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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 29, 2022 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042529

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While vaccination programs against the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are globally ongoing, disparate strategies for the deployment of spike antigen show varying effectiveness. METHODS: In order to explore this phenomenon, we sought to compare the early immune responses against AZD1222 and BNT162b2. SARS-CoV-2 seronegative participants received a single dose of either vaccine and were analyzed for immune cell, effector T cell, and antibody dynamics. RESULTS: AZD1222 induced transient leukopenia and major changes among innate and adaptive subpopulations. Both vaccines induced spike protein-specific effector T cells which were dominated by type 1 helper T cell responses following AZD1222 vaccination. A significant reduction of anti-inflammatory T cells upon re-stimulation was also restricted to AZD1222 vaccinees. While IgM and IgG were the dominant isotypes elicited by AZD1222, BNT162b2 led to a significant production of IgG and IgA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the strategy for spike protein delivery impacts on how and to what extent immune priming against the main SARS-CoV-2 antigen proceeds.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 178-185, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428312

RESUMEN

Many aspects of the humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as its role in protection after natural infection, are still unclear. We evaluated IgA and IgG response to spike subunits 1 and 2 (S1 and S2) and Nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-COV-2 in serum samples of 109 volunteers with viral RNA detected or seroconversion with different clinical evolution (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe coronavirus disease 2019), using the ViraChip® Test Kit. We observed that the quantification of antibodies to all antigens had a positive correlation to disease severity, which was strongly associated with the presence of comorbidities. Seroreversion was not uncommon even during the short (median of 77 days) observation, occurring in 15% of mild-asymptomatic cases at a median of 55 days for IgG and 46 days for IgA. The time to reach the maximal antibody response did not differ significantly among recovered and deceased volunteers. Our study illustrated the dynamic of anti-S1, anti-N, and anti-S2 IgA and IgG antibodies, and suggests that high production of IgG and IgA does not guarantee protection to disease severity and that functional responses that have been studied by other groups, such as antibody avidity, need further attention.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/inmunología , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside de Coronavirus/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fosfoproteínas/inmunología , Seroconversión , Adulto Joven
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 103: 108491, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954559

RESUMEN

To better understand the immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with COVID-19, it is important to investigate the kinetics of the antibody responses and their associations with the clinical course in different populations, since there seem to be considerable differences between Western and Asian populations in the clinical features and spread of COVID-19. In this study, we serially measured the serum titers of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies generated against the nucleocapsid protein (NCP), S1 subunit of the spike protein (S1), and receptor-binding domain in the S1 subunit (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in Japanese individuals with COVID-19. Among the IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies, IgA antibodies against all of the aforementioned viral proteins were the first to appear after the infection, and IgG and/or IgA seroconversion often preceded IgM seroconversion. In regard to the timeline of the antibody responses to the different viral proteins (NCP, S1 and RBD), IgA against NCP appeared than IgA against S1 or RBD, while IgM and IgG against S1 appeared earlier than IgM/IgG against NCP or RBD. The IgG responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to S1 and RBD were sustained for longer durations than the IgA/IgM responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to NCP, respectively. The seroconversion of IgA against NCP occurred later and less frequently in patients with mild COVID-19. These results suggest possible differences in the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens between the Japanese and Western populations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , SARS-CoV-2 , Formación de Anticuerpos , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/inmunología , Japón/epidemiología , Japón/etnología , Seroconversión , Proteínas Virales/inmunología
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e04612021, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932765

