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1.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13312, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837866

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To inform future response planning we aimed to assess SARS-CoV-2 trends in infection- and/or vaccine-induced immunity, including breakthrough infections, among (sub)groups, professions and regions in the Dutch population during the Variant of Concern (VOC)-era. METHODS: In this prospective population-based cohort, randomly selected participants (n = 9985) aged 1-92 years (recruited early-2020) donated home-collected fingerstick-blood samples at six timepoints in 2021/2022, covering waves dominated by Alpha, Delta, and multiple Omicron (sub-)variants. IgG antibody assessment against Spike-S1 and Nucleoprotein was combined with vaccination- and testing data to estimate infection-induced (inf) and total (infection- and vaccination-induced) seroprevalence. RESULTS: Nationwide inf-seroprevalence rose modestly from 12% (95% CI 11-13) since Alpha to 26% (95% CI 24-28) amidst Delta, while total seroprevalence increased rapidly to 87% (95% CI 85-88), particularly in elderly and those with comorbidities (i.e., vulnerable groups). Interestingly, highest infection rates were noticeable among low/middle educated elderly, non-Western, those in contact professions, adolescents and young adults, and in low-vaccination coverage regions. Following Omicron emergence, inf-seroprevalence elevated sharply to 62% (95% CI 59-65) and further to 86% (95% CI 83-90) in late-2022, with frequent breakthrough infections and decreasing seroprevalence dissimilarities between most groups. Whereas > 90% of < 60-year-olds had been infected at least once, 30% of vaccinated vulnerable individuals had still not acquired hybrid immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Groups identified to have been infected disproportionally during the acute phase of the pandemic require specific attention in evaluation of control measures and future response planning worldwide. Furthermore, ongoing tailored vaccination efforts and (sero-)monitoring of vulnerable groups may remain important.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Lactante , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304268, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838004

RESUMEN

American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) diagnosis is an open question, and the search for a solution is urgent. The available tests that detect the etiological agent of the infection are specific for ATL diagnosis. However, they present disadvantages, such as low sensitivity and the need for invasive procedures to obtain the samples. Immunological methods (leishmanin skin test and search for anti-Leishmania antibodies) are good alternatives to the etiological diagnosis of ATL. Presently, we face problems with disease confirmation due to the discontinuity in the production of leishmanin skin test antigen, particularly in resource-poor settings. Aiming to diagnose ATL, we validated rLb6H-ELISA for IgG antibodies using 1,091 samples from leishmaniasis patients and healthy controls, divided into four panels, living in 19 Brazilian endemic and non-endemic states. The rLb6H-ELISA showed a sensitivity of 98.6% and a specificity of 100.0%, with the reference panel comprising 70 ATL patient samples and 70 healthy controls. The reproducibility evaluation showed a coefficient of variation of positive samples ≤ 8.20% for repeatability, ≤ 17,97% for reproducibility, and ≤ 8.12% for homogeneity. The plates sensitized with rLb6H were stable at 4°C and -20°C for 180 days and 37°C for seven days, indicating 12 months of validity. In samples of ATL patients from five research and healthcare centers in endemic and non-endemic areas, rLb6H-ELISA showed a sensitivity of 84.0%; no significant statistical difference was observed among the five centers (chi-square test, p = 0.13). In samples of healthy controls from four areas with different endemicity, a specificity of 92.4% was obtained; lower specificity was obtained in a visceral leishmaniasis high endemicity locality (chi-square test, p<0.001). Cross-reactivity was assessed in 166 other disease samples with a positivity of 13.9%. Based on the good diagnostic performance and the reproducibility and stability of the antigen, we suggest using ELISA-rLb6H to diagnose ATL.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos de Protozoos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Leishmaniasis Cutánea , Humanos , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/inmunología , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/parasitología , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Antígenos de Protozoos/inmunología , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adolescente , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Proteínas Recombinantes/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/sangre , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/inmunología , Anciano , Niño , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Brasil/epidemiología
3.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(6): e13332, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838093

