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3.
Life Sci Alliance ; 7(6)2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580392

RESUMEN

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are host defense effectors with potent neutralizing and immunomodulatory functions against invasive pathogens. The AMPs α-Defensin 1-3/DEFA1A3 participate in innate immune responses and influence patient outcomes in various diseases. DNA copy-number variations in DEFA1A3 have been associated with severity and outcomes in infectious diseases including urinary tract infections (UTIs). Specifically, children with lower DNA copy numbers were more susceptible to UTIs. The mechanism of action by which α-Defensin 1-3/DEFA1A3 copy-number variations lead to UTI susceptibility remains to be explored. In this study, we use a previously characterized transgenic knock-in of the human DEFA1A3 gene mouse to dissect α-Defensin 1-3 gene dose-dependent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory roles during uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) UTI. We elucidate the relationship between kidney neutrophil- and collecting duct intercalated cell-derived α-Defensin 1-3/DEFA1A3 expression and UTI. We further describe cooperative effects between α-Defensin 1-3 and other AMPs that potentiate the neutralizing activity against UPEC. Cumulatively, we demonstrate that DEFA1A3 directly protects against UPEC meanwhile impacting pro-inflammatory innate immune responses in a gene dosage-dependent manner.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Urinarias , alfa-Defensinas , Niño , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , alfa-Defensinas/genética , Infecciones Urinarias/genética , Infecciones Urinarias/metabolismo , Riñón/metabolismo , Dosificación de Gen , Inmunidad Innata/genética , ADN , Péptidos Cíclicos/genética
4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 487, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578532

RESUMEN

The stimulator of the interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in innate immunity by detecting cytoplasmic DNA and initiating antiviral host defense mechanisms. The STING cascade is triggered when the enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) binds cytosolic DNA and synthesizes the secondary messenger cGAMP. cGAMP activates the endoplasmic reticulum adaptor STING, leading to the activation of kinases TBK1 and IRF3 that induce interferon production. Secreted interferons establish an antiviral state in infected and adjacent cells. Beyond infections, aberrant DNA in cancer cells can also activate the STING pathway. Preclinical studies have shown that pharmacological STING agonists like cyclic dinucleotides elicit antitumor immunity when administered intratumorally by provoking innate and adaptive immunity. Combining STING agonists with immune checkpoint inhibitors may improve outcomes by overcoming tumor immunosuppression. First-generation STING agonists encountered challenges like poor pharmacokinetics, limited tumor specificity, and systemic toxicity. The development of the next-generation STING-targeted drugs to realize the full potential of engaging this pathway for cancer treatment can be a solution to overcome the current challenges, but further studies are required to determine optimal applications and combination regimens for the clinic. Notably, the controlled activation of STING is needed to preclude adverse effects. This review explores the mechanisms and effects of STING activation, its role in cancer immunotherapy, and current challenges.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia , Neoplasias , Nucleotidiltransferasas , Humanos , Antivirales , ADN/genética , Inmunidad Innata , Interferones , Neoplasias/terapia , Nucleotidiltransferasas/genética , Nucleotidiltransferasas/metabolismo
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1351405, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571949

RESUMEN

Introduction: The alarmin IL-33 has been implicated in the pathology of immune-mediated liver diseases. IL-33 activates regulatory T cells (Tregs) and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) expressing the IL-33 receptor ST2. We have previously shown that endogenous IL-33/ST2 signaling activates ILC2s that aggravate liver injury in murine immune-mediated hepatitis. However, treatment of mice with exogenous IL-33 before induction of hepatitis ameliorated disease severity. Since IL-33 induces expression of amphiregulin (AREG) crucial for Treg function, we investigated the immunoregulatory role of the ST2+ Treg/AREG axis in immune-mediated hepatitis. Methods: C57BL/6, ST2-deficient (Il1rl1-/-) and Areg-/- mice received concanavalin A to induce immune-mediated hepatitis. Foxp3Cre+ x ST2fl/fl mice were pre-treated with IL-33 before induction of immune-mediated hepatitis. Treg function was assessed by adoptive transfer experiments and suppression assays. The effects of AREG and IL-33 on ST2+ Tregs and ILC2s were investigated in vitro. Immune cell phenotype was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results and discussion: We identified IL-33-responsive ST2+ Tregs as an effector Treg subset in the murine liver, which was highly activated in immune-mediated hepatitis. Lack of endogenous IL-33 signaling in Il1rl1-/- mice aggravated disease pathology. This was associated with reduced Treg activation. Adoptive transfer of exogenous IL-33-activated ST2+ Tregs before induction of hepatitis suppressed inflammatory T-cell responses and ameliorated disease pathology. We further showed increased expression of AREG by hepatic ST2+ Tregs and ILC2s in immune-mediated hepatitis. Areg-/- mice developed more severe liver injury, which was associated with enhanced ILC2 activation and less ST2+ Tregs in the inflamed liver. Exogenous AREG suppressed ILC2 cytokine expression and enhanced ST2+ Treg activation in vitro. In addition, Tregs from Areg-/- mice were impaired in their capacity to suppress CD4+ T-cell activation in vitro. Moreover, application of exogenous IL-33 before disease induction did not protect Foxp3Cre+ x ST2fl/fl mice lacking ST2+ Tregs from immune-mediated hepatitis. In summary, we describe an immunoregulatory role of the ST2+ Treg/AREG axis in immune-mediated hepatitis, in which AREG suppresses the activation of hepatic ILC2s while maintaining ST2+ Tregs and reinforcing their immunosuppressive capacity in liver inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis , Inmunidad Innata , Animales , Ratones , Anfirregulina/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Similar al Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-33 , Linfocitos , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Linfocitos T Reguladores
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2820, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561332