RESUMEN

Before eliciting an adaptive immune response, SARS-CoV-2 must overcome seven constitutive respiratory defense barriers. The first is the mucus covering the respiratory tract's luminal surface, which entraps inhaled particles, including infectious agents, and eliminates them by mucociliary clearance. The second barrier comprises various components present in the airway lining fluid, the surfactants. Besides providing low surface tension that allows efficient gas exchange at the alveoli, surfactants inhibit the invasion of epithelial cells by respiratory viruses, enhance pathogen uptake by phagocytes, and regulate immune cells' functions. The respiratory tract microbiota constitutes the third defense barrier against SARS-CoV-2. It activates the innate and adaptive immune cells and elicits anti-infectious molecules such as secretory IgA antibodies, defensins, and interferons. The fourth defense barrier comprises the antimicrobial peptides defensins, and lactoferrin. They show direct antiviral activity, inhibit viral fusion, and modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses. Secretory IgA antibodies, the fifth defense barrier, besides protecting the local microbiota against noxious agents, also inhibit SARS-CoV-2 cell invasion. If the virus overcomes this barrier, it reaches its target, the respiratory epithelial cells. However, these cells also act as a defense barrier, the sixth one, since they hinder the virus' access to receptors and produce antiviral and immunomodulatory molecules such as interferons, lactoferrin, and defensins. Finally, the sensing of the virus by the cells of innate immunity, the last constitutive defense barrier, elicits a cascade of signals that activate adaptive immune cells and may inhibit the development of productive infection. The subject of the present essay is discussing these mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Inmunidad Innata , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , Interferones/inmunología , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/virología , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 70(1): 3, 2021 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914001

RESUMEN

IgA nephropathy (IgAN), membranous nephropathy (MN), and lupus nephritis (LN) represent important causes of chronic kidney disease. They belong to the immune-mediated glomerulonephritis (GNs), and have distinct pathogenesis, distinct clinical courses, and variable responses to treatment. Therefore, specific diagnostic procedures are necessary for more effective patient management. Recently, a role for oxidative stress has been proposed in various renal disorders. Thus, molecules related to oxidative stress, such as 2-Cys-peroxiredoxins (PRDXs), may represent plausible candidates for biomarkers in renal pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess whether there are differences between individual GNs and healthy controls in the context of PRDXs serum concentration. We enrolled 108 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN (47), MN (26), LN (35) and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. The serum concentrations of PRDX 1-5 were measured with ELISA assays and correlated with demographic and clinical data. The PRDXs' concentration varied depending on the GN type. We also observed an association of PRDXs with lower estimated glomerular filtration rates, complement, hemoglobin, and body mass index. Our study indicates that individual PRDX can play roles in pathophysiology of selected GNs and that their serum concentrations may become useful as a new supplementary diagnostic markers in IgAN, MN as well as LN. The results of this study open a new avenue for prospective research on PRDXs in renal diseases.


Asunto(s)
Glomerulonefritis por IGA , Glomerulonefritis Membranosa , Nefritis Lúpica , Biomarcadores , Biopsia , Glomerulonefritis por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefritis Membranosa/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A , Nefritis Lúpica/diagnóstico , Estrés Oxidativo , Peroxirredoxinas , Estudios Prospectivos
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7288, 2021 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911947

RESUMEN

Identifying risk factors for impaired oral rotavirus vaccine (ORV) efficacy in low-income countries may lead to improvements in vaccine design and delivery. In this prospective cohort study, we measure maternal rotavirus antibodies, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), and bacterial gut microbiota development among infants receiving two doses of Rotarix in India (n = 307), Malawi (n = 119), and the UK (n = 60), using standardised methods across cohorts. We observe ORV shedding and seroconversion rates to be significantly lower in Malawi and India than the UK. Maternal rotavirus-specific antibodies in serum and breastmilk are negatively correlated with ORV response in India and Malawi, mediated partly by a reduction in ORV shedding. In the UK, ORV shedding is not inhibited despite comparable maternal antibody levels to the other cohorts. In both India and Malawi, increased microbiota diversity is negatively correlated with ORV immunogenicity, suggesting that high early-life microbial exposure may contribute to impaired vaccine efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/prevención & control , Infecciones por Rotavirus/microbiología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/administración & dosificación , Rotavirus/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad Materno-Adquirida , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , India , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/sangre , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/microbiología , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/virología , Malaui , Masculino , Leche Humana/química , Leche Humana/inmunología , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/inmunología , Reino Unido , Vacunas Atenuadas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología , Esparcimiento de Virus
7.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(4): 297-301, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897161