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mozambique was one of many African countries with limited testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2. Serosurveys, an alternative to estimate the real exposure to understand the epidemiology and transmission dynamics, have been scarce in Mozambique. Herein, we aimed to estimate the age-specific seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the general population of the Manhiça District, at four time points, for evaluating dynamics of exposure and the impact of vaccination. METHODS: We conducted four community-based seroepidemiological surveys separated by 3 months between May 2021 and June 2022 to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. An age-stratified (0-19, 20-39, 40-59, and ≥ 60 years) sample of 4810 individuals was randomly selected from demographic surveillance database, and their blood samples were analyzed using WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 IgG + IgM ELISA. Nasopharyngeal swabs from a subsample of 2209 participants were also assessed for active infection by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased from 27.6% in the first survey (May 2021) to 63.6%, 91.2%, and 91.1% in the second (October 2021), third (January 2022), and fourth (May 2022) surveys, respectively. Seroprevalence in individuals < 18 years, who were not eligible for vaccination, increased from 23.1% in the first survey to 87.1% in the fourth. The prevalence of active infection was below 10.1% in all surveys. CONCLUSIONS: A high seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the study population, including individuals not eligible for vaccination at that time, particularly after circulation of the highly transmissible Delta variant. These data are important to inform decision making on the vaccination strategies in the context of pandemic slowdown in Mozambique.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Población Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Adolescente , Preescolar , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Niño , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Femenino , Masculino , Lactante , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Recién Nacido , Anciano , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre
4.
Vopr Virusol ; 69(2): 187-192, 2024 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843024

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most common human viral infections and has a double-stranded DNA genome belonging to the Herpesviridae family. Smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and premature death worldwide, responsible for the death of up to six million people annually. The purpose of the current study was to determine the seroprevalence of HSV-1 infection among smokers. Methods. The search strategy was conducted in the period from December 2022 to January 2023. The study included a random sample of 94 (88 males, and 6 females) healthy participants, aged between ≤ 20 to ≥ 60 years, with 50 participants as the control group. The HSV serological testing consisted of detecting antibodies to HSV-1 IgG with the help of ELISA. RESULTS: Most participants were university students, consisting of 45.7% males and 5.3% females, followed by employed smokers, consisting of 0.2% males and 1.1% females. The number of females was much lower than that of males reaching 6.4 and 93.6% respectively, due to customs and traditions. The seroprevalence was 24.47, 22.3 and 2.1% in males and females respectively. The seroprevalence rate was 13.8% in hookah and cigarette smokers, 9% in cigarette smokers and 1.1% in hookah smokers exclusively. The highest rate was observed in the age groups of 21-30 and 31-40 years with 12.80% and 7.40% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgG was 24.47%, and was higher among hookah and cigarette smokers compared to those who exclusively smoked cigarettes or hookah.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Herpes Simple , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Fumadores , Humanos , Masculino , Herpesvirus Humano 1/inmunología , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Herpes Simple/epidemiología , Herpes Simple/virología , Herpes Simple/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Adulto Joven , Fumar/epidemiología , Anciano , Adolescente
5.
J Feline Med Surg ; 26(6): 1098612X241248984, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857445

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate minimally invasive diagnostic techniques, such as the semi-quantitative indirect IgG antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using blood serum and the urinary lateral flow assay (LFA), for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum in cats with histoplasmosis. METHODS: Eight client-owned domestic cats diagnosed with histoplasmosis were selected based on cytological, histopathological, mycological, molecular or antigenic techniques. The blood serum of these animals was tested in a semi-quantitative indirect IgG antibody EIA for the detection of H capsulatum. Urine samples were tested for H capsulatum antigen using LFA. RESULTS: Five cats were seropositive on IgG EIA (5/8, with diagnostic sensitivity equal to 62.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.5-91.5) and five cats were positive on H capsulatum antigen LFA (5/7, with diagnostic sensitivity equal to 71.4%; 95% CI 29.0-96.3). The combined diagnostic sensitivity when interpreted in parallel was 87.5% (7/8, 95% CI 47.3-99.7). The specificity for the anti-Histoplasma IgG EIA was 100% (95% CI 71.5-100) and for the H capsulatum antigen LFA it was also 100% (95% CI 71.5-100). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The semi-quantitative indirect IgG antibody EIA for the detection of H capsulatum in blood serum and the urinary LFA for the detection of the same agent emerge as new minimally invasive diagnostic techniques that can assist in the approach to disseminated and pulmonary feline histoplasmosis, especially when both techniques are considered together.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Histoplasma , Histoplasmosis , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Gatos , Animales , Histoplasmosis/veterinaria , Histoplasmosis/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/microbiología , Histoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Histoplasma/inmunología , Masculino , Femenino , Anticuerpos Antifúngicos/sangre , Técnicas para Inmunoenzimas/veterinaria , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre
6.
Hematology ; 29(1): 2360339, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828919

