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1.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(2): 108-115, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522657

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Student healthcare worker immunisation ensures the protection of students, their patients and the wider community. This audit assessed allied health students' records of immunisation against national standards. METHODS: This audit examined clinical students' immunisation records at a University Department of Rural Health and assessed their compliance with the national Australian Immunisation Handbook recommendations. Gaps in processes were assessed through a review of forms, guidelines and stakeholder feedback. RESULTS: Around one-quarter (26%) of healthcare students provided evidence that they were immunised in line with national standards. Inconsistency of immunisation recommendations across universities, states and disciplines were identified. CONCLUSIONS: This audit highlighted gaps in healthcare student immunisation assurance processes at both local and national levels, and we recommend key elements that would be required for a more consistent, streamlined and coordinated approach. Implications for public health: As a pillar of communicable disease control, immunisation compliance continues to pose important public health challenges. Without further work towards coordination of healthcare students' immunisation assurances, there is a risk of preventable morbidity and mortality in vulnerable communities, as well as suboptimal student and worker safety in an environment that poses high risks.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 130, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516196

RESUMEN

Knowledge among the rural parents about the vaccinations and vaccination coverage of children in the first year of life in Papua New Guinea - analysis of data provided by Christian Health Services. BACKGROUND: This analysis aimed to assess rural parents' knowledge about the diseases prevented by vaccinations and establish vaccination coverage in PNG. METHODS: Knowledge of vaccinations was checked through a standard questionnaire (five closed questions). We analyzed data on vaccination coverage from 2016 to 2018 from all Catholic health facilities. Analyzed vaccinations were the pentavalent vaccine (DTaP-HiB-HepB) and measles vaccine given in the first year of life. Coverage was calculated based on the number of vaccines used compared to the number of eligible children. Analyzed vaccinations were the pentavalent vaccine (DTaP-HiB-HepB) and measles vaccine given in the first year of life. RESULTS: Fifty-six parents, including 52 mothers and four fathers, participated in the interview. Many parents (46%) understood that the vaccine prevents diseases. During the analyzed period, 25,502 doses of measles vaccine were given, 31,428 children were vaccinated with the pentavalent vaccine. In 2016, the measles vaccine coverage rate was 26.6 and 33.4% for the pentavalent vaccine. In 2017, measles and pentavalent vaccines' coverage rate was 12.5 and 16.6%, respectively. There were significant differences in immunization coverage between provinces. A decreasing trend in the number of administered vaccinations was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of this analysis demonstrate that in PNG, the majority of children are not fully immunized. There are significant differences in the vaccination coverage between provinces. As protection from diseases is low, there is a very high risk of an outbreak of the vaccine-preventable disease in the community. Delivery of vaccinations in PNG encounters many barriers, from access to healthcare services to natural disasters and inter-tribial conflicts.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Padres , Población Rural , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación , Adulto , Redes Comunitarias , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización/psicología , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Vacuna Antisarampión/uso terapéutico , Papúa Nueva Guinea/epidemiología , Padres/educación , Padres/psicología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas Combinadas/uso terapéutico
3.
Infection ; 49(3): 463-473, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495884

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to all countries in the world, and different countries have been impacted differently. The study aims to understand what factors contribute to different COVID-19 impacts at the country level. METHODS: Multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate COVID-19 deaths and cases relative to nine other demographic and socioeconomic factors in all countries and regions of the world using data as of August 1, 2020. The factors analyzed in the study include a country's total COVID-19 deaths and cases per million population, per capita gross domestic product (GDP), population density, virus tests per million population, median age, government response stringency index, hospital beds availability per thousand population, extreme poverty rate, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination rate, and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) immunization rate. RESULTS: The study reveals that COVID-19 deaths per million population in a country most significantly correlates, inversely, with the country's BCG vaccination rate (r = - 0.50, p = 5.3e-5), and also significantly correlates a country's per capita GDP (r = 0.39, p = 7.4e-3) and median age (r = 0.30, p = 0.042), while COVID-19 cases per million population significantly correlate with per capita GDP and tests per thousand population. To control for possible confounding effects of age, the correlation was assessed in countries propensity score matched for age. The inverse correlation between BCG vaccination rates and COVID-19 case (r = - 0.30, p = 0.02) and death (r = - 0.42, p = 0.0007) remained significant among the top 61 countries with the highest median age. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to a growing body of evidence supporting the notion that BCG vaccination may be protective against COVID-19 mortality.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna BCG/administración & dosificación , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , /prevención & control , Vacuna contra Difteria, Tétanos y Tos Ferina/administración & dosificación , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Producto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Análisis Multivariante
5.
Saudi Med J ; 41(11): 1197-1203, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130839