RESUMEN

RORγt+ group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are essential for intestinal homeostasis. Dysregulation of ILC3s has been found in the gut of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer, yet the specific mechanisms still require more investigation. Here we observe increased ß-catenin in intestinal ILC3s from inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer patients compared with healthy donors. In contrast to promoting RORγt expression in T cells, activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in ILC3s suppresses RORγt expression, inhibits its proliferation and function, and leads to a deficiency of ILC3s and subsequent intestinal inflammation in mice. Activated ß-catenin and its interacting transcription factor, TCF-1, cannot directly suppress RORγt expression, but rather alters global chromatin accessibility and inhibits JunB expression, which is essential for RORγt expression in ILC3s. Together, our findings suggest that dysregulated Wnt/ß-catenin signaling impairs intestinal ILC3s through TCF-1/JunB/RORγt regulation, further disrupting intestinal homeostasis, and promoting inflammation and cancer.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , beta Catenina , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Miembro 3 del Grupo F de la Subfamilia 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Miembro 3 del Grupo F de la Subfamilia 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Linfocitos/metabolismo , Vía de Señalización Wnt , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/genética , Inflamación
7.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1376958, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590524

RESUMEN

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most globally devastating viruses threatening the swine industry worldwide. Substantial advancements have been achieved in recent years towards comprehending the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection and the host response, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses. Not only a multitude of host proteins actively participate in intricate interactions with viral proteins, but microRNAs (miRNAs) also play a pivotal role in the host response to PRRSV infection. If a PRRSV-host interaction at the protein level is conceptualized as the front line of the battle between pathogens and host cells, then their fight at the RNA level resembles the hidden front line. miRNAs are endogenous small non-coding RNAs of approximately 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that primarily regulate the degradation or translation inhibition of target genes by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). Insights into the roles played by viral proteins and miRNAs in the host response can enhance our comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. The intricate interplay between viral proteins and cellular targets during PRRSV infection has been extensively explored. This review predominantly centers on the contemporary understanding of the host response to PRRSV infection at the RNA level, in particular, focusing on the twenty-six miRNAs that affect viral replication and the innate immune response.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino , Porcinos , Animales , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino/genética , MicroARNs/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Proteínas Virales
8.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 42(2): 192-206, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597079

