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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(53): 1201-1205, 2020 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945036

RESUMEN

Control of communicable diseases in children, including respiratory and diarrheal illnesses that affect U.S. school-aged children, might require public health preventive efforts both in the home and at school, a primary setting for transmission. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data on school absenteeism and gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in the United States during 2010-2016 were analyzed to examine their associations with income. Prevalence of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses (queried for the 2 weeks preceding the survey) increased as income decreased. The likelihood of missing any school days during the past year decreased with reduced income. However, among children who missed school, those from low-income households missed more days of school than did children from higher income households. Although the reason for absenteeism cannot be ascertained from this analysis, these data underscore the importance of preventive measures (e.g. hand hygiene promotion and education) and the opportunity for both homes and schools to serve as important points for implementation of public health preventive measures, including improved hand hygiene practices.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e124, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994597

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the association of demographic conditions, socioeconomic status, clinical variables, and psychosocial factors with the number of filled teeth in adolescents from public schools. This cohort study comprised 1,134 12-year-old adolescents enrolled in public schools in Santa Maria, Brazil, in 2012. They were followed-up in 2014, where 743 individuals were reassessed (follow-up rate of 65.52%) for the number of filled teeth. Data were collected via dental examinations and structured interviews. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected from parents or legal guardians. The psychosocial factor comprised students' subjective measurement of happiness (Brazilian version of the Subjective Happiness Scale - SHS). Dental examinations were performed to assess the number of filled teeth through decay, missing, and filled teeth index (DMF-T). Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed to assess the association between baseline variables and filled teeth at follow-up. The number of filled teeth in 2012 and 2014 were 193 (17.02%) and 235 (31.63%), respectively. The incidence of filled teeth in 2014 was 42 (5.65%). Adolescents with untreated dental caries, those who visited the dentist in the last 6 months, those that exhibited being happier, and those who had filled teeth at baseline were associated with a higher number of filled teeth at follow-up. We conclude that the number of filled teeth in adolescents was influenced by clinical and psychosocial factors, emphasizing the need to focus on oral health policies in individuals with higher disease burden and those who feel psychologically inferior.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas de Salud Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Restauración Dental Permanente/estadística & datos numéricos , Sector Público/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/terapia , Servicios de Salud Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Restauración Dental Permanente/psicología , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes/psicología
6.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 51-57, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Athletic training rooms have a high prevalence of bacteria, including multidrug-resistant organisms, increasing the risk for both local and systematic infections in athletes. There are limited data outlining formal protocols or standardized programs to reduce bacterial and viral burden in training rooms as a means of decreasing infection rate at the collegiate and high school levels. HYPOTHESIS: Adaptation of a hygiene protocol would lead to a reduction in bacterial and viral pathogen counts in athletic training rooms. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Two high school and 2 collegiate athletic training rooms were studied over the course of the 2017-2018 academic year. A 3-phase protocol, including introduction of disinfectant products followed by student-athlete and athletic trainer education, was implemented at the 4 schools. Multiple surfaces in the athletic training rooms were swabbed at 4 time points throughout the investigation. Bacterial and viral burden from swabs were analyzed for overall bacterial aerobic plate count (APC), bacterial adenosine triphosphate activity, influenza viral load, and multidrug-resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). RESULTS: Overall bacterial load, as measured by APC, was reduced by 94.7% (95% CI, 72.6-99.0; P = 0.003) over the course of the investigation after protocol implementation. MRSA and VRE were found on 24% of surfaces prior to intervention and were reduced to 0% by the end of the study. Influenza was initially detected on 25% of surfaces, with no detection after intervention. No cases of athletic training room-acquired infections were reported during the study period. CONCLUSION: A uniform infection control protocol was effective in reducing bacterial and viral burden, including multidrug-resistant organisms, when implemented in the athletic training rooms of 2 high schools and 2 colleges. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A standardized infection control protocol can be utilized in athletic training rooms to reduce bacterial and viral burden.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/prevención & control , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Instituciones Académicas , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/transmisión , Desinfectantes/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/prevención & control , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/transmisión , Desinfección de las Manos , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Orthomyxoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/transmisión , Enterococos Resistentes a la Vancomicina/aislamiento & purificación
7.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(1): 25-32, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050585