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a common condition that can have a severe impact on the health of newborns due to the hemolytic reactions it triggers. Although numerous studies have focused on understanding the pathogenesis of HDN, there are still many unanswered questions. METHODS: In this retrospective study, serum samples were collected from 15 healthy newborns and 8 infants diagnosed with hemolytic disease. The relationship between different metabolites and various IgG subtypes in Healthy, HDN and BLI groups was studied by biochemical technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Metabolomics analysis was conducted to identify the differential metabolites associated with HDN. Subsequently, Pearson's correlation analysis was used to determine the relation of these differential metabolites with IgG isoforms. The relationship between the metabolites and IgG subtypes was observed after treatment. RESULTS: The study results revealed that infants with hemolytic disease exhibited abnormal elevations in TBA, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, and IgG4 levels when compared to healthy newborns. Additionally, differences in metabolite contents were also observed. N, N-DIMETHYLARGININE showed negative correlations with TBA, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, and IgG4, while 2-HYDROXYBUTYRATE, AMINOISOBUTANOATE, Inosine, and ALLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE exhibited positive correlations with TBA, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, and IgG4. Through metabolomics-based research, we have discovered associations between differential metabolites and different IgG isoforms during the onset of HDN. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that changes in metabolite and IgG isoform levels are linked to HDN. Understanding the involvement of IgG isoforms and metabolites can provide valuable guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of HDN.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoglobulina G , Metabolómica , Isoformas de Proteínas , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Recién Nacido , Metabolómica/métodos , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Eritroblastosis Fetal/sangre , Eritroblastosis Fetal/metabolismo , Eritroblastosis Fetal/diagnóstico
7.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1376456, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827736

RESUMEN

Background: Anti-IgLON5 disease is a rare chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by IgLON5 autoantibodies predominantly of the IgG4 subclass. Distinct pathogenic effects were described for anti-IgLON5 IgG1 and IgG4, however, with uncertain clinical relevance. Methods: IgLON5-specific IgG1-4 levels were measured in 46 sera and 20 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 13 HLA-subtyped anti-IgLON5 disease patients (six females, seven males) using flow cytometry. Intervals between two consecutive serum or CSF samplings (31 and 10 intervals, respectively) were categorized with regard to the immunomodulatory treatment active at the end of the interval, changes of anti-IgLON5 IgG1 and IgG4 levels, and disease severity. Intrathecal anti-IgLON5 IgG4 synthesis (IS) was assessed using a quantitative method. Results: The median age at onset was 66 years (range: 54-75), disease duration 10 years (range: 15-156 months), and follow-up 25 months (range: 0-83). IgLON5-specific IgG4 predominance was observed in 38 of 46 (83%) serum and 11 of 20 (55%) CSF samples. Anti-IgLON5 IgG4 levels prior clinical improvement in CSF but not serum were significantly lower than in those prior stable/progressive disease. Compared to IgLON5 IgG4 levels in serum, CSF levels in HLA-DRB1*10:01 carriers were significantly higher than in non-carriers. Indeed, IgLON5-specific IgG4 IS was demonstrated not only in four of five HLA-DRB1*10:01 carriers but also in one non-carrier. Immunotherapy was associated with decreased anti-IgGLON5 IgG serum levels. In CSF, lower anti-IgLON5 IgG was associated with immunosuppressive treatments used in combination, that is, corticosteroids and/or azathioprine plus intravenous immunoglobulins or rituximab. Conclusion: Our findings might indicate that CSF IgLON5-specific IgG4 is frequently produced intrathecally, especially in HLA-DRB1*10:01 carriers. Intrathecally produced IgG4 may be clinically relevant. While many immunotherapies reduce serum IgLON5 IgG levels, more intense immunotherapies induce clinical improvement and may be able to target intrathecally produced anti-IgLON5 IgG. Further studies need to confirm whether anti-IgLON5 IgG4 IS is a suitable prognostic and predictive biomarker in anti-IgLON5 disease.