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the expression trends of innate immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules validated by data calculation in the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis, as well as to explore methods of suppressing oral mucosal carcinogenesis based on immunotherapy by predicting their interactions. Me-thods 1) The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database comprehensively scores immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules in the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis and screens out intrinsic immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules that interfere with tumor immune escape. 2) Clinical patient blood routine data were collected for the statistical analysis of peripheral blood immune cells during the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. Immune cells in peripheral blood that may affect the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis were screened. 3) Immunohistochemical staining was performed on intrinsic immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules validated based on data calculation in various stages of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. 4) Special staining was used to identify innate immune cells in various stages of oral mucosal carcinogenesis based on data-calculation verification. 5) Survival analysis was conducted on intrinsic immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules validated based on data calculation during the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. The association of intrinsic immune cells and immune-checkpoint molecules with the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma was verified. RESULTS: The expression of monocytes and neutrophils increased during the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. The expression of eosinophils showed a single peak trend of up and down. The expression of mast cells decreased. In the process of oral mucosal carcinogenesis, the expression of the immune-checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death-ligand (PD-L1) increased. The expression trends of monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils were positively correlated with those of CTLA4 and PD-L1 immune-checkpoint molecules. The expression trend of mast cells was negatively correlated with the expression of CTLA4 and PD-L1. Monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils may promote tumor immune escape mediated by CTLA4 and/or PD-L1, thereby accelerating the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. Mast cells may inhibit tumor immune escape mediated by CTLA4 and/or PD-L1, delaying the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, interference with specific immune cells in innate immunity can regulate the expression of CTLA4 and/or PD-L1 to a certain extent, inhibit tumor immune escape, and delay the progression of oral mucosal carcinogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de la Boca , Humanos , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Punto de Control Inmunitario , Carcinogénesis , Inmunidad Innata
9.
J Exp Med ; 221(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597952

RESUMEN

Epithelium-derived cytokines or alarmins, such as interleukin-33 (IL-33) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), are major players in type 2 immunity and asthma. Here, we demonstrate that TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A) is an epithelial alarmin, constitutively expressed in alveolar epithelium at steady state in both mice and humans, which cooperates with IL-33 for early induction of IL-9high ILC2s during the initiation of allergic airway inflammation. Upon synergistic activation by IL-33 and TL1A, lung ILC2s acquire a transient IL-9highGATA3low "ILC9" phenotype and produce prodigious amounts of IL-9. A combination of large-scale proteomic analyses, lung intravital microscopy, and adoptive transfer of ILC9 cells revealed that high IL-9 expression distinguishes a multicytokine-producing state-of-activated ILC2s with an increased capacity to initiate IL-5-dependent allergic airway inflammation. Similar to IL-33 and TSLP, TL1A is expressed in airway basal cells in healthy and asthmatic human lungs. Together, these results indicate that TL1A is an epithelium-derived cytokine and an important cofactor of IL-33 in the airways.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Interleucina-33 , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Alarminas , Inmunidad Innata , Interleucina-9 , Proteómica , Linfocitos , Citocinas , Inflamación
10.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1329820, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590526

RESUMEN

The immune system of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is poorly studied, compared to that of livestock, rodents or humans. The innate immune response has become a focus of interest in relation to Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs). EEHVs cause a fatal hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) and are a significant threat to captive Asian elephant populations worldwide. Similar to other herpesvirus infections, nearly all animals become infected, but only some develop disease. As progression to EEHV-HD is often acute, a robust innate immune response is crucial to control EEHV infections. This is invariably true of the host in the first instance, but it can also potentially be modulated by intervention strategies. Here, two immunostimulant veterinary medicinal products, authorized for use in domestic species, were tested for their ability to induce innate anti-viral immune responses in Asian elephant blood cells. Sequence data were obtained for a range of previously unidentified Asian elephant immune genes, including C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and myxovirus GTPase 1 (Mx1), and were employed in the design of species-specific qPCR assays. These assays were subsequently used in analyses to determine fold changes in gene expression over a period of 24 hours. This study demonstrates that both immunostimulant medications are capable of inducing significant innate anti-viral immune responses which suggests that both could be beneficial in controlling EEHV infections in Asian elephants.


Asunto(s)
Elefantes , Infecciones por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Humanos , Animales , Ovinos , Elefantes/genética , ADN Bacteriano , Células Sanguíneas , Inmunidad Innata , Plásmidos , Inmunización , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos , Expresión Génica
11.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1368624, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596677

RESUMEN

Introduction: The immune systems of both the mother and the newborn face significant challenges during birth. Proper immune regulation after birth is essential for the survival of neonates. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the neonatal immune system is relatively immature, particularly in its adaptive arm, placing the primary responsibility for immune surveillance on innate immunity. Methods: Given the significant role of neutrophils in protecting the neonate after birth, we conducted a study investigating the properties of neutrophils in newborn cord blood using various methodological approaches. Results: Our findings demonstrate the presence of immature low-density neutrophils in the cord blood, which are likely responsible for the observed elevated expression of genes coding for proteins essential to antimicrobial response, including myeloperoxidase, neutrophils elastase, and defensins. Discussion: We propose that these cells function normally and support the protection of newborns early after birth. Furthermore, our results suggest that the mode of delivery might significantly influence the programming of neutrophil function. The presented findings emphasize the importance of distinct neutrophil subpopulations in neonatal immunity and their potential impact on early postnatal health.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Neutrófilos , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Sangre Fetal , Inmunidad Innata , Proteínas/metabolismo , Antiinfecciosos/metabolismo
12.
Biosci Rep ; 44(4)2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530250