RESUMEN

Objective: Research on the dissemination of e-mental health interventions is in an early stage, so that little is known about the reach, costs, participant characteristics, and patterns of program utilization associated with different recruitment strategies and access paths. This study investigated differences between user groups informed about an Internet-based program for the prevention and early intervention in eating disorders via different recruitment channels. Method: Participant characteristics and user behavior of 3548 participants in the Internet-based program ProYouth were analyzed. Participants were informed about ProYouth via different channels (e. g., print materials, high school, Internet). Results: Results indicate significant relationships between access paths and both user characteristics and program utilization. Participants who were informed about ProYouth at their high schools were more likely to be male, younger, and at lower risk of developing eating disorders. In contrast, other recruitment channels (e. g., Internet, print materials) resulted in participants with significantly higher risk and symptom levels who used the program more frequently and with higher intensity. Conclusion: Efforts aimed at the dissemination of Internet-based interventions should consider the effects that different recruitment channels and access paths may have on sample composition and utilization of the intervention.


Asunto(s)
Intervención Médica Temprana , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/prevención & control , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/terapia , Internet , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología
8.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(1): e89-e95, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is considered a public health problem worldwide. Dental schools may play an important role in educating patients about oral cancer. This study aimed at evaluating the knowledge of patients attending clinics at two dental schools in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 2017 to April 2017, 251 patients who were attending clinics at two dental schools in Recife, Brazil, were included in the study. Patients were contacted in the waiting rooms of the clinic. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire, which consists of 21 questions, including socio-demographic and specific information on the disease. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and a chi-square test (with a 5% significance level) was used to assess the correlation between the variables, education and family income and other variables. RESULTS: Most participants were women (64.9%) with a mean age of 42.72 years. Most participants were knowledgeable about oral cancer and identified tobacco use (48.6%), alcohol consumption (25.1%), and solar radiation (12%) as the primary risk factors for the disease. Only 36.7% of the participants reported having received counselling on oral cancer, of which 18.3% received the information from a dentist. All patients with an income higher than six minimum wages were aware about oral cancer (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of educational programs in dental schools as well providing integrated services for patients seeking care at school clinics, including population's awareness on oral cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Boca , Facultades de Odontología , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180233, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851210

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To characterize and to compare the perception of vocal fatigue in professors at the beginning and at the end of the school year. METHODS: Observational, analytical, prospective cohort study was carried out. A total of 115 professors participated with a mean age of 40 years old, 71 women and 44 men, employees of 28 higher education institutions in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. All answered to the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI) at the beginning (February or March) and at the end (October or November) of the Brazilian school year. The VFI results for both assessed moments were statistically compared (p<0.05). RESULTS: The professors' mean scores obtained in the factors of tiredness of voice and avoidance of voice use (p<0.001) and improvement of symptoms with rest (p=0.001) increased at the end of the school year. CONCLUSION: Professors reported higher perception of vocal fatigue at the end of the school year, which influenced the avoidance of voice use and improvement of symptoms with the rest.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Voz/diagnóstico , Calidad de la Voz , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Estudios Prospectivos , Maestros , Instituciones Académicas , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 1-34, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362925

RESUMEN

Schools are often heteronormative environments, negatively influencing the wellbeing of LGB students. Less is known about the impact on gender-variant adolescents. Hence, this study investigates the wellbeing of gender-variant students-as evidenced by their gender (a)typicality and pressure for gender conformity- in different school cultures-as evidenced by the level of traditional gender role attitudes and homonegativity. We examine these context-dependent associations in a sample of 4987 Flemish students, who were questioned three times in 2012-2014. Multilevel regression analyses show that both gender-typical and atypical adolescents feel worse in heteronormative than inclusive schools. Furthermore, the social acceptance of boys seems to be more conditional on gender-conformity in heteronormative than inclusive schools. Overall, inclusive schools ensure higher wellbeing for all students (regardless of sex or gender variance), and student-teacher relationships seem central in explaining these school differences. Implications for school policy as well as research considering heteronormativity and gender-variance are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Niño , Identidad de Género , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Normas Sociales
11.
Presse Med ; 48(12): e369-e381, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785940