Asunto(s)
Autoanticuerpos , Inmunoglobulina G , Humanos , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina G/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Autoanticuerpos/sangre , Autoanticuerpos/inmunología , Autoanticuerpos/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular Neuronal/inmunología , Antígenos HLA/inmunología , Relevancia Clínica
8.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1396603, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38846944

RESUMEN

Background: The Coronaviridae family comprises seven viruses known to infect humans, classified into alphacoronaviruses (HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63) and betacoronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1), which are considered endemic. Additionally, it includes SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome), and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 induces severe respiratory complications, particularly in the elderly, immunocompromised individuals and those with underlying diseases. An essential question since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has been to determine whether prior exposure to seasonal coronaviruses influences immunity or protection against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: In this study, we investigated a cohort of 47 couples (N=94), where one partner tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection via real-time PCR while the other remained negative. Plasma samples, collected at least 30 days post-PCR reaction, were assessed using indirect ELISA and competition assays to measure specific antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) portion of the Spike (S) protein from SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-HKU1. Results: IgG antibody levels against the four endemic coronavirus RBD proteins were similar between the PCR-positive and PCR-negative individuals, suggesting that IgG against endemic coronavirus RBD regions was not associated with protection from infection. Moreover, we found no significant IgG antibody cross-reactivity between endemic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 RBDs. Conclusions: Taken together, results suggest that anti-RBD antibodies induced by a previous infection with endemic HCoVs do not protect against acquisition of COVID-19 among exposed uninfected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Femenino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Coronavirus/inmunología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Reacciones Cruzadas/inmunología
9.
Cancer Med ; 13(11): e7304, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The surge in omicron variants has caused nationwide breakthrough infections in mainland China since the December 2022. In this study, we report the neutralization profiles of serum samples from the patients with breast cancer and the patients with liver cancer who had contracted subvariant breakthrough infections. METHODS: In this real-world study, we enrolled 143 COVID-19-vaccinated (81 and 62 patients with breast and liver cancers) and 105 unvaccinated patients with cancer (58 and 47 patients with breast and liver cancers) after omicron infection. Anti-spike receptor binding domain (RBD) IgGs and 50% pseudovirus neutralization titer (pVNT50) for the preceding (wild type), circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7), and new subvariants (XBB.1.5) were comprehensively analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with liver cancer receiving booster doses had higher levels of anti-spike RBD IgG against circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7) and a novel subvariant (XBB.1.5) compared to patients with breast cancer after breakthrough infection. Additionally, all vaccinated patients produced higher neutralizing antibody titers against circulating omicron (BA.4-BA.5, and BF.7) compared to unvaccinated patients. However, the unvaccinated patients produced higher neutralizing antibody against XBB.1.5 than vaccinated patients after Omicron infection, with this trend being more pronounced in breast cancer than in liver cancer patients. Moreover, we found that there was no correlation between anti-spike RBD IgG against wildtype virus and the neutralizing antibody titer, but a positive correlation between anti-spike RBD IgG and the neutralizing antibody against XBB.1.5 was found in unvaccinated patients. CONCLUSION: Our study found that there may be differences in vaccine response and protective effect against COVID-19 infection in patients with liver and breast cancer. Therefore, we recommend that COVID-19 vaccine strategies should be optimized based on vaccine components and immunology profiles of different patients with cancer.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Neoplasias de la Mama , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Neoplasias Hepáticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/inmunología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/inmunología , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/virología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , China/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Masculino , Brotes de Enfermedades , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12725, 2024 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830902

RESUMEN

Humoral immunity in COVID-19 includes antibodies (Abs) targeting spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Antibody levels are known to correlate with disease severity, but titers are poorly reported in mild or asymptomatic cases. Here, we analyzed the titers of IgA and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 proteins in samples from 200 unvaccinated Hospital Workers (HWs) with mild COVID-19 at two time points after infection. We analyzed the relationship between Ab titers and patient characteristics, clinical features, and evolution over time. Significant differences in IgG and IgA titers against N, S1 and S2 proteins were found when samples were segregated according to time T1 after infection, seroprevalence at T1, sex and age of HWs and symptoms at infection. We found that IgM + samples had higher titers of IgG against N antigen and IgA against S1 and S2 antigens than IgM - samples. There were significant correlations between anti-S1 and S2 Abs. Interestingly, IgM + patients with dyspnea had lower titers of IgG and IgA against N, S1 and S2 than those without dyspnea. Comparing T1 and T2, we found that IgA against N, S1 and S2 but only IgG against certain Ag decreased significantly. In conclusion, an association was established between Ab titers and the development of infection symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina A , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , COVID-19/sangre , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , Inmunoglobulina A/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Femenino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside de Coronavirus/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/inmunología , Inmunidad Humoral , Fosfoproteínas/inmunología
11.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 109, 2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831339