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic has had any effects on pediatric vaccination rates at the main university hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using electronic health records. The vaccination statuses of all children who were scheduled for vaccinations at birth and at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months during March, April and May between 2017 and 2020 were included in the study with total sample of 15,870 children, and comparisons between the cohorts were performed. RESULTS: All vaccination visits during April and May 2020 were below the lower extremes except for the birth vaccinations. In March, April, and May 2020 there were respective drops in vaccination visits of 49.93%, 71.90% and 68.48% compared with the mean numbers of vaccination visits during the same months from 2017 to 2019. In comparisons of mean numbers of visits from March 2017 to May 2019 and March to May in 2020, the respective reductions in visits for birth and 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12-month vaccinations were 16.5%, 80.5%, 74.7%, 72.9%, 80.0% and 74.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The huge impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic on childhood vaccinations will require urgent vaccination recovery plans with innovative approaches and future action plans to maintain vaccination coverage during any subsequent pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Inmunización/métodos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales
6.
Can J Public Health ; 111(4): 469-472, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761546

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has led to disruption in routine immunization programs around the globe and here in Canada. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) in Canada has indicated that this sets the stage for serious outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. The World Health Organization has evidence-based guidance on how to address missed opportunities for vaccination, albeit predominately applicable for low- and middle-income countries. In Canada, immunization applies beyond infant and childhood immunization, with immunization across the life course being recommended by NACI. Three components stand out and must be integrated and used concurrently for best effect on catch-up in Canada: (1) Identify who has been missed across the life course; (2) detect delivery gaps, adapt and adjust, and develop multipronged tailored strategies for catch-up; and (3) communicate, document, evaluate and readjust the immunization programs. All must be adapted to the reality of the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. We cannot go back to a pre-COVID-19 world. However, ensuring that routine immunization and catch-up programs are done well during this pandemic strengthens the immunization foundation in Canada for when COVID-19 vaccines become available.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Pandemias
7.
Value Health ; 23(7): 891-897, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762991

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In many countries, measles disproportionately affects poorer households. To achieve equitable delivery, national immunization programs can use 2 main delivery platforms: routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). The objective of this article is to use data concerning measles vaccination coverage delivered via routine and SIA strategies to make inferences about the associated equity impact. METHODS: We relied on Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys multi-country survey data to conduct a comparative analysis of routine and SIA measles vaccination status of children by wealth quintile. We estimated the value of the angle, θ, for the ratio of the difference between coverage levels of adjacent wealth quintiles by using the arc-tangent formula. For each country/year observation, we averaged the θ estimates into one summary measurement, defined as the "equity impact number." RESULTS: Across 20 countries, the equity impact number summarized across wealth quintiles was greater (and hence less equitable) for routine delivery than for SIAs in the survey rounds (years) during, before, and after an SIA about 65% of the time. The equity impact numbers for routine measles vaccination averaged across wealth quintiles were usually greater than for SIA measles vaccination across country-year observations. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis examined how different measles vaccine delivery platforms can affect equity. It can serve to elucidate the impact of immunization and public health programs in terms of comparing horizontal to vertical delivery efforts and in reducing health inequalities in global and country-level decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Sarampión/prevención & control , Niño , Países en Desarrollo , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Inmunización/economía , Cobertura de Vacunación/economía , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 346-348, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697422