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the vaccine against human Papillomavirus (hPV) was recommended in France for children from 11 to 14 years-old. This study assessed the knowledge of parents from Normandy about this vaccine and measured the impact of an information campaign on their intent to have their children vaccinated. METHODS: Parents from Normandy with children in sixth-grade class, aged 10 to 11, during the 2015-2016 school year were included. The secondary schools were selected in collaboration with academic institutions. The intent to have their child vaccinated was measured with a questionnaire distributed to children in April 2016 and collected from May to June 2016 by school nurses. RESULTS: Among the 16 selected secondary schools, 1428 questionnaires were distributed and 864 (60.5 %) were collected regardless of the gender of the child. Among the 439 girls, 85.9 % were not vaccinated against hPV. The intent to vaccinate was higher when the parent who responded was the mother (P<0.001). Among the parents who took note of the information booklet, 73.7 % found this information useful. There was a significant association between the knowledge about the vaccine against hPV and the intent to vaccinate (P<0.001). The percentage of vaccinated girls was significantly higher when their parents were informed (10.9 % versus 3.2 %). We noticed a significant rise of the intent to vaccinate children when information booklets were distributed (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The vaccination rate after specific information about vaccination against hPV was significantly higher. The information campaign has thus a significant positive impact.


Asunto(s)
Intención , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapéutico , Padres , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/educación , Padres/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Escolar/historia , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/psicología
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1685-1692, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793475

RESUMEN

Objectives: Obesity was previously seen as a problem in high-income countries. It is also a problem in low and middle-income countries today. The sedentary lifestyle has made this situation more pronounced. Childhood obesity continues in adulthood. Adequate and balanced nutrition and mobile lifestyle have a great role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among primary and secondary school students and related factors. Methods: The sample size was calculated as 1278 (213 × 6) for the gender distribution to be appropriate and for the primary and secondary school students to be included in the district center and villages. Considering 15% of the students' non-response rate, the number of students planned to be reached is 1500. Selection was made after the students were ranked by class, gender and place of residence. Of the 1500 students who were sampled, 1298 (86.53%) were evaluated. Results: There was no difference in body mass index between gender and place of residence. The prevalence of being overweight or obesity among secondary school students (25.2%) was significantly higher than primary school students (20.5%). Conclusion: In the childhood age group; sedentary lifestyle, having breakfast and obesity in parents had a significant effect on obesity. It is considered important for children and family members to have proper nutrition and mobile life behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 102, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800913