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute bulbar palsy-plus (ABPp) syndrome is an unusual variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Anti-GT1a and anti-GQ1b antibodies have been reported in patients with ABPp, but without reports related to GD3 antibodies. METHODS: Clinical data of a patient diagnosed as ABPp syndrome were reviewed clinically. And we summarized the GBS patients with ABP and facial paralysis reported in the literature. RESULTS: We reported a 13-year-old girl presented with asymmetric bifacial weakness, bulbar palsy and transient limb numbness, and had positive serum IgG anti-GD3 antibody. Through reviewing the GBS patients with ABP and facial paralysis reported previously, we found that facial palsy could be unilateral or bilateral. The bilateral facial palsy could present successively or simultaneously, and could be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Other common symptoms included ophthalmoplegia, sensory abnormality and ataxia. IgG anti-GT1a and IgG anti-GQ1b antibodies were the most frequent. Most of the patients had full recovery within two weeks to one year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a patient with asymmetric bifacial palsy and bulbar palsy, which seemed to fit the diagnosis of ABPp syndrome. This was the first report of ABPp variant of GBS with positive serum ganglioside GD3 IgG antibody.


Asunto(s)
Gangliósidos , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Inmunoglobulina G , Humanos , Femenino , Gangliósidos/inmunología , Adolescente , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/inmunología , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Autoanticuerpos/sangre
12.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 38: 3946320241260633, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38836458

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibodies against the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (NP) proteins, as well as neutralizing antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Additionally, it aims to detect viral RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in pre-pandemic archival pediatric specimens collected before the announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic spread on March 20th, 2020, in Morocco. The objective is to investigate the existence of pre-pandemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study, to analyze IgG antibody levels in a cohort of 106 pre-pandemic pediatric participants. Using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we measured the IgG levels against the S and NP proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we staged a competitive ELISA assay to evaluate the neutralizing capability of these antibodies. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect viral NP and ORF1ab genes of SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal swabs. Moreover, we conducted on the same specimens a multiplexed RT-PCR to detect RNA of the most common 27 pathogens involved in lower respiratory tract infections. RESULTS: Among the 106 serum samples, 13% (nn = =14) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using ELISA. Temporal analysis indicated varying IgG positivity levels across 2019. Neutralizing antibodies were found in 21% of the 28 samples analyzed, including two with high inhibition rates (93%). The SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using rRT-PCR in 14 samples. None of the samples tested positive for the other 27 pathogens associated with lower respiratory tract infections, using multiplexed RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Our study addresses the possibility, that COVID-19 infections occurred in Morocco before the recognized outbreak. On the other hand, some of the cases might reflect cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses or be influenced by previous viral exposures or vaccinations. Understanding these factors is crucial to comprehending pediatric immune responses to newly emerging infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Preescolar , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adolescente , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside de Coronavirus/inmunología , ARN Viral/sangre , Fiebre/inmunología , Fiebre/virología , Fiebre/diagnóstico , Marruecos/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Fosfoproteínas
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 560, 2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: China experienced an overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic from middle December 2022 to middle January 2023 after lifting the zero-COVID-19 policy on December 7, 2022. However, the infection rate was less studied. We aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in children shortly after discontinuation of the zero-COVID-19 policy. METHODS: From February 20 to April 10, 2023, we included 393 children aged 8 months to less than 3 years who did not receive COVID-19 vaccination and 114 children aged 3 to 6 years who received inactivated COVID-19 vaccines based on the convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study. IgG and IgM antibodies against nucleocapsid (N) and subunit 1 of spike (S1) of SARS-CoV-2 (anti-N/S1) were measured with commercial kits (Shenzhen YHLO Biotech, China). RESULTS: Of the 393 unvaccinated children (1.5 ± 0.6 years; 52.2% boys), 369 (93.9%) were anti-N/S1 IgG positive. Of the 114 vaccinated children (5.3 ± 0.9 years; 48.2% boys), 112 (98.2%) were anti-N/S1 IgG positive. None of the unvaccinated or vaccinated children was anti-N/S1 IgM positive. The median IgG antibody titers in vaccinated children (344.91 AU/mL) were significantly higher than that in unvaccinated children (42.80 AU/mL) (P < 0.0001). The positive rates and titers of anti-N/S1 IgG had no significant difference between boys and girls respectively. CONCLUSION: Vast majority of children were infected with SARS-CoV-2 shortly after ending zero-COVID-19 policy in China. Whether these unvaccinated infected children should receive COVID-19 vaccine merits further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Preescolar , Masculino , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Niño , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Lactante , Estudios Transversales , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología
14.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1392681, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835751