RESUMEN

A 38-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for arthralgia, fever, skin rash, and purpura. He was diagnosed as having adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) based on Yamaguchi's criteria. Skin biopsy revealed immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis. He was also found to have anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody-positive inflammatory arthritis on a shoulder joint, however he did not fulfill classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. Elevated serum cytokine such as serum IL-18 supported the diagnosis of AOSD. His symptoms improved with 40 mg of prednisolone plus cyclosporin A (200 mg/day). Two years after hospitalization, AOSD was relapsed with pleurisy and hyperferritinemia. Finally, he was diagnosed with multicyclic systemic type of AOSD complicated by IgA vasculitis and seropositivity of anti-CCP antibody. Clinicians need to consider the complication of multiple rheumatic diseases, even if the disease-specific autoantibody is positive.


Asunto(s)
Artritis , Enfermedad de Still del Adulto , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antiproteína Citrulinada , Artritis/complicaciones , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A , Masculino , Enfermedad de Still del Adulto/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Still del Adulto/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Still del Adulto/tratamiento farmacológico
8.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959964

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In people living with HIV, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of death, but the persistent immune-deficient state predisposes them to pneumococcal infections. Current guidelines encourage administering pneumococcal vaccine Prevenar 13 to patients living with HIV. Since probiotic supplementation could act as adjuvants and improve vaccine immunogenicity by modulating gut microbiota, the present study aimed to assess whether the effect of a formulation containing a combination of specific probiotics (Vivomixx®) could improve the immune response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adult people living with HIV. METHODS: Thirty patients who were clinically stable and virologically suppressed, without opportunistic infections during this time and no ART changes in the 12 months before the study started were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) received a placebo dose and (2) received Vivomixx® (1800 billion CFU) for four weeks before and after the vaccination with a single dose of PCV13. RESULTS: Vivomixx® supplementation induced a better response to PCV13 immunization, as shown by greater change in anti-Pn CPS13 IgG and increase in salivary IgA, IL-10 and IL-8. CONCLUSIONS: Additional investigations will help to clearly and fully elucidate the optimal strains, doses, and timing of administration of probiotics to improve protection upon vaccination in immunocompromised individuals and the elderly.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Inmunidad/inmunología , Vacunas Neumococicas/inmunología , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anciano , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina A , Inmunoglobulina G , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-8 , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959996

RESUMEN

Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk of celiac disease (CD). The replacement of insulin in T1D, and the exclusion of gluten in CD, are lifelong, burdensome treatments. Compliance to a gluten-free diet (GFD) in children with CD is reported to be high, while compliance in children with both diseases has scarcely been studied. To examine compliance to a GFD in children with both T1D and CD, we analyzed tissue transglutaminase IgA-antibodies (tTGA). Moreover, associations between compliance and age, sex, glycemic control, ketoacidosis (DKA), body mass index (BMI), and time of CD diagnosis were investigated. Of the 743 children diagnosed with T1D in southern Sweden between 2005 and 2012, 9% were also diagnosed with CD. Of these, 68% showed good compliance to a GFD, 18% showed intermediate compliance, and 14% were classified as non-compliant. Higher age, poorer HbA1c, and more DKAs were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with poorer compliance. In conclusion, we found that compliance to a GFD in children with T1D and CD is likely be lower than in children with CD only. Our results indicate that children with both T1D and CD could need intensified dietary support and that older children and children with poor metabolic control are especially vulnerable subgroups.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Celíaca/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Dieta Sin Gluten/métodos , Cooperación del Paciente , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedad Celíaca/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Cetoacidosis Diabética/epidemiología , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , Lactante , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Suecia
10.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(12): 1349-53, 2021 Dec 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936273