RESUMEN

We analyzed data from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) carried out in Brazil in 2015 (n = 102,072 adolescents) to estimate how much of the individual variance in the prevalence of health behaviors is attributable to the school level. Multilevel logistic regression models were calculated to estimate the variance partitional coefficient (VPC) of the use of drugs, intake of unhealthy food, leisure physical activity and weight-related behaviors. The between-schools variance was significant in all tested models. The highest VPCs were observed when the use of drugs was analyzed (15%-20% of the total variance of smoking and use of illegal drugs). Lower, but still significant, values were observed in the other outcomes. The school context plays an important role in the adolescents' health and should be considered in the design of public policies and actions in public health.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Sector Privado , Sector Público , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(3): 109-120, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recovery high schools (RHS) provide a supportive educational and therapeutic environment for students subsequent to treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Most students served by RHSs have concurrent mental health disorders and are at risk for school failure or dropout and substance use relapse. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The central question addressed is whether RHSs are economically efficient alternatives to other high school settings for students in recovery. The aim is to estimate the incremental cost-benefit of RHSs. METHODS: A quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. We compared substance use and educational outcomes for adolescents who had received specialty SUD treatment; 143 who enrolled in an RHS were compared to 117 who enrolled in a non-RHS school. Groups were balanced by use of a propensity score to drop students who were not similar to those in the other group. The propensity score was also used as a covariate in multiple regression to estimate cost and outcome parameters and standard errors. To take account of uncertainties in impacts and shadow prices, we used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the distribution of incremental benefits of RHS relative to non-RHS schooling. RESULTS: Two beneficial impacts of statistical and substantive importance were identified: increased probability of high school graduation and increased sobriety. RHS students had significantly (p<.05) less substance use during the study period -- at 12-month follow-up, 55% of RHS and 26% of comparison students reported 3 month abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Urinalysis confirmed abstinence from THC (cannabis) for 68% of RHS versus 37% of comparison students. RHS students' high school graduation rates were 21 to 25 percentage points higher than comparison students. Adopting a societal perspective, incremental benefits of RHSs were estimated by monetizing the increased probability of high school graduation and comparing it to incremental costs. Mean net benefits ranged from USD16.1 thousand to USD51.9 thousand per participant; benefit-to-cost ratios ranged from 3.0 to 7.2. DISCUSSION: Monetizing the benefits and the incremental costs of RHS relative to conventional schooling show substantial positive net benefits from RHS participation. Two factors lend credibility to the results. First, the RHS improvement in substance use indicates a mechanism through which the increased probability of high school graduation can plausibly occur. Second, the estimated increases in the probability of high school graduation were large and statistically significant. As the productivity gains from high school graduation are also large, the dominant benefit category is very plausible. Limitations include the non-randomized design; selection bias into the study conditions not fully controlled by the propensity scores; generalizability only to young people with treated behavioral health disorders; lack of estimates for direct monetization of reduced substance use among adolescents; possible attenuation of the value of education among individuals with behavioral health issues; and uncertainty in calculation of school costs. IMPLICATIONS FOR BEHAVIORAL HEALTH POLICIES: This research provides evidence that the recovery high school model provides cost beneficial support for high school students after primary SUD treatment. The students who enroll in RHSs typically have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders, adding complexity to their continuing care. Funding policies recognizing the multiple systems of care (behavioral health, education, child and family services, juvenile justice) responsible for these young people are called for.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Servicios de Salud Escolar/economía , Servicios de Salud Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Niño , Enfermedad Crónica , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/rehabilitación
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1369-1375, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838806

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the injuries among 16 459 left-behind children from 27 poor rural areas in 12 provinces of China, 2016. Methods: Data were collected from the survey of 'Health Service Needs Assessment' (HSNA) program on left-behind children, from poor rural areas in the middle and western parts of China. Factors including causes, types, locations, related activities, ways of treatment and outcomes among left-behind children with injuries in 2016, were described and analyzed by gender and age groups. Results: In 2016, per-person and person-time incidence rates of injuries were 8.88% and 11.21%, among the 16 459 left-behind children from 27 poor rural areas in 12 provinces of China, both higher in boys, than in girls. Most injuries were unintentional with its proportion higher in older children. The main types of injuries were seen as falls, blunt and sharp injuries, with burns and animal injuries more common in younger children. Injuries among left-behind children mainly took place at home, kindergarten/school, and on the highways/streets/roads, during playing. Most common ways of treatment would include at the emergency settings, self-treated, with older children more likely to treat by themselves. Most injuries were cured. Conclusions: In programs on prevention and control of injuries targeting the left-behind children in poor rural areas, special attention should be given to older boys, on falls and blunt/sharp injuries, at home or kindergarten/school. Education programs should pinpoint on self-rescue skills and guidance on kids by the parents, with behavioral norms and social support included. Related comprehensive prevention and control mechanism should be developed in families, schools and communities, with medical resources and insurance mechanism explored to serve these population and districts, including those left-behind children.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1381-1385, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838808