RESUMEN

Background: Pasteurella multocida is a bacterial pathogen that causes a variety of infections across diverse animal species, with one of the most devastating associated diseases being hemorrhagic septicemia. Outbreaks of hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes are marked by rapid progression and high mortality. These infections have particularly harmful socio-economic impacts on small holder farmers in Africa and Asia who are heavily reliant on a small number of animals kept as a means of subsistence for milk and draft power purposes. A novel vaccine target, PmSLP-3, has been identified on the surface of hemorrhagic septicemia-associated strains of P. multocida and was previously shown to elicit robust protection in cattle against lethal challenge with a serogroup B strain. Methods: Here, we further investigate the protective efficacy of this surface lipoprotein, including evaluating the immunogenicity and protection upon formulation with a variety of adjuvants in both mice and cattle. Results: PmSLP-3 formulated with Montanide ISA 61 elicited the highest level of serum and mucosal IgG, elicited long-lasting serum antibodies, and was fully protective against serogroup B challenge. Studies were then performed to identify the minimum number of doses required and the needed protein quantity to maintain protection. Duration studies were performed in cattle, demonstrating sustained serum IgG titres for 3 years after two doses of vaccine and full protection against lethal serogroup B challenge at 7 months after a single vaccine dose. Finally, a serogroup E challenge study was performed, demonstrating that PmSLP-3 vaccine can provide protection against challenge by the two serogroups responsible for hemorrhagic septicemia. Conclusion: Together, these data indicate that PmSLP-3 formulated with Montanide ISA 61 is an immunogenic and protective vaccine against hemorrhagic septicemia-causing P. multocida strains in cattle.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antibacterianos , Vacunas Bacterianas , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Septicemia Hemorrágica , Pasteurella multocida , Animales , Bovinos , Pasteurella multocida/inmunología , Septicemia Hemorrágica/prevención & control , Septicemia Hemorrágica/veterinaria , Septicemia Hemorrágica/inmunología , Septicemia Hemorrágica/microbiología , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Vacunas Bacterianas/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Ratones , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/inmunología , Femenino , Serogrupo , Infecciones por Pasteurella/prevención & control , Infecciones por Pasteurella/veterinaria , Infecciones por Pasteurella/inmunología , Infecciones por Pasteurella/microbiología , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Vacunación
15.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 23(2): 158-167, 2024 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822511

RESUMEN

Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are among the high-risk groups regarding COVID-19. Receiving booster doses (third and fourth) in addition to the standard doses is recommended in these patients. This study investigated the antibody response before and after a booster dose of Sinopharm vaccine in IEI patients.  Thirty patients (>12 years) with antibody deficiencies, referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital and Children's Medical Center in Tehran, were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. All patients were fully vaccinated with the BBIBP-CorV vaccine (2 doses of Sinopharm). Initial measurements of anti-receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD) and anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) IgG antibody responses were conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, all patients received a booster dose of the vaccine. Four to six weeks after booster injection, the levels of antibodies were re-evaluated.  Twenty patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 7 cases with agammaglobulinemia and 3 patients with hyper IgM syndrome were studied. Anti-RBD IgG and anti-N IgG antibodies increased in all patients after the booster. Our results indicated the need of receiving booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine in patients with antibody deficiencies, even for enhancing humoral immune response specially in patients with CVID.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Inmunización Secundaria , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Masculino , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Adulto , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Estudios Transversales , Adolescente , Irán , Estudios Prospectivos , Formación de Anticuerpos/inmunología , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/inmunología , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación , Niño , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 522, 2024 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880897