RESUMEN

Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is activated by binding to DNA. Activated cGAS produces 2'3'-cGAMP, which subsequently binds to the adaptor protein STING (stimulator of interferon genes). This interaction triggers the cGAS/STING signaling pathway, leading to the production of type I interferons. Three types of DNA, namely double-stranded DNA longer than 40 base pairs, a 70-nucleotide single-stranded HIV-1 DNA known as SL2, and Y-form DNA with unpaired guanosine trimers (G3 Y-form DNA), induce interferon production by activating cGAS/STING signaling. However, the extent of cGAS activation by each specific DNA type remains unclear. The comparison of cGAS stimulation by various DNAs is crucial for understanding the mechanisms underlying cGAS-mediated type I interferon production in the innate immune response. Here, we revealed that cGAS produces 2'3'-cGAMP at a significantly lower rate in the presence of single-stranded SL2 DNA than in the presence of double-stranded DNA or G3 Y-form DNA. Furthermore, the guanine-to-cytosine mutations and the deletion of unpaired guanosine trimers significantly reduced the 2'3'-cGAMP production rate and the binding of cGAS to Y-form DNA. These studies will provide new insights into the cGAS-mediated DNA-sensing in immune response.


Asunto(s)
VIH-1 , Interferón Tipo I , VIH-1/genética , ADN de Cadena Simple/genética , Nucleotidiltransferasas/genética , Nucleotidiltransferasas/metabolismo , ADN/genética , ADN/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Interferón Tipo I/genética , Guanosina
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 148: 109491, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490346

RESUMEN

As is well known, apoptosis is an important form of immune response and immune regulation, particularly playing a crucial role in combating microbial infections. Apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF-1) is essential for apoptosis to induce chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation via a caspase-independent pathway. The nuclear translocation of AIF-1 is a key step in apoptosis but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the homologous gene of AIF-1, named AjAIF-1, was cloned and identified in Apostichopus japonicus. The mRNA expression of AjAIF-1 was significantly increased by 46.63-fold after Vibrio splendidus challenge. Silencing of AjAIF-1 was found to significantly inhibit coelomocyte apoptosis because the apoptosis rate of coelomocyte decreased by 0.62-fold lower compared with the control group. AjAIF-1 was able to promote coelomocyte apoptosis through nuclear translocation under the V. splendidus challenge. Moreover, AjAIF-1 and Ajimportin ß were mainly co-localized around the nucleus in vivo and silencing Ajimportin ß significantly inhibited the nuclear translocation of AjAIF-1 and suppressed coelomocyte apoptosis by 0.64-fold compared with control. In summary, nuclear translocation of AjAIF-1 will likely mediate coelomocyte apoptosis through an importin ß-dependent pathway in sea cucumber.


Asunto(s)
Stichopus , Vibrio , Animales , Stichopus/genética , beta Carioferinas , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Factor Inductor de la Apoptosis/genética , Vibrio/fisiología , Apoptosis
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 148: 109511, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499215

RESUMEN

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a probiotic, which not only promotes the growth of animals, but also has anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism by which Lactobacillus rhamnosus regulates intestinal immunity is not well comprehended. Hence, the study aimed to research how Lactobacillus rhamnosus affects the intestinal immunity using juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a model. We selected 1800 juvenile grass carp for testing. They were divided into six treatments and fed with six gradients of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GCC-3 (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 g/kg) for 70 days. Enteritis was subsequently induced with dextroside sodium sulfate. Results indicated that dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GCC-3 addition improved growth performance. Meanwhile, appropriate levels of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GCC-3 alleviated excessive inflammatory response by down-regulating the expression of TLR4 and NOD receptors, up-regulating the expression of TOR, and then down-regulating the expression of NF-κB. Additionally, appropriate Lactobacillus rhamnosus GCC-3 improved intestinal immunity by reducing pyroptosis triggered by NLRP3 inflammasome and mediated by GSDME. Furthermore, 16 S rRNA sequencing showing appropriate levels of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GCC-3 increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium abundance and decreased Aeromonas abundance. These results suggest that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GCC-3 can alleviate intestinal inflammation through down-regulating NF-κB and up-regulating TOR signaling pathways, as well as by inhibiting pyroptosis.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Enfermedades de los Peces , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Animales , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Inmunidad Innata , Carpas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinaria , Inflamación/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Proteínas de Peces/genética
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 148: 109513, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521141

