest. The information obtained by the current version of the tray can be used for research purposes, an upgraded version of the device would also facilitate the provision of more personalized advice on dietary intake and eating behavior. Contrary to the conventional dietary assessment methods, this dietary assessment device measures food intake directly within a meal and is not dependent on memory or the portion size estimation. Ultimately, this device is therefore suited for daily main meal food intake and eating behavior measures. In the future, this technology based dietary assessment method can be linked to health applications or smart watches to obtain a complete overview of exercise, energy intake, and eating behavior.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía , Conducta Alimentaria , Inteligencia Artificial , Automatización , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Masticación , Comidas
13.
Value Health ; 24(3): 317-324, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641764

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of public health insurance coverage, specifically the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), on childhood nutrition in poor rural households in China, and to identify the mechanisms through which health insurance coverage affects nutritional intake. METHODS: Longitudinal data on 3291 children were taken from four time periods (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Panel data analysis was performed with the fixed-effect model and the propensity score matching with difference-in-differences (PSM-DID) approach. RESULTS: The introduction of the NCMS was associated with a decline in calories, fat, and protein intake, and an increase in the intake of carbohydrates. The NCMS had the greatest negative effect on children aged 0 to 5 years, particularly girls. Out-of-pocket medical expenses were identified as the main channel through which the NCMS affected the nutritional intake of children. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the NCMS neither significantly improved the nutritional status of children nor enhanced intake of high-quality nutrients among rural poor households. These findings were attributed to the way in which health-seeking behavior was modified in the light of NCMS coverage. Specifically, NCMS coverage tended to increase healthcare utilization, which in turn increased out-of-pocket medical expenditures. This encouraged savings to aid financial risk protection and resulted in less disposable income for food consumption.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Financiación Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Niño , Preescolar , China , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Encuestas Nutricionales , Puntaje de Propensión , Salud Pública , Factores Sexuales
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 182, 2021 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722195

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Energy inadequacy has a great impact on health outcomes in older adult patients; however, it is difficult to evaluate energy adequacy in these patients, especially in home-care settings. We recently reported that temporal muscle thickness can be an indicator of nutritional status. The present study aims to examine whether a change in temporal muscle thickness is directly correlated with energy adequacy and, if so, to determine the cutoff value of a change in temporal muscle thickness to detect energy inadequacy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2015 to June 2016 in two hospitals in Japan, and included bedridden older adult patients aged ≥65 years. Temporal muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Energy intake was estimated by photographic diet records. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated by multiplying basal energy expenditure calculated using the Harris- Benedict equation by activity and stress factors. Energy adequacy was then calculated by dividing TEE by energy intake. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between percentage change in temporal muscle thickness and energy adequacy. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the direct relationship between percentage change in temporal muscle thickness and moderate energy inadequacy (energy adequacy< 75%). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the cutoff point for percentage change in temporal muscle thickness to detect moderate energy inadequacy. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were analyzed (mean age 84.4 ± 7.8 years; 54.2% were women). The percentage change in muscle thickness was significantly correlated with energy adequacy (r = 0.733, p < 0.001). ROC analysis identified a percentage change in temporal muscle thickness of - 3.6% as the optimal cutoff point for detecting moderate energy inadequacy. Percentage change in muscle thickness was independently correlated with energy inadequacy after adjusting for age, sex, and masticatory status (AOR 0.281, 95% CI 0.125-0.635). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in temporal muscle thickness are directly correlated with energy adequacy and can indicate moderate energy inadequacy in bedridden older adults. These results suggest the assessment of changes in temporal muscle thickness could be useful for guiding nutritional care in older adult patients in home-care settings.


Asunto(s)
Estado Nutricional , Músculo Temporal , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
15.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(2): e00030120, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729301

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the role of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) in the food and nutritional profile of pregnant women's diet. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a representative sample of pregnant women attending primary healthcare units in Maceió, capital of the State of Alagoas, Brazil. Food consumption was assessed with the application of two 24-hour food recalls on nonconsecutive days, and the consumption items were grouped according to the NOVA classification. Overall estimates were expressed as absolute dietary consumption (mean calorie intake) and relative consumption (percentage of total energy intake according to food groups and consumption items). Analysis of variance was used to compare mean energy and nutrient intake according to food groups. The association between quintiles of the energy share from UPFs (exposure variable) and (1) consumption items and food groups, (2) percentage of total energy from macronutrients, and (3) micronutrient density was analyzed via adjusted linear regression models. Mean energy intake in pregnant women was 1,966.9Kcal/day, 22% of which from UPFs. A direct relationship was observed between the percentage of energy from UPFs and total energy consumption (ß = 228.78Kcal; SE = 21.26). In addition, an increase in the share of UPFs was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the intake of protein, fiber, magnesium, iron, potassium, zinc, selenium, folate, and vitamins D and E, as well as in the consumption of traditional foods such as protein, beans, roots, and tubers. Our data thus indicate that the consumption of UPFs reduces the overall nutritional and food quality of diet in pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Comida Rápida , Mujeres Embarazadas , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672920