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of acupoint thread-embedding combined with fluticasone propionate aerosol for chronic persistent bronchial asthma of lung-spleen qi deficiency and spleen-kidney yang deficiency in children and its effect on pulmonary function and serum levels of IgA and IgE. METHODS: A total of 120 children with chronic persistent bronchial asthma were randomly divided into an observation group (60 cases, 9 cases dropped off) and a control group (60 cases, 7 cases dropped off). The control group was treated with fluticasone propionate aerosol (125 µg per inhalation), twice a day; based on the control group treatment, the observation group was treated with acupoint thread-embedding at Dingchuan (EX-B 1), Feishu (BL 13), Zusanli (ST 36) and Danzhong (CV 17), once half a month. Both groups were treated for 3 months. The pulmonary function, serum IgA, IgE levels and TCM symptom score were compared between the two groups before and after treatment, and the clinical efficacy was evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment, the large airway function (peak expiratory flow [PEF], forced expiratory volume at the first second [FEV1]) and small airway function (maximal expiratory flow at 25% of the forced capacity [MEF25%], maximal expiratory flow at 50% of the forced capacity [MEF50%], maximal expiratory flow at 75% of the forced capacity [MEF75%] and midexpiratory flow 25%-75% [MEF25%-75%]) were higher than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the pulmonary function in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum IgA levels in the two groups were higher than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the serum IgE levels and TCM symptom scores were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05); the serum IgA level in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05), and the serum IgE level and TCM symptom score in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 94.1% (48/51) in the observation group, which was higher than 88.7% (47/53) in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupoint thread-embedding combined with fluticasone propionate aerosol could improve the pulmonary function, TCM symptoms and serum IgA and IgE levels in children with chronic persistent bronchial asthma of lung-spleen qi deficiency and spleen-kidney yang deficiency. The curative effect is better than fluticasone propionate aerosol alone.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Asma , Puntos de Acupuntura , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A , Inmunoglobulina E , Pulmón
11.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 15(6): 457-460, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930858

RESUMEN

Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) is a rare disease characterized by the non-fibrous deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin molecules along the glomerular or tubular basement membrane in kidney. We report herein the details of one case of heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD) diagnosed by renal biopsy, a relatively rare subtype of MIDD. DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6484.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de las Cadenas Pesadas , Mieloma Múltiple , Enfermedad de las Cadenas Pesadas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A , Riñón , Glomérulos Renales
12.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944110

RESUMEN

The respiratory epithelium represents the first chemical, immune, and physical barrier against inhaled noxious materials, particularly pathogens in cystic fibrosis. Local mucus thickening, altered mucociliary clearance, and reduced pH due to CFTR protein dysfunction favor bacterial overgrowth and excessive inflammation. We aimed in this review to summarize respiratory mucosal alterations within the epithelium and current knowledge on local immunity linked to immunoglobulin A in patients with cystic fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Fibrosis Quística/inmunología , Inmunidad Mucosa/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratoria/inmunología , Animales , Fibrosis Quística/patología , Humanos , Pulmón/patología , Modelos Biológicos
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(12)2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962977