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of healthcare workers (HCWs) in smaller Victorian public healthcare facilities with documented evidence of measles immunity. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, developed by the Victorian Healthcare Associated Surveillance System Coordinating Centre, was completed by all eligible facilities. HCWs were reported as having evidence or no evidence of measles immunity. Those without evidence of immunity were sub-classified as incomplete, declined or unknown status. RESULTS: Seventy-five facilities reported measles immunity status of 17,522 employed HCWs. Of these, 11,751 (67.1%) had documented evidence of immunity. The proportion with evidence of immunity was lowest (45.6%) in facilities with ≤50 HCWs. The majority of HCWs without evidence of immunity (88.2%) had 'unknown' status. Declination or incomplete status comprised very low overall proportions (0.3% and 3.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Reported evidence of HCW measles immunity was moderate in surveyed facilities, with a large proportion having unknown status. HCW immunisation programs in some facilities require refinement to appropriately support public health responses to measles cases and prevention of occupational acquisition of measles. Implications for public health: Non-immune HCWs are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting measles. Timely access to accurate HCW immunisation records is required to ensure that public health responses are effective.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/psicología , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Sarampión/prevención & control , Adulto , Australia , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Salud Laboral
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(27): 859-863, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644980

RESUMEN

Recent reports suggest that routine childhood immunization coverage might have decreased during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (1,2). To assess the capacity of pediatric health care practices to provide immunization services to children during the pandemic, a survey of practices participating in the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program was conducted during May 12-20, 2020. Data were weighted to account for the sampling design; thus, all percentages reported are weighted. Among 1,933 responding practices, 1,727 (89.8%) were currently open; 1,397 (81.1%) of these reported offering immunization services to all of their patients. When asked whether the practice would likely be able to accommodate new patients to assist with provision of immunization services through August, 1,135 (59.1%) respondents answered affirmatively. These results suggest that health care providers appear to have the capacity to deliver routinely recommended childhood vaccines, allowing children to catch up on vaccines that might have been delayed as a result of COVID-19-related effects on the provision of or demand for routine well child care. Health care providers and immunization programs should educate parents on the need to return for well-child and immunization visits or refer patients to other practices, if they are unable to provide services (3).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Pediatría , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007897, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645081

RESUMEN

Network-based intervention strategies can be effective and cost-efficient approaches to curtailing harmful contagions in myriad settings. As studied, these strategies are often impractical to implement, as they typically assume complete knowledge of the network structure, which is unusual in practice. In this paper, we investigate how different immunization strategies perform under realistic conditions-where the strategies are informed by partially-observed network data. Our results suggest that global immunization strategies, like degree immunization, are optimal in most cases; the exception is at very high levels of missing data, where stochastic strategies, like acquaintance immunization, begin to outstrip them in minimizing outbreaks. Stochastic strategies are more robust in some cases due to the different ways in which they can be affected by missing data. In fact, one of our proposed variants of acquaintance immunization leverages a logistically-realistic ongoing survey-intervention process as a form of targeted data-recovery to improve with increasing levels of missing data. These results support the effectiveness of targeted immunization as a general practice. They also highlight the risks of considering networks as idealized mathematical objects: overestimating the accuracy of network data and foregoing the rewards of additional inquiry.


Asunto(s)
Bases de Datos Factuales , Epidemias , Inmunización , Algoritmos , Biología Computacional , Simulación por Computador , Recolección de Datos , Bases de Datos Factuales/normas , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Epidemias/prevención & control , Epidemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Global , Humanos , Inmunización/métodos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1109, 2020 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664872

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) is the most common cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in the United States. The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends vaccination of healthy adolescents against MenB based on shared clinical decision-making (Category B recommendation). This survey assessed factors associated with MenB vaccine awareness, utilization, and interest among parents/guardians of US adolescents. METHODS: Survey participants were identified in 2016 through KnowledgePanel®, an online random sample of US households; population-based weighting methodology was used to ensure data reflected a demographically representative population sample. Adults with ≥1 dependent aged 16-19 years were eligible and completed an online questionnaire. Respondents were grouped in terms of MenB vaccination of their child as: 1) vaccinated, 2) intending to vaccinate, 3) MenB vaccine-unaware, or 4) vaccine-aware but not intending to vaccinate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors influencing MenB vaccine awareness and utilization; univariate analyses used the weighted proportion of each group or weighted means, and multivariate analyses used logistic regression models based on the weighted study sample of each group. RESULTS: Six hundred nineteen parents/guardians participated, corresponding to 26,266,700 members of the US population after weighting. MenB vaccine awareness was significantly associated with parent race and sex. Specifically, 57% of parents were unaware of MenB vaccines, and there was significantly higher lack of awareness among males and those of Hispanic or non-White ethnicity. In addition, 36% of unaware parents/guardians were interested in and seeking MenB vaccine information from their healthcare provider (HCP), and there was higher interest among parents of Hispanic ethnicity. 'Vaccinated/intending to vaccinate' versus 'not intending to vaccinate' and 'vaccinated' versus 'intending to vaccinate' were both strongly associated with whether an HCP had recommended vaccination (odds ratios, 4.81 [95% CI 2.46, 9.35] and 5.66 [95% CI 2.46, 12.87], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Racial and socioeconomic disparities exist in the awareness and utilization of MenB vaccines among parents/guardians of US adolescents. HCP discussion and recommendation are critical catalysts for MenB vaccination and underscore the need to accurately interpret and implement the shared clinical decision-making (Category B) recommendation.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Inmunización/psicología , Infecciones Meningocócicas/prevención & control , Vacunas Meningococicas/administración & dosificación , Neisseria meningitidis Serogrupo B/inmunología , Padres/psicología , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536336