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: IgG4-related diseases are very uncommon, and its diagnosis and treatment are complicated as it encompasses multiple disciplines. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old woman was admitted with a jaw mass and nausea and vomiting. Laboratory tests showed elevated serum IgG4, pituitary MRI suggested thickening of the pituitary stalk, and head and neck CT suggested orbital and mandibular masses. Patients with mandibular mass were diagnosed with Mikulicz's disease with IgG4-related hypophysitis. We found no other evidence of causing thickening of the pituitary stalk. She was given oral prednisolone 30 mg daily, and her nausea and vomiting improved significantly, and the mandibular and ocular masses decreased in size. CONCLUSION: Mikulicz's disease combined with IgG4-related hypophysitis is a rare case of IgG4-RD in elderly women. IgG4-RD is one of the causes of head and neck exocrine gland mass and pituitary stalk thickening in the elderly.


Asunto(s)
Hipofisitis Autoinmune , Enfermedad Relacionada con Inmunoglobulina G4 , Enfermedad de Mikulicz , Humanos , Anciano , Femenino , Enfermedad de Mikulicz/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de Mikulicz/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Mikulicz/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Relacionada con Inmunoglobulina G4/complicaciones , Enfermedad Relacionada con Inmunoglobulina G4/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Relacionada con Inmunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Hipofisitis Autoinmune/complicaciones , Hipofisitis Autoinmune/tratamiento farmacológico , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Prednisolona/uso terapéutico , Prednisolona/administración & dosificación , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 584, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867165

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Natural infection and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the development of immunity against the structural proteins of the virus. Specifically, the two most immunogenic are the S (spike) and N (nucleocapsid) proteins. Seroprevalence studies performed in university students provide information to estimate the number of infected patients (symptomatic or asymptomatic) and generate knowledge about the viral spread, vaccine efficacy, and epidemiological control. Which, the aim of this study was to evaluate IgG antibodies against the S and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 at university students from Southern Mexico. METHODS: A total of 1418 serum samples were collected from eighteen work centers of the Autonomous University of Guerrero. Antibodies were detected by Indirect ELISA using as antigen peptides derived from the S and N proteins. RESULTS: We reported a total seroprevalence of 39.9% anti-S/N (positive to both antigens), 14.1% anti-S and 0.5% anti-N. The highest seroprevalence was reported in the work centers from Costa Grande, Acapulco and Centro. Seroprevalence was associated with age, COVID-19, contact with infected patients, and vaccination. CONCLUSION: University students could play an essential role in disseminating SARS-CoV-2. We reported a seroprevalence of 54.5% against the S and N proteins, which could be due to the high population rate and cultural resistance to safety measures against COVID-19 in the different regions of the state.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19 , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside de Coronavirus , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus , Estudiantes , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Universidades , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside de Coronavirus/inmunología , Adolescente , Fosfoproteínas/inmunología
18.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1352704, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38895118

RESUMEN

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disease with skin barrier defects and a misdirected type 2 immune response against harmless antigens. The skin microbiome in AD is characterized by a reduction in microbial diversity with a dominance of staphylococci, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Objective: To assess whether S. epidermidis antigens play a role in AD, we screened for candidate allergens and studied the T cell and humoral immune response against the extracellular serine protease (Esp). Methods: To identify candidate allergens, we analyzed the binding of human serum IgG4, as a surrogate of IgE, to S. epidermidis extracellular proteins using 2-dimensional immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. We then measured serum IgE and IgG1 binding to recombinant Esp by ELISA in healthy and AD individuals. We also stimulated T cells from AD patients and control subjects with Esp and measured the secreted cytokines. Finally, we analyzed the proteolytic activity of Esp against IL-33 and determined the cleavage sites by mass spectrometry. Results: We identified Esp as the dominant candidate allergen of S. epidermidis. Esp-specific IgE was present in human serum; AD patients had higher concentrations than controls. T cells reacting to Esp were detectable in both AD patients and healthy controls. The T cell response in healthy adults was characterized by IL-17, IL-22, IFN-γ, and IL-10, whereas the AD patients' T cells lacked IL-17 production and released only low amounts of IL-22, IFN-γ, and IL-10. In contrast, Th2 cytokine release was higher in T cells from AD patients than from healthy controls. Mature Esp cleaved and activated the alarmin IL-33. Conclusion: The extracellular serine protease Esp of S. epidermidis can activate IL-33. As an antigen, Esp elicits a type 2-biased antibody and T cell response in AD patients. This suggests that S. epidermidis can aggravate AD through the allergenic properties of Esp.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Inmunoglobulina E , Serina Proteasas , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Humanos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/inmunología , Dermatitis Atópica/inmunología , Dermatitis Atópica/microbiología , Serina Proteasas/inmunología , Serina Proteasas/metabolismo , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina E/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Proteínas Bacterianas/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Alérgenos/inmunología , Interleucina-33/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(6): e0011775, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865361