RESUMEN

A study investigating the use of a nonviable Lactobacillus acidophilus (NVL: Culbac; TransAgra, Storm Lake, IA) and a mixed prebiotic (MP) blend (beet pulp, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), inulin, and kelp) was done to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota, fermentative end products, and gut immune health in healthy female and male adult Beagle dogs (n = 24; 5.74 ± 2.18 yr; 9.30 ± 1.32 kg). The study protocol was first approved by the facility's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Summit Ridge Farms; Susquehanna, PA) and followed throughout. Each of four test diets (control, NVL, MP, and MP + NVL [formulated to crude protein 25%, crude fat 14%, crude fiber 10% as-fed]) was fed once daily to maintain body weight for 21 d in a randomized-crossover design (four treatment periods and four washout periods). Fecal samples were collected on days 0 and 21 only for immunoglobulin A (IgA) and microbiota evaluation (16S rRNA V4 region and qPCR for Escherichia coli and Bifidobacterium), and fecal fermentative end-products and fecal pH were assessed only on day 21. Over the test periods, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and stool quality were assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (SAS v9.4, Cary, NC) or Kruskal-Wallis for between-diet effects, and paired t-test or Wilcoxon for time effects. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Apparent total tract nutrient digestibility revealed feeding MP-containing diets resulted in lower (P < 0.05) crude protein and fat digestibility vs. control and NVL diets. When dogs were fed MP, they had lower (P < 0.05) fecal pH compared with control and NVL diets, whereas fecal pH was lower in (P < 0.05) MP + NVL- vs. NVL-fed dogs. Fecal E. coli was (P < 0.05) lower at day 21 vs. day 0 when dogs were fed MP. Fecal Fusobacterium spp. was lower (P < 0.05) in both MP diets vs. control. Fecal Lactobacillus spp. increased (P < 0.05) from baseline with MP. Both diets with MP elicited greater (P < 0.05) fecal acetate and propionate concentration vs. control diet. At day 21, fecal IgA was greater (P < 0.05) in MP and MP + NVL compared with NVL diet. Only when dogs were fed MP did they have increased (P < 0.05) fecal IgA from day 21 vs. day 0. The MP + NVL diet decreased (P < 0.05) fecal isovalerate, isobutyrate, phenol, and indole vs. control. Overall, the MP elicited the most changes on microbiota, fermentative end-products, and IgA. Further investigation into NVL's gut health benefits is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Prebióticos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Digestión , Perros , Escherichia coli , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina A , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Masculino , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9171715, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901280

RESUMEN

Introduction: The present meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in IgA nephropathy patients in terms of proteinuria. Method: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for studies that compared HCQ and other treatments to reduce proteinuria in patients with IgA nephropathy up to June 2021. Mean ± SD of percentage change and level of proteinuria was calculated. Results: A total of 5 studies with 587 participants were included. IgA nephropathy patients who received HCQ were at a lower level of mean proteinuria at 6 months. However, there was no statistical difference between HCQ and control group considering percentage reduction in proteinuria. The long-term therapeutic effect of HCQ might be inferior to HCQ and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition. Conclusion: HCQ might play a role in the reduction of proteinuria in IgA nephropathy patients. The addition of HCQ to other immunosuppressive agents should be clarified further.


Asunto(s)
Glomerulonefritis por IGA/tratamiento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Inmunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Proteinuria/tratamiento farmacológico , Glomerulonefritis por IGA/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteinuria/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efectos de los fármacos
15.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 45(5): 323-329, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740270

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the salivary IgA (immunoglobulin A) and alpha amylase levels in the unstimulated whole saliva samples of caries-free and caries-active children and correlate it with the caries status and age. STUDY DESIGN: The salivary IgA and amylase was investigated in 100 children in the range of 8-12 years divided in two groups, control group (DMFT and/or deft = 0) and study group (DMFT/deft score ≥5). The salivary IgA was measured using kit based on two-site sandwich enzyme immunoassay principle and amylase was estimated using the vitro amyl slides. RESULTS: The mean salivary IgA and amylase levels in the saliva of the children in the control group was found to be significantly increased (p=.001 and p=.014 respectively) whereas the relationship between salivary IgA and amylase levels in the saliva of the children was found to be insignificant with the age (p=.392 and p=.306 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that salivary IgA and amylase levels in saliva increased significantly in caries free children and the level of salivary IgA and alpha amylase has no significant relation with the age of the children.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Inmunoglobulina A , Amilasas , Niño , Susceptibilidad a Caries Dentarias , Humanos , Saliva , alfa-Amilasas
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(43): e294, 2021 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751011