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the current situation of road traffic injuries among primary and secondary school students in Mengzi city. Methods: Using the cluster random sampling method, more than 9 000 primary and secondary school students from 20 primary and secondary schools in Mengzi city, were randomly sampled. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the occurrence of road traffic injuries in school students. Results: A total of 9 197 students were surveyed, including 150 from road traffic injuries. The incidence rates of road traffic injuries was 1.63% among students in Mengzi city and 2.85% among junior high school students, with the high incidence in May. The leading places of injuries were village roads (38.00%), city roads (33.33%) and district roads (12.67%), respectively. 26.67% of the traffic injuries occurred on the way to or from schools, with riding on electric bicycle (52.00%) as the major cause and contusion/abrasion (75.33%) appeared as the major signs. Both lower and upper limbs plus multiple parts were accounting for 45.51%, 22.16% and 16.17%, respectively of all the injuries. 70.67% of all the cases with road traffic injuries in children, recovered after treatment. Children with road traffic injuries would stay in the hospital for up to 90 days but spent less than 30 000 Yuan. Conclusion: The incidence of road traffic injuries among students in Mengzi city seemed relatively high, with junior high school students reached the highest. Riding electric bicycle appeared as the leading cause for traffic injuries in children in Mengzi city of Yunnan province.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciclismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Caminata/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Transportes , Heridas y Traumatismos/prevención & control
17.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 110(10): 830-840, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185605

RESUMEN

Introducción: La exposición solar en la infancia es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de cáncer de piel en la vida adulta. Las intervenciones basadas en programas y políticas de fotoprotección escolar han demostrado ser las estrategias más eficaces y coste-efectivas para la prevención del cáncer de piel. Objetivos: Elaborar un modelo de certificación que permita identificar de forma objetiva aquellos centros escolares que promueven activamente la fotoprotección. Métodos: Se empleó metodología de consenso basada en panel de expertos, recurriendo al método Delphi en 2 rondas. Se analizaron las medianas de las valoraciones de la importancia y factibilidad de cada una de las recomendaciones, y el porcentaje de respuestas positivas para los niveles de cada una de ellas. Resultados: Se obtuvo un modelo integrado por 14 recomendaciones junto a sus criterios de evaluación, relativas a 7 dimensiones: 1) liderazgo organizacional (5 recomendaciones), 2) comunicación efectiva (2 recomendaciones), 3) elementos estructurales (2 recomendaciones), 4) formación de profesionales (una recomendación), 5) currículum escolar (una recomendación), 6) modelos de conducta (2 recomendaciones) y 7) hábitos del alumnado (una recomendación). Todas las recomendaciones mostraron un alto nivel de acuerdo, tanto en la valoración de la importancia y factibilidad como en la categorización de los niveles de complejidad. Conclusión: Se trata del primer distintivo de fotoprotección escolar que se desarrolla en nuestro país. Se necesitan estudios que evalúen el grado de aceptación de la estrategia y su impacto en los hábitos de fotoprotección de los escolares


Introduction: Sun exposure during childhood is the main risk factor for skin cancer in later life. School-based sun protection policies and practices have proven to be the most effective and cost-effective strategies for preventing skin cancer. Objective: To develop a sun protection accreditation program known as «Soludable» (a play on the Spanish words sol [sun] and saludable [healthy]) to objectively identify schools that actively promote sun protection behaviors among students. Methods: The consensus method used was a 2-round Delphi technique with input from a panel of experts. We then calculated the median scores for the importance and feasibility of each of the recommendations proposed and the level of complexity assigned to each recommendation by counting the percentage of experts who chose each difficulty category. Results: The resulting accreditation model consists of 14 recommendations with corresponding evaluation criteria divided into 7 domains: 1) organizational leadership (5 recommendations), 2) effective communication (2 recommendations), 3) structural elements (2 recommendations), 4) training of professionals (1 recommendation), 5) school curriculum (1 recommendation), 6) behavioral models (2 recommendations), and 7) student habits (1 recommendation). A high level of agreement among experts was observed for all recommendations, in terms of both their perceived importance and feasibility and their categorization by levels of complexity. Conclusions: This is the first sun protection accreditation program developed for Spanish schools. Studies are needed to evaluate how this program is received and how it affects students' sun protection behaviors


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Instituciones Académicas , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Liderazgo , Estilo de Vida Saludable
18.
Wiad Lek ; 72(11 cz 1): 2149-2154, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860863