RESUMEN

Background: SAEFVIC is the Victorian surveillance system for adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). It enhances passive surveillance by also providing clinical support and education to vaccinees and immunisation providers. This report summarises surveillance, clinical and vaccine pharmacovigilance activities of SAEFVIC in 2018. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study of AEFI reports received by SAEFVIC in 2018, compared with previous years since 2008. Data were categorised by vaccinee demographics of age, sex, pregnancy and Indigenous status, vaccines administered and AEFI reactions reported. Age cohorts were defined as infant (0-12 months); young child (1-4 years); school-aged (5-17 years); adult (18-64 years); and older person (65+ years). Proportional reporting ratios were calculated for signal investigation of serious adverse neurological events with all vaccines and with influenza vaccines. Clinical support services and educational activities are described. Results: SAEFVIC received 1730 AEFI reports (26.8 per 100,000 population), with 9.3% considered serious. Nineteen percent (n = 329) attended clinical review. Annual AEFI reporting trends increased for infants, children and older persons, but were stable for school-aged and adult cohorts. Females comprised 55% of all reports and over 80% of reports among adults. There were 17 reports of AEFI in pregnant women and 12 (0.7%) in persons identifying as Indigenous Australians. A possible signal regarding serious adverse neurological events (SANE) was detected, but was not supported by signal validation testing. A clinical investigation is ongoing. Two deaths were reported coincident to immunisation with no evidence of causal association. Conclusion: SAEFVIC continues to provide robust AEFI surveillance supporting vaccine safety monitoring in Victoria and Australia, with new signal detection and validation methodologies strengthening capabilities.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos/tendencias , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/epidemiología , Inmunización/efectos adversos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Farmacovigilancia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Estudios Retrospectivos , Victoria/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6645, 2020 04 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313048

RESUMEN

This study examined association between selected child health indicators- anaemia, stunting and no/incomplete immunization by inter-linking maternal characteristics at district level and parental characteristics at individual level. A spatial analysis and a binary logit model estimation were employed to draw inferences using the data from the fourth round of National Family Health Survey, 2015-16 of India. Significant spatial clustering of the selected child health outcomes was observed in the country. Mother's educational attainment explained significant district level differential in the selected child health outcomes. At the individual level, parents who are very young, not-educated, socially excluded, belong to poor class were found to be significantly associated with the poor child health outcomes. This study indicates that parental characteristics, such as age, educational attainment and employment substantially determine child health in India, suggesting that an intervention by targeting the households where children are vulnerable is important to improve child health in the country.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/economía , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Empleo/economía , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Familia , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Trastornos del Crecimiento/economía , Humanos , Inmunización/economía , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Cancer Sci ; 111(6): 2156-2162, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248632

RESUMEN

In Japan, the serious adverse events after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination were widely reported in the media. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (MHLW) announced the suspension of the governmental recommendation of HPV vaccine in 2013, and the inoculation rate has since sharply declined. The estimated inoculation rate for each birth fiscal year (FY) announced by the MHLW and the actual numbers for each birth FY surveyed by local governments were very different. In particular, the cumulative vaccination rate of girls born in FY2000 was regarded to be as high as 42.9% by the Council of the MHLW. However, this estimation included a confusion. When the suspension of the governmental recommendation was announced in FY2013, the girls born in FY2000 turned 13 years old, the targeted starting age of the HPV vaccination. The vaccination rate of this generation is considered to be quite low. The numbers were recalculated in this study. This study revealed that the real vaccination rate is only 14.3%. Female individuals born in or after FY2000 have been confirmed to be exposed to the same cervical cancer risk as before the HPV vaccine was introduced in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/efectos adversos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e74, 2020 03 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167037

RESUMEN

As China implements the voluntary vaccination programme of one-dose of varicella vaccine (VarV) for decades, robust estimates of the impact of voluntary vaccination era on epidemiology of varicella are needed. We estimated the vaccination coverage (VC) of VarV by using surveillance data on immunisation. The descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the changing epidemiology of varicella from 2007 to 2018. The screening method was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of VarV. The overall VC for VarV was 71.7%, ranged from 47.7% to 79.5% among 2008-2017 birth cohorts. In total, 16 660 varicella cases were reported during 2007-2018, the incidence increased from 10.0 cases per 100 000 population in 2007 to 65.2 cases per 100 000 population in 2018. A shift in age group of varicella was observed since 2012, with the age increased from 5-9 years to 10-14 years. The overall VE was 79.9%, and the VE increased from 60.1% in 2008 birth cohort to 96.2% in 2017 birth cohort. We found that the overall VE for VarV is moderate, but appears highly effective within 5 years after vaccination. In addition, a shift varicella infection to older ages has occurred at the long-term moderate level VC of one-dose VarV. Therefore, to contain the incidence of varicella and prevent any potential shift to older ages, the introduction of VarV into routine immunisation programme is likely needed in Lu'an.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra la Varicela , Varicela , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Varicela/epidemiología , Varicela/prevención & control , Vacuna contra la Varicela/administración & dosificación , Vacuna contra la Varicela/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino
18.
Am J Public Health ; 110(4): 527-529, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078344

RESUMEN

The Minnesota Department of Health used its Immunization Information System-the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection-to respond to an outbreak of measles in the state in 2017 by assisting with the exclusion of unvaccinated exposed individuals from public activities, providing members of the public with their immunization records, and monitoring measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine uptake. Use of the Immunization Information System was found to be an efficient and sustainable tool in responding to the outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Sistemas de Información en Salud/organización & administración , Sarampión/prevención & control , Humanos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Sarampión/epidemiología , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola , Registros Médicos , Minnesota/epidemiología
19.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 32(2): 328-335, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068599

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews recent literature related to pediatric and adolescent vaccination, specifically focusing on social determinants of under-immunization, expanding adolescent immunization rates, and new recommendations surrounding the meningococcal serotype B vaccine (MenB). RECENT FINDINGS: Vaccine refusals and vaccine-preventable diseases have been rising in some parts of the world, and appear to be linked to household factors, such as a family's socioeconomic status. Adolescents have lower immunization rates than younger children. Newer vaccines targeted at adolescents, such as the MenB vaccine, have yet to be widely accepted by pediatric providers, parents, and patients. SUMMARY: Pediatric healthcare providers should attempt to increase local immunization rates by vaccinating children at all eligible office visits and utilizing electronic health record decision-support tools. Although the number of families who choose not to vaccinate their children may be rising, providers can be innovative (e.g. incorporate digital vaccine reminder systems) and increase their familiarity with new vaccine recommendations to continue to prevent serious vaccine-preventable diseases.


Asunto(s)
Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas Meningococicas/administración & dosificación , Padres/psicología , Pediatras/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Personal de Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Humanos , Clase Social
20.
Euro Surveill ; 25(4)2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019666

RESUMEN

Between 18 August 2018 and 24 January 2020, 3,736 mumps cases were notified in Ireland. The highest numbers of notifications were observed in the age group 15-24 years. Vaccination status was reported for 32% (n = 1,199) of cases: 72% of these had received two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Vaccination uptake after free MMR vaccination targeting colleges and universities since early 2019 was low. Therefore, a national media campaign began in January 2020.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola/administración & dosificación , Paperas/epidemiología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , Notificación de Enfermedades , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Incidencia , Irlanda/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Paperas/diagnóstico , Paperas/inmunología , Virus de la Parotiditis/inmunología , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
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