RESUMEN

LPS induced TNF-α Factor (LITAF) is a transcription factor widely involving in activation of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and other cytokines in the inflammatory response. In the present study, a homologue of LITAF with a conserved LITAF domain was identified from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The transcripts of CgLITAF were detected in all examined tissues with highest expression in hepatopancrease. The immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that LPS stimulation induced an obvious nucleus translocation of CgLITAF protein in haemocytes. While the mRNA level of CgLITAF changed slightly after LPS stimulation. When the siRNA of CgLITAF was injected to inhibit its expression, the apoptotic level of haemocytes decreased observably after LPS stimulation. Consistently, the transcripts of CgTNF3 and CgTNF4 (LOC105343080, LOC105341146), the apoptotic-related molecules including CgBax, CgCytochrome c, CgCaspase9 and CgCaspase3, were significantly suppressed in the CgLITAF-RNAi oysters. While the mRNA expression level of CgBcl was enhanced significantly in the CgLITAF-RNAi oysters. These results indicated that CgLITAF promoted haemocyte apoptosis by regulating the expression of apoptotic-related factors, suggesting its important role in the immune response of oysters.


Asunto(s)
Crassostrea , Animales , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/metabolismo , Hemocitos , Apoptosis , Inmunidad , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata/genética
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 148: 109510, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521143

RESUMEN

The signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2), a downstream factor of type I interferons (IFNs), is a key component of the cellular antiviral immunity response. However, the role of STAT2 in the upstream of IFN signaling, such as the regulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), remains unknown. In this study, STAT2 homologue of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of bcSTAT2 comprises 2523 nucleotides and encodes 841 amino acids, which presents the conserved structure to that of mammalian STAT2. The dual-luciferase reporter assay and the plaque assay showed that bcSTAT2 possessed certain IFN-inducing ability and antiviral ability against both spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and grass carp reovirus (GCRV). Interestingly, we detected the association between bcSTAT2 and bcRIG-I through co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay. Moreover, when bcSTAT2 was co-expressed with bcRIG-I, bcSTAT2 obviously suppressed bcRIG-I-induced IFN expression and antiviral activity. The subsequent co-IP assay and immunoblotting (IB) assay further demonstrated that bcSTAT2 inhibited K63-linked polyubiquitination but not K48-linked polyubiquitination of bcRIG-I, however, did not affect the oligomerization of bcRIG-I. Thus, our data conclude that black carp STAT2 negatively regulates RIG-I through attenuates its K63-linked ubiquitination, which sheds a new light on the regulation of the antiviral innate immunity cascade in vertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Enfermedades de los Peces , Infecciones por Reoviridae , Reoviridae , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae , Animales , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Infecciones por Rhabdoviridae/veterinaria , Factor de Transcripción STAT2/genética , Factor de Transcripción STAT2/metabolismo , Reoviridae/fisiología , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Proteínas de Peces , Mamíferos/metabolismo
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 148: 109521, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552889

RESUMEN

In mammals, ß-catenin participates in innate immune process through interaction with NF-κB signaling pathway. However, its role in teleost immune processes remains largely unknown. We aimed to clarify the function of ß-catenin in the natural defense mechanism of Qi river crucian carp (Carassius auratus). ß-catenin exhibited a ubiquitous expression pattern in adult fish, as indicated by real-time PCR analysis. Following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI: C) and Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) challenges, ß-catenin increased in gill, intestine, liver and kidney, indicating that ß-catenin likely plays a pivotal role in the immune response against pathogen infiltration. Inhibition of the ß-catenin pathway using FH535, an inhibitor of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, resulting in pathological damage of the gill, intestine, liver and kidney, significant decrease of innate immune factors (C3, defb3, LYZ-C, INF-γ), upregulation of inflammatory factors (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-8), and downregulation of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, increase of Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Following A. hydrophila invasion, the mortality rate in the FH535 treatment group exceeded that of the control group. In addition, the diversity of intestinal microflora decreased and the community structure was uneven after FH535 treatment. In summary, our findings strongly suggest that ß-catenin plays a vital role in combating pathogen invasion and regulating intestinal flora in Qi river crucian carp.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Enfermedades de los Peces , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Sulfonamidas , Animales , Carpa Dorada/genética , Carpa Dorada/metabolismo , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , FN-kappa B , Ríos , beta Catenina/genética , Qi , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Antioxidantes , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiología , Proteínas de Peces , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/veterinaria , Mamíferos/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(3): e1012100, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527094