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi A, B, and C. It continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In highly endemic areas, children are disproportionately affected, and antimicrobial resistance reduces therapeutic options. It is estimated that 2-5% of enteric fever patients develop chronic asymptomatic infection. These carriers may act as reservoirs of infection; therefore, the prospective identification and treatment of carriers are critical for long-term disease control. We aimed to find the frequency of Salmonella Typhi carriers in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. We also compared the detection limit of culturing versus qPCR in detecting S. Typhi, performed a geospatial analysis of the carriers identified using this study, and evaluated the accuracy of anti-Vi and anti-YncE in identifying chronic typhoid carriage. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in two centers in Pakistan. Gallbladder specimens were subjected to quantitative PCR (qPCR) and serum samples were analyzed for IgG against YncE and Vi by ELISA. We also mapped the residential location of those with a positive qPCR result. FINDINGS: Out of 988 participants, 3.4% had qPCR-positive gallbladder samples (23 S. Typhi and 11 S. Paratyphi). Gallstones were more likely to be qPCR positive than bile and gallbladder tissue. Anti-Vi and YncE were significantly correlated (r = 0.78 p<0.0001) and elevated among carriers as compared to qPCR negative controls, except for anti-Vi response in Paratyphi A. But the discriminatory values of these antigens in identifying carriers from qPCR negative controls were low. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of typhoid carriers observed in this study suggests that further studies are required to gain information that will help in controlling future typhoid outbreaks in a superior manner than they are currently being managed.


Asunto(s)
Portador Sano , Colecistectomía , Salmonella typhi , Fiebre Tifoidea , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Fiebre Tifoidea/epidemiología , Fiebre Tifoidea/microbiología , Femenino , Masculino , Portador Sano/microbiología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Salmonella typhi/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonella typhi/genética , Adulto , Pakistán/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Enfermedades de la Vesícula Biliar/microbiología , Enfermedades de la Vesícula Biliar/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/sangre , Vesícula Biliar/microbiología , Niño , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre
20.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1395684, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868776

RESUMEN

Circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh) can show phenotypic alterations in disease settings, including in the context of tissue-damaging autoimmune or anti-viral responses. Using severe COVID-19 as a paradigm of immune dysregulation, we have explored how cTfh phenotype relates to the titre and quality of antibody responses. Severe disease was associated with higher titres of neutralising S1 IgG and evidence of increased T cell activation. ICOS, CD38 and HLA-DR expressing cTfh correlated with serum S1 IgG titres and neutralising strength, and interestingly expression of TIGIT by cTfh showed a negative correlation. TIGIT+cTfh expressed increased IFNγ and decreased IL-17 compared to their TIGIT-cTfh counterparts, and showed reduced capacity to help B cells in vitro. Additionally, TIGIT+cTfh expressed lower levels of CD40L than TIGIT-cTfh, providing a potential explanation for their poor B-helper function. These data identify phenotypic changes in polyclonal cTfh that correlate with specific antibody responses and reveal TIGIT as a marker of cTfh with altered function.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Linfocitos B , COVID-19 , Receptores Inmunológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares , Humanos , COVID-19/inmunología , Receptores Inmunológicos/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Masculino , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/inmunología , Linfocitos B/inmunología , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Activación de Linfocitos/inmunología , Anciano , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre
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