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Korea, the first community outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu on February 18, 2020. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in healthcare workers (HCWs) at 6 major hospitals in Daegu. METHODS: Blood specimens of 2,935 HCWs at 6 major hospitals in Daegu from January 2021 to February 2021 were collected. Every specimen was tested for antibody against SARS-CoV-2 using both Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and R-FIND COVID-19 IgG/M/A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (SG medical Inc., Seoul, Korea) as screening tests. If 1 or more of these screening test results was positive, 2 additional antibody tests were performed using Abbott Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) and cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript USA Inc., Piscataway, NJ, USA). If 2 or more of the total 4 test results were positive, it was determined as positive for the antibody against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: According to the criteria of SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity determination, 12 subjects were determined as positive. The overall positive rate of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody was 0.41% (12/2,935). Of the 12 subjects determined as positive, 7 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and the remaining 5 were nondiagnosed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In early 2021, the overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among HCW located in Daegu was 0.41%, and 0.17% excluding COVID-19 confirmed subjects. These results were not particularly high compared with the general public and were much lower than HCWs in other countries.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/inmunología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Adulto , Anciano , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Especificidad de Anticuerpos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Hospitales , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132563, 2021 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730817

RESUMEN

Importance: Although several studies have provided information on short-term clinical outcomes in children with perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2, data on the immune response in the first months of life among newborns exposed to the virus in utero are lacking. Objective: To characterize systemic and mucosal antibody production during the first 2 months of life among infants who were born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 28 pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and who gave birth at Policlinico Umberto I in Rome, Italy, from November 2020 to May 2021, and their newborns. Maternal and neonatal systemic immune responses were investigated by detecting spike-specific antibodies in serum, and the mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring specific antibodies in maternal breastmilk and infant saliva 48 hours after delivery and 2 months later. Exposures: Maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 in late pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The systemic immune response was evaluated by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies and receptor binding domain-specific IgM antibodies in maternal and neonatal serum. The mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring spike-specific antibodies in breastmilk and in infant saliva, and the presence of antigen-antibody spike IgA immune complexes was investigated in breastmilk samples. All antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In total, 28 mother-infant dyads (mean [SD] maternal age, 31.8 [6.4] years; mean [SD] gestational age, 38.1 [2.3] weeks; 18 [60%] male infants) were enrolled at delivery, and 21 dyads completed the study at 2 months' follow-up. Because maternal infection was recent in all cases, transplacental transfer of virus spike-specific IgG antibodies occurred in only 1 infant. One case of potential vertical transmission and 1 case of horizontal infection were observed. Virus spike protein-specific salivary IgA antibodies were significantly increased (P = .01) in infants fed breastmilk (0.99 arbitrary units [AU]; IQR, 0.39-1.68 AU) vs infants fed an exclusive formula diet (0.16 AU; IQR, 0.02-0.83 AU). Maternal milk contained IgA spike immune complexes at 48 hours (0.53 AU; IQR, 0.25-0.39 AU) and at 2 months (0.09 AU; IQR, 0.03-0.17 AU) and may have functioned as specific stimuli for the infant mucosal immune response. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgA antibodies were detected in infant saliva, which may partly explain why newborns are resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mothers infected in the peripartum period appear to not only passively protect the newborn via breastmilk secretory IgA but also actively stimulate and train the neonatal immune system via breastmilk immune complexes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , Leche Humana/inmunología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/inmunología , Adulto , COVID-19/sangre , COVID-19/transmisión , Prueba Serológica para COVID-19 , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/aislamiento & purificación , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/aislamiento & purificación , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Masculino , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 772239, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804064