RESUMEN

The coronavirus papain-like protease (PLpro) is crucial for viral replicase polyprotein processing. Additionally, PLpro can subvert host defense mechanisms by its deubiquitinating (DUB) and deISGylating activities. To elucidate the role of these activities during SARS-CoV-2 infection, we introduced mutations that disrupt binding of PLpro to ubiquitin or ISG15. We identified several mutations that strongly reduced DUB activity of PLpro, without affecting viral polyprotein processing. In contrast, mutations that abrogated deISGylating activity also hampered viral polyprotein processing and when introduced into the virus these mutants were not viable. SARS-CoV-2 mutants exhibiting reduced DUB activity elicited a stronger interferon response in human lung cells. In a mouse model of severe disease, disruption of PLpro DUB activity did not affect lethality, virus replication, or innate immune responses in the lungs. This suggests that the DUB activity of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro is dispensable for virus replication and does not affect innate immune responses in vivo. Interestingly, the DUB mutant of SARS-CoV replicated to slightly lower titers in mice and elicited a diminished immune response early in infection, although lethality was unaffected. We previously showed that a MERS-CoV mutant deficient in DUB and deISGylating activity was strongly attenuated in mice. Here, we demonstrate that the role of PLpro DUB activity during infection can vary considerably between highly pathogenic coronaviruses. Therefore, careful considerations should be taken when developing pan-coronavirus antiviral strategies targeting PLpro.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Proteasas Similares a la Papaína de Coronavirus , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Proteasas Similares a la Papaína de Coronavirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Papaína/genética , Papaína/metabolismo , Péptido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Replicación Viral , Poliproteínas
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 708: 149814, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531218

RESUMEN

The cGAS-STING pathway, a crucial component of innate immunity, has garnered attention as a potential therapeutic target for tumor treatment, but targeting this pathway is complicated by diverse feedback mechanisms of the cGAS-STING pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that STING activation enhanced the expression of CD73 and the subsequent production of adenosine in immune cells and cancer cells. Mechanistically, the feedback activation of CD73 depended on the type I IFN/IFNAR axis induced by STING activation. Furthermore, the combination of STING agonist and anti-CD73 mAb markedly blocked tumor growth in vivo by promoting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the accumulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment. Our work provides a rationale for the combination of STING agonists and CD73 inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Adenosina , Neoplasias , Humanos , Adenosina/metabolismo , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/metabolismo , Retroalimentación , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inmunidad Innata , Nucleotidiltransferasas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Environ Pollut ; 347: 123700, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452839

RESUMEN

Emerging bio-contaminants (airborne viruses) exploits and manipulate host (human) metabolism to produce new viral particles, evading the host's immune defences and leading to infections. Non-thermal plasma, operating at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, is explored for virus inactivation, generating RONS that interact and denatures viral proteins. However, various factors affecting virus survival influence the efficacy of non-thermal plasma. Glucose analogue 2-DG, a metabolic modifier used in this study, disrupts the glycolysis pathway viruses rely on, creating an unfavourable environment for replication. Here, airborne HCoV-229E bio-contaminant was treated with plasma for inactivation, and the presence of RONS was analysed. Metabolically altered lung cells were subsequently exposed to the treated airborne viruses. Cytopathic effect, spike protein, and cell death were evaluated via flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, and CPRRs mediated antiviral gene expression was evaluated using PCR. Gas plasma-treated viruses led to reduced virus proliferation in unaltered lung cells, although few virus particles survived the exposure, as confirmed by biological assessment (cytopathic effects and live/dead staining). A combination approach of gas plasma-treated viruses and altered lung cells displayed drastic virus reduction compared to the control group, established through confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Furthermore, altered lung cell enhances gene transcription responsible for innate immunity when exposed to the gas plasma-treated virus, thereby impeding airborne virus propagation. This study demonstrates the significance of a surface air gas plasma and metabolic alteration approach in enhancing genes targeted towards antiviral innate immunity and tackling outbreaks of emerging bio-contaminants of concerns (airborne viruses).


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus Humano 229E , Humanos , Coronavirus Humano 229E/genética , Inactivación de Virus , Pulmón , Inmunidad Innata , Antivirales
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