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The public need prompts the modern school to find new ideas and technologies, to share and adopt the advanced pedagogical experience. Achieving the ultimate goal of the educational process in universities is training of highly qualified and competitive specialists in health care. The aim of the study is to assess the results of using the innovative and interactive teaching methods implemented in the national system of higher medical education. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Official documents; the academic studies of leading Ukrainian scientists-pedagogues; textbooks and manuals on pedagogy, the results of our own pedagogical practice. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The widespread adoption of digital technologies into the educational process at clinical and theoretical departments of medical universities significantly simplifies the assimilation of the disciplines, optimizes and generalizes the results of the educational process. The innovative path of education development is a "social elevator" that raises people to higher levels of social development.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Instituciones Académicas , Universidades
19.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884763

RESUMEN

The article considers the statistical justification of the need to minimize the load on the spine of students, both in Russia and in foreign countries and the main directions and multi-aspect regulation of optimizing the load on the spine, since this factor plays a key role in the formation of the health of the whole organism. The movement, correct posture, comfortable clothes and shoes, rationally selected chairs and beds allow you to maintain health of the spine, and the overload, in particular heavy school backpacks have a negative effect on its development and functioning. The issue of the load on the spine of schoolchildren attracts attention of the government, physicians, parents and teachers. The problem really exists and it is not solved yet, despite significant efforts in this direction. The numerous Russian and foreign studies carried out by medical experts, students and teachers confirm the facts of violation of SanPiNs, supporting actuality of research topic. The electronic textbooks can be a key point in solving this problem.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas , Columna Vertebral , Estudiantes , Niño , Humanos , Postura , Federación de Rusia , Soporte de Peso
20.
PLoS Med ; 16(12): e1002994, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869328

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy, the reluctance or refusal to receive vaccination, is a growing public health problem in the United States and globally. State policies that eliminate nonmedical ("personal belief") exemptions to childhood vaccination requirements are controversial, and their effectiveness to improve vaccination coverage remains unclear given limited rigorous policy analysis. In 2016, a California policy (Senate Bill 277) eliminated nonmedical exemptions from school entry requirements. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between California's 2016 policy and changes in vaccine coverage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a quasi-experimental state-level synthetic control analysis and a county-level difference-in-differences analysis to estimate the impact of the 2016 California policy on vaccination coverage and prevalence of exemptions to vaccine requirements (nonmedical and medical). We used publicly available state-level data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on coverage of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination, nonmedical exemption, and medical exemption in children entering kindergarten. We used county-level data individually requested from state departments of public health on overall vaccine coverage and exemptions. Based on data availability, we included state-level data for 45 states, including California, from 2011 to 2017 and county-level data for 17 states from 2010 to 2017. The prespecified primary study outcome was MMR vaccination in the state analysis and overall vaccine coverage in the county analysis. In the state-level synthetic control analysis, MMR coverage in California increased by 3.3% relative to its synthetic control in the postpolicy period (top 2 of 43 states evaluated in the placebo tests, top 5%), nonmedical exemptions decreased by 2.4% (top 2 of 43 states evaluated in the placebo tests, top 5%), and medical exemptions increased by 0.4% (top 1 of 44 states evaluated in the placebo tests, top 2%). In the county-level analysis, overall vaccination coverage increased by 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9%-5.8%, p < 0.001), nonmedical exemptions decreased by 3.9% (95% CI 2.4%-5.4%, p < 0.001), and medical exemptions increased by 2.4% (95% CI 2.0%-2.9%, p < 0.001). Changes in vaccination coverage across counties after the policy implementation from 2015 to 2017 ranged from -6% to 26%, with larger increases in coverage in counties with lower prepolicy vaccine coverage. Results were robust to alternative model specifications. The limitations of the study were the exclusion of a subset of US states from the analysis and the use of only 2 years of postpolicy data based on data availability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, implementation of the California policy that eliminated nonmedical childhood vaccine exemptions was associated with an estimated increase in vaccination coverage and a reduction in nonmedical exemptions at state and county levels. The observed increase in medical exemptions was offset by the larger reduction in nonmedical exemptions. The largest increases in vaccine coverage were observed in the most "high-risk" counties, meaning those with the lowest prepolicy vaccine coverage. Our findings suggest that government policies removing nonmedical exemptions can be effective at increasing vaccination coverage.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Formulación de Políticas , Cobertura de Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunas/economía , California , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Sarampión/prevención & control , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Vacunación/métodos
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