RESUMEN

This contribution explores in a new statistical perspective the antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 141 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients exhibiting a broad range of clinical manifestations. This cohort accurately reflects the characteristics of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy. We determined the IgM, IgA, and IgG levels towards SARS-CoV-2 S1, S2, and NP antigens, evaluating their neutralizing activity and relationship with clinical signatures. Moreover, we longitudinally followed 72 patients up to 9 months postsymptoms onset to study the persistence of the levels of antibodies. Our results showed that the majority of COVID-19 patients developed an early virus-specific antibody response. The magnitude and the neutralizing properties of the response were heterogeneous regardless of the severity of the disease. Antibody levels dropped over time, even though spike reactive IgG and IgA were still detectable up to 9 months. Early baseline antibody levels were key drivers of the subsequent antibody production and the long-lasting protection against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, we identified anti-S1 IgA as a good surrogate marker to predict the clinical course of COVID-19. Characterizing the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection is relevant for the early clinical management of patients as soon as they are diagnosed and for implementing the current vaccination strategies.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/sangre , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/inmunología , Femenino , Células HEK293 , Hospitalización , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 777103, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804068

RESUMEN

Background: Data regarding symptoms in the lactating mother-infant dyad and their immune response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during lactation are needed to inform vaccination guidelines. Methods: From a prospective cohort of 50 lactating individuals who received mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2), blood and milk samples were collected prior to first vaccination dose, immediately prior to 2nd dose, and 4-10 weeks after 2nd dose. Symptoms in mother and infant were assessed by detailed questionnaires. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in blood and milk were measured by Pylon 3D automated immunoassay and ELISA. In addition, vaccine-related PEGylated proteins in milk were measured by ELISA. Blood samples were collected from a subset of infants whose mothers received the vaccine during lactation (4-15 weeks after mothers' 2nd dose). Results: No severe maternal or infant adverse events were reported in this cohort. Two mothers and two infants were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period before achieving full immune response. PEGylated proteins were not found at significant levels in milk after vaccination. After vaccination, levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM significantly increased in maternal plasma and there was significant transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2-Receptor Binding Domain (anti-RBD) IgA and IgG antibodies to milk. Milk IgA levels after the 2nd dose were negatively associated with infant age. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were not detected in the plasma of infants whose mothers were vaccinated during lactation. Conclusions: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines generate robust immune responses in plasma and milk of lactating individuals without severe adverse events reported.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Lactancia/inmunología , Leche Humana/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/inmunología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833430

RESUMEN

Background and Objective: Pediatric guidelines on celiac disease (CD) state that children with anti-transglutaminase antibodies (TGAs) >×10 upper limit of normal (ULN) may avoid endoscopy and biopsy. We aimed to evaluate whether these criteria may be suitable for villous atrophy diagnosis in CD adults. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients with CD aged >18 years. TGAs were expressed as xULN. Duodenal lesions were classified as atrophic or non-atrophic according to Marsh-Oberhuber. Fisher's exact and t-test were used for variables comparison. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed with estimation of area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value (PPV/NPV). Results: One hundred and twenty-one patients were recruited. Sixty patients (49.6%) had TGA >×10 ULN, and 93 (76.8%) had villous atrophy. The cut-off of >×10 ULN had sensitivity = 53.7%, specificity = 64.3%, PPV = 83.3%, and NPV = 29.5% to predict atrophy. Therefore, considering pediatric criteria, in 50 (41.3%) patients, biopsy could have been avoided. Patient subgroup with atrophy had higher TGA levels despite being not significant (37.2 ± 15.3 vs. 8.0 ± 1.3 ULN, p = 0.06). In adults, a slightly better diagnostic performance was obtained using a cut-off of TGA >×6.2 ULN (sensitivity = 57.1%, specificity = 65.6%, and AUC = 0.62). Conclusions: Despite our confirmation that villous atrophy is linked to high TGA levels, CD and atrophy diagnosis based only on serology is not reliable in adults.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Celíaca , Adulto , Autoanticuerpos , Biopsia , Enfermedad Celíaca/diagnóstico , Niño , Duodeno , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Transglutaminasas
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