RESUMEN

Background: Since numerical calorie labels have limited effects on less-calorie food ordering, an alternative called physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels, which exhibit calories using visible symbols and the minutes of exercise to burn off the calories, may be more effective in reducing calories ordered. Methods: By using a choice experiment (CE) approach, the aims of this study were to estimate the effects of PACE labels on consumer preferences for healthy and unhealth food. Red date walnuts and potato chips were used as the representatives of healthy and unhealthy foods respectively in this study. Moreover, future time perspective (FTP) is an individual trait variable of consumers, which has been recognized as a significant driver of healthy behaviors. We also included FTP into the interaction with PACE labels. Results: Firstly, the results were opposite between the healthy and unhealthy food groups. Respondents showed significantly more positive attitudes toward red date walnuts (i.e., healthy food) with PACE labels, while they showed significantly more negative preferences for chips (i.e., unhealthy food) with PACE labels. Secondly, people with higher FTP are preferred red date walnuts with PACE labels, while PACE labels on chips could undermine the preferences of respondents with higher FTP. Thirdly, we found that women (vs. men) were less inclined to choose healthy food with standard calorie labels and labels showing the minutes of running to burn off the calories, as well as that the elderly (vs. younger) people in the healthy food group preferred the labels showing the minutes of running to burn off the calories. People with a higher body mass index (BMI) were reluctant to purchase walnuts with the information about the minutes of walking. Conclusions: Results from this study showed that PACE labels have significant effects on consumers' preferences for food products.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Anciano , Conducta de Elección , Ingestión de Energía , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 28, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653279

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for food group intake in Japan, the reproducibility and partial validity of which were previously confirmed for nutrients. METHODS: A total of 288 middle-aged healthy volunteers from 11 different areas of Japan provided nonconsecutive 3-day weighed dietary records (DRs) at 3-month intervals over four seasons. We evaluated reproducibility based on the first (FFQ1) and second (FFQ2) questionnaires and their validity against the DRs by comparing the intake of 20 food groups. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (SRs) were calculated between energy-adjusted intake from the FFQs and that from the DRs. RESULTS: The intake of 20 food groups estimated from the two FFQs was mostly equivalent. The median energy-adjusted SRs between the FFQ1 and FFQ2 were 0.61 (range 0.38-0.86) for men and 0.66 (0.45-0.84) for women. For validity, the median de-attenuated SRs between DRs and the FFQ1 were 0.51 (0.17-0.76) for men and 0.47 (0.23-0.77) for women. Compared with the DRs, the proportion of cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the FFQ1 ranged from 58 to 86% in men and from 57 to 86% in women. According to the robust Z scores and the Bland-Altman plot graphs, the underestimation errors in the FFQ1 tended to be greater in individuals with high mean levels of consumption for meat for men and for other vegetables for both men and women. CONCLUSION: The FFQ demonstrated high reproducibility and reasonable validity for food group intake. This questionnaire is short and remains appropriate for identifying associations between diet and health/disease among adults in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
18.
Vnitr Lek ; 67(1): 43-48, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752400

RESUMEN

The aim of this article is to emphasize the importance of taking into account the mechanism of host's response to insult when choosing a nutritional strategy in the early phase of a critical illness. At the same time, the article discusses the risks associated with early aggressive nutritional intervention for both energy and protein intake. Today, it seems that the most optimal choice of nutritional support during the first week of stay in the ICU is a gradual increase in both energy and protein intake. In numerical terms, this means a daily increase in energy dose of approximately 5 kcal/kg/day and a daily increase in protein dose of 0.2 g /kg/day. However, this only applies to patients admitted to the ICU with a normal body mass index, i.e. without malnutrition or without obesity. Both of these categories require special attention beyond the scope of this article.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crítica , Desnutrición , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Estado Nutricional , Apoyo Nutricional , Obesidad
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013119, 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782940

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are highly prevalent worldwide and result in substantial health care costs. Obesity is a predictor of incident CKD and progression to kidney failure. Whether weight loss interventions are safe and effective to impact on disease progression and clinical outcomes, such as death remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intentional weight loss interventions in overweight and obese adults with CKD; including those with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) being treated with dialysis, kidney transplantation, or supportive care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 14 December 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of more than four weeks duration, reporting on intentional weight loss interventions, in individuals with any stage of CKD, designed to promote weight loss as one of their primary stated goals, in any health care setting. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data. We applied the Cochrane 'Risk of Bias' tool and used the GRADE process to assess the certainty of evidence. We estimated treatment effects using random-effects meta-analysis. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes together with 95% confidence intervals (CI) or mean differences (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous outcomes or in descriptive format when meta-analysis was not possible. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 RCTs enrolling 988 overweight or obese adults with CKD. The weight loss interventions and comparators across studies varied. We categorised comparisons into three groups: any weight loss intervention versus usual care or control; any weight loss intervention versus dietary intervention; and surgical intervention versus non-surgical intervention. Methodological quality was varied, with many studies providing insufficient information to accurately judge the risk of bias. Death (any cause), cardiovascular events, successful kidney transplantation, nutritional status, cost effectiveness and economic analysis were not measured in any of the included studies. Across all 17 studies many clinical parameters, patient-centred outcomes, and adverse events were not measured limiting comparisons for these outcomes. In studies comparing any weight loss intervention to usual care or control, weight loss interventions may lead to weight loss or reduction in body weight post intervention (6 studies, 180 participants: MD -3.69 kg, 95% CI -5.82 to -1.57; follow-up: 5 weeks to 12 months, very low-certainty evidence). In very low certainty evidence any weight loss intervention had uncertain effects on body mass index (BMI) (4 studies, 100 participants: MD -2.18 kg/m², 95% CI -4.90 to 0.54), waist circumference (2 studies, 53 participants: MD 0.68 cm, 95% CI -7.6 to 6.24), proteinuria (4 studies, 84 participants: 0.29 g/day, 95% CI -0.76 to 0.18), systolic (4 studies, 139 participants: -3.45 mmHg, 95% CI -9.99 to 3.09) and diastolic blood pressure (4 studies, 139 participants: -2.02 mmHg, 95% CI -3.79 to 0.24). Any weight loss intervention made little or no difference to total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and inflammation, but may lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol. There was little or no difference between any weight loss interventions (lifestyle or pharmacological) compared to dietary-only weight loss interventions for weight loss, BMI, waist circumference, proteinuria, and systolic blood pressure, however diastolic blood pressure was probably reduced. Furthermore, studies comparing the efficacy of different types of dietary interventions failed to find a specific dietary intervention to be superior for weight loss or a reduction in BMI. Surgical interventions probably reduced body weight (1 study, 11 participants: MD -29.50 kg, 95% CI -36.4 to -23.35), BMI (2 studies, 17 participants: MD -10.43 kg/m², 95% CI -13.58 to -7.29), and waist circumference (MD -30.00 cm, 95% CI -39.93 to -20.07) when compared to non-surgical weight loss interventions after 12 months of follow-up. Proteinuria and blood pressure were not reported. All results across all comparators should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies, very low quality of evidence and heterogeneity across interventions and comparators. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: All types of weight loss interventions had uncertain effects on death and cardiovascular events among overweight and obese adults with CKD as no studies reported these outcome measures. Non-surgical weight loss interventions (predominately lifestyle) appear to be an effective treatment to reduce body weight, and LDL cholesterol. Surgical interventions probably reduce body weight, waist circumference, and fat mass. The current evidence is limited by the small number of included studies, as well as the significant heterogeneity and a high risk of bias in most studies.


Asunto(s)
Sobrepeso/terapia , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Sesgo , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , Causas de Muerte , Colesterol/sangre , Intervalos de Confianza , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Fallo Renal Crónico/sangre , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso/sangre , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Proteinuria/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/sangre , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Circunferencia de la Cintura
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(4): 1087-1101, 2021 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549436

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To study the relationships between different dietary factors (i.e., energy, macronutrient and fatty acid intake, food group consumption, and dietary pattern) and basal fat oxidation (BFox) and maximal fat oxidation during exercise (MFO) in sedentary adults. METHOD AND RESULTS: A total of 212 (n = 130 women; 32.4 ± 15.1 years) sedentary healthy adults took part in the present study. Information on the different dietary factors examined was gathered through a food frequency questionnaire and three nonconsecutive 24 h recalls. Energy and macronutrient intakes and food consumption were then estimated and dietary patterns calculated. BFox and MFO were measured by indirect calorimetry following standard procedures. Our study shows that dietary fiber intake was positively associated with BFox after taking into consideration the age, sex, and energy intake. A significant positive association between nut consumption and BFox was observed, which became nonsignificant after taking into consideration the age and energy intake. Fat intake and the dietary quality index (DQI), and the DQI for the Mediterranean diet were positively associated with MFO, which was attenuated after taking sex, age, and energy intake into consideration. CONCLUSION: A higher dietary fiber intake and fat intake are associated with higher BFox and MFO, respectively, in sedentary adults. CLINICAL TRIALS: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02365129 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT02365129) & ID: NCT03334357 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03334357).


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Ejercicio Físico , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Valor Nutritivo , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Grasas de la Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxidación-Reducción , Adulto